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mapping issues with the web: 
an introduction to digital 
methods 
23rd September 2014, Columbia University 
Liliana Boune...
15 things you always 
wanted to know about 
digital methods but 
were afraid to ask
5 stories" 
5 innovations" 
5 opportunities
hmmm…
hmmm…
hmmm…
5 stories" 
5 innovations" 
5 opportunities" 
+ 2 reflections
15 things you always 
wanted to know about 
digital methods but 
were afraid to ask
5 stories
story #1:" 
mapping dominant 
topics and countries in 
UN climate negotiations
“In what seems like a flash, the climate-change 
debate has lurched from talk of mitigation to 
one of adaptation.” 
– Leo...
The Atlantic (2014) “The UN's New Focus: Surviving, Not Stopping, Climate Change”. 
Available at: http://www.theatlantic.c...
“Adaptation turn”
Can the shift from mitigation to adaptation be 
observed in the UNFCCC negotiations?
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Findings" 
Mitigation is more dominant - the majority of 
the clusters are about mitigation. 
Mitigation is much more dive...
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Findings" 
Both adaptation and mitigation are highly 
visible in negotiations. 
Adaptation financing has been central to 
...
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Which countries intervene most in UN climate 
negotiations and how do these interventions 
evolve over time?
How is this usually analysed?
The New York Times (2014) “Who’s at the Climate Talks, and What Do They Seek?”. 
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/inte...
What we did differently…
Graphing the number of interventions in the 
negotiations of the 21 most active countries 
based on daily summaries from t...
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Findings" 
Notable stability in presence and intervention 
of countries. 
Notable exceptions include Bolivia and 
Philippi...
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
Wired Italia (2014) “Beautiful Information, in mostra le migliori infografiche di Wired”. 
Available at: http://www.wired....
Wired Italia (2014) “Beautiful Information, in mostra le migliori infografiche di Wired”. 
Available at: http://www.wired....
story #2:" 
mapping the rise of the 
far right in Europe with 
the web and social media
The Guardian (2013) “The rise of far right parties across Europe is a chilling echo of the 1930s”. 
Available at: http://w...
Huffington Post (2014) “Sudden Rise of Far Right Groups in EU Parliament Rings Alarm Bells Across 
Europe”. Available at: ...
New York Times (2014) “Populist Party Gaining Muscle to Push Britain to the Right”. 
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/...
What are the recruitment methods 
of far right groups?
Are current recruitment counter-measures 
proving effective?
What kinds of issues are most active 
amongst far right groups?
How are far right extremist groups connected 
to populist right and other right wing groups?
Profiles for 13 European countries.
1. List of links per country 
2. Analyse links between them 
3. Study issues and actors
Findings 
New issues (e.g. environment, anti-globalisation 
and rights), principles and 
recruitment techniques. 
Counter-...
Greece: blood and soil and organic markets
Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online 
Mapping”. Digital Methods ...
Hungary: horse and yurt recruitment festivals
Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online 
Mapping”. Digital Methods ...
Taking back the yurt?
Serbia: connected through think tanks
Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online 
Mapping”. Digital Methods ...
Counter-Jihadist groups on social media
The Guardian (2012) “Far-right anti-Muslim network on rise globally as Breivik trial opens”. 
Available at: http://www.the...
Hope Not Hate (2012) “Counter-Jihad Report”. 
Available at: http://www.hopenothate.org.uk/counter-jihad/
Are different Counter-Jihadist groups in 
Europe connected? If so how?
Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping 
the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping 
the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
Findings 
Facebook is an important medium for extremist 
groups. 
! 
Three main clusters based on geographical 
proximity....
Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping 
the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
Who are the new leaders?
Findings" 
! 
Offline leaders are active on Facebook. 
! 
There are also new emerging online leaders. 
! 
New technique fo...
story #3:" 
who’s talking about" 
“care drain”
“care drain”
Mills et al (2008). “Should active recruitment of health workers from " 
sub-Saharan Africa be viewed as a crime?”. Lancet...
The Guardian (2011). “Assessing the cause and effect of health worker migration”.! 
Available at: http://www.theguardian.c...
“Health worker migration is a big issue – in 
2005, it was widely reported that there were 
more Malawian doctors in Manch...
“[a 2010 global code of practice] sets out 
guiding principles and voluntary international 
standards for recruitment of h...
Which actors in the UK health sector are 
talking about the migration of health workers?
Rogers, R., Sanchez Querubin, N. & Kril, A. (2015) Ageing Places: A Digital Issue Mapping. 
Amsterdam: University of Amste...
Findings for UK" 
Notable difference between sectors. 
Most vocal are government and academia. 
Less discussion amongst he...
Who is recruiting Polish health workers?
Findings for Poland" 
! 
Demand for Polish care workers greater 
outside country than within. 
! 
Based on recruitment pos...
Rogers, R., Sanchez Querubin, N. & Kril, A. (2015) Ageing Places: A Digital Issue Mapping. 
Amsterdam: University of Amste...
story #4:" 
which US embassies 
acknowledged" 
cablegate?
The Guardian (2010) “US embassy cables leak sparks global diplomatic crisis”. Available at: 
http://www.theguardian.com/wo...
Cables from 274 embassies, consulates and 
diplomatic missions.
US Embassies: http://www.usembassy.gov/
Do the embassies mentioned in the cables 
acknowledge the issue on their official 
websites?
1. Get links for US embassy websites 
2. Compile list of embassies mentioned in cables 
3. Compare lists 
4. Query mention...
Findings 
Only 5 embassies explicitly mentioned 
the leaks on their websites.
Digital Methods Initiative (2011) “The Response of the Source”. 
Available at: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/Respons...
story #5:" 
mapping the 
influence of 
climate skeptics
BBC News (2007) “BBC switches off climate special”. Available at: 
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6979596.stm
“The skeptics were increasingly at the top of the 
news. […] Are the skeptics at the top of the 
web too?” 
– Richard Roge...
Who talks about climate skeptics?
Climate Skeptics" 
! 
S. Fred Singer 
Robert Balling 
Sallie Baliunas 
Patrick Michaels 
Richard Lindzen 
Steven Milloy 
T...
Climate Skeptic Organisations" 
! 
American Enterprise Institute 
American Legislative Exchange Council 
Center for Scienc...
Google Scraper: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolGoogleScraper
Findings 
Influence of climate skeptics in media is 
disproportionate given their relatively marginal 
influence in key sp...
Digital Methods Initiative (2007) “Climate Change Skeptics”. 
Available at: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ClimateCha...
5 innovations
innovation #1:" 
! 
social media and web as 
data about society
“The social is visible only by the traces it leaves..” 
– Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-...
““The interest of electronic media lies in the fact 
that every interaction that passes through them 
leaves traces..” 
– ...
Web and social media data 
are digital traces of the social.
Not just content, but metadata, 
relationships and interactions.
Digital methods are “methods of the medium” 
designed to repurpose digital objects such as 
tags, likes, links and hashtag...
Some tools that organise web and 
social media for research…
“Netvizz is a tool that extracts data from 
different sections of the Facebook platform 
(personal profile, groups, pages)...
Rieder, B. (2013). Studying Facebook via data extraction: the Netvizz application. In WebSci '13 
Proceedings of the 5th A...
Netvizz: https://tools.digitalmethods.net/netvizz/facebook/netvizz/
“The Twitter Capture and Analysis Toolset 
(DMI-TCAT) captures tweets and allows for 
multiple analyses (hashtags, mention...
Borra, E. & Rieder, B. (2014) “Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing 
tweets”. Aslib Journal...
TCAT: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolDmiTcat
TCAT: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolDmiTcat
innovation #2:" 
! 
search engines as 
research machines
“We look at Google results and see society 
instead of Google.” 
– R. Rogers, F. Jansen, Stevenson, M. & Weltevrede, E. (2...
For example: 
! 
What kinds of rights are most prominently 
recognised or referred to in different countries?
Query the term “rights” in the local languages in 
the local Google versions. 
! 
List top ten distinctive rights types in...
Google.se with query “rattigheter” (13.07.09) 
Google.fi with query “oikeudet” (13.07.09) 
Google.ee with query “oigused” ...
R. Rogers, F. Jansen, Stevenson, M. & Weltevrede, E. (2009) “Mapping Democracy”. Global Information 
Society Watch. Availa...
innovation #3:" 
! 
co-occurrence analysis 
to identify themes
Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three 
Misunders...
innovation #4:" 
! 
network analysis to 
identify actors
“The main tenet of [social network analysis] is to 
envision groups and other social units as 
networks, that is, as conne...
“Gephi is an interactive visualization and 
exploration platform for all kinds of networks 
and complex systems, dynamic a...
Gephi: http://gephi.org
innovation #5:" 
! 
hyperlink analysis to 
explore "politics of 
association"
Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online 
Mapping”. Digital Methods ...
The Issue Crawler
“A software tool that locates and visualizes 
networks on the web”
Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
Hyphe: http://hyphe.medialab.sciences-po.fr/demo/
5 opportunities 
for journalists
Data Journalism Handbook: http://datajournalismhandbook.org/
social 
science 
researchers 
leading 
digital 
newsrooms 
new ways of 
covering 
complex issues 
+ =
Some preliminary thoughts…
opportunity #1:" 
! 
using digital methods 
to identify sources
opportunity #2:" 
! 
using social media 
and web as sources
opportunity #3:" 
! 
new forms of analysis 
and verification
opportunity #4:" 
! 
establishing source 
partisanship
opportunity #5:" 
! 
new ways to present 
complex issues
Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping 
the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
Reuters (2013) “Connected China”. Available at: http://china.fathom.info/
“So here is the question I wish to raise to 
designers: where are the visualization tools that 
allow the contradictory an...
In conclusion…
2 reflections
reflection #1:" 
! 
from digging to 
tracing?
reflection #2:" 
! 
mapping for what 
and for whom?
From physical to social maps?
Issue mapping for journalism?
To recap…
1. story #1: climate negotiations 
2. story #2: rise of the far right 
3. story #3: “care drain” 
4. story #4: cablegate 
...
Thank You! 
Liliana Bounegru | lilianabounegru.org | @bb_liliana 
Jonathan Gray | jonathangray.org | @jwyg 
Sciences Po mé...
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods
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Slides from talk on "Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods" at Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia University, 23rd September 2014. Further details at: http://jonathangray.org/2014/09/10/mapping-issues-with-web-columbia/

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Mapping Issues with the Web: An Introduction to Digital Methods

  1. 1. mapping issues with the web: an introduction to digital methods 23rd September 2014, Columbia University Liliana Bounegru | lilianabounegru.org | @bb_liliana" Jonathan Gray | jonathangray.org | @jwyg
  2. 2. 15 things you always wanted to know about digital methods but were afraid to ask
  3. 3. 5 stories" 5 innovations" 5 opportunities
  4. 4. hmmm…
  5. 5. hmmm…
  6. 6. hmmm…
  7. 7. 5 stories" 5 innovations" 5 opportunities" + 2 reflections
  8. 8. 15 things you always wanted to know about digital methods but were afraid to ask
  9. 9. 5 stories
  10. 10. story #1:" mapping dominant topics and countries in UN climate negotiations
  11. 11. “In what seems like a flash, the climate-change debate has lurched from talk of mitigation to one of adaptation.” – Leo Hickman, “Can carbon offsetting ever be truly green?”, The Guardian, 3rd September 2008.
  12. 12. The Atlantic (2014) “The UN's New Focus: Surviving, Not Stopping, Climate Change”. Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/04/the-uns-new-focus-surviving-not-stopping- climate-change/359929/
  13. 13. “Adaptation turn”
  14. 14. Can the shift from mitigation to adaptation be observed in the UNFCCC negotiations?
  15. 15. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  16. 16. Findings" Mitigation is more dominant - the majority of the clusters are about mitigation. Mitigation is much more diverse and distributed. Adaptation is a much more tightly clustered topic and highly connected to other topics.
  17. 17. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  18. 18. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  19. 19. Findings" Both adaptation and mitigation are highly visible in negotiations. Adaptation financing has been central to climate negotiations from the outset. There is a noticeable shift towards adaptation during the period we examined.
  20. 20. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  21. 21. Which countries intervene most in UN climate negotiations and how do these interventions evolve over time?
  22. 22. How is this usually analysed?
  23. 23. The New York Times (2014) “Who’s at the Climate Talks, and What Do They Seek?”. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/12/05/world/climate-graphic-players.html
  24. 24. What we did differently…
  25. 25. Graphing the number of interventions in the negotiations of the 21 most active countries based on daily summaries from the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB)
  26. 26. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  27. 27. Findings" Notable stability in presence and intervention of countries. Notable exceptions include Bolivia and Philippines who are becoming more prominent in recent negotiations. Most active are China (representing G77), United States and Europe. Countries tend to be more active when they host the negotiations.
  28. 28. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  29. 29. Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
  30. 30. Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
  31. 31. Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
  32. 32. Wired Italia (2014) “Beautiful Information, in mostra le migliori infografiche di Wired”. Available at: http://www.wired.it/attualita/media/2014/03/04/beautiful-information-infografiche-wired/
  33. 33. Wired Italia (2014) “Beautiful Information, in mostra le migliori infografiche di Wired”. Available at: http://www.wired.it/attualita/media/2014/03/04/beautiful-information-infografiche-wired/
  34. 34. story #2:" mapping the rise of the far right in Europe with the web and social media
  35. 35. The Guardian (2013) “The rise of far right parties across Europe is a chilling echo of the 1930s”. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/15/far-right-threat-europe-integration
  36. 36. Huffington Post (2014) “Sudden Rise of Far Right Groups in EU Parliament Rings Alarm Bells Across Europe”. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/elinadav-heymann/sudden-rise-of-far-right- _b_5512961.html
  37. 37. New York Times (2014) “Populist Party Gaining Muscle to Push Britain to the Right”. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/world/europe/populist-party-gaining-muscle-to-push-britain- to-the-right.html
  38. 38. What are the recruitment methods of far right groups?
  39. 39. Are current recruitment counter-measures proving effective?
  40. 40. What kinds of issues are most active amongst far right groups?
  41. 41. How are far right extremist groups connected to populist right and other right wing groups?
  42. 42. Profiles for 13 European countries.
  43. 43. 1. List of links per country 2. Analyse links between them 3. Study issues and actors
  44. 44. Findings New issues (e.g. environment, anti-globalisation and rights), principles and recruitment techniques. Counter-measures are outdated. ! Islamophobia is located primarily in the North.
  45. 45. Greece: blood and soil and organic markets
  46. 46. Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online Mapping”. Digital Methods Initiative. https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/RightWingPopulismStudy
  47. 47. Hungary: horse and yurt recruitment festivals
  48. 48. Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online Mapping”. Digital Methods Initiative. https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/RightWingPopulismStudy
  49. 49. Taking back the yurt?
  50. 50. Serbia: connected through think tanks
  51. 51. Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online Mapping”. Digital Methods Initiative. https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/RightWingPopulismStudy
  52. 52. Counter-Jihadist groups on social media
  53. 53. The Guardian (2012) “Far-right anti-Muslim network on rise globally as Breivik trial opens”. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/apr/14/breivik-trial-norway-mass-murderer
  54. 54. Hope Not Hate (2012) “Counter-Jihad Report”. Available at: http://www.hopenothate.org.uk/counter-jihad/
  55. 55. Are different Counter-Jihadist groups in Europe connected? If so how?
  56. 56. Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
  57. 57. Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
  58. 58. Findings Facebook is an important medium for extremist groups. ! Three main clusters based on geographical proximity. ! European Counter-Jihadist groups are networked and transnational.
  59. 59. Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
  60. 60. Who are the new leaders?
  61. 61. Findings" ! Offline leaders are active on Facebook. ! There are also new emerging online leaders. ! New technique for identifying online leaders.
  62. 62. story #3:" who’s talking about" “care drain”
  63. 63. “care drain”
  64. 64. Mills et al (2008). “Should active recruitment of health workers from " sub-Saharan Africa be viewed as a crime?”. Lancet 2008; 371: 685–88.
  65. 65. The Guardian (2011). “Assessing the cause and effect of health worker migration”.! Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/global-health-workers/health-workers-move-from-area-of-origin
  66. 66. “Health worker migration is a big issue – in 2005, it was widely reported that there were more Malawian doctors in Manchester than Malawi. Now, it seems, there are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than in Ethiopia.” – Sue George, “Assessing the cause and effect of health worker migration”, The Guardian, 18th January 2011.
  67. 67. “[a 2010 global code of practice] sets out guiding principles and voluntary international standards for recruitment of health workers, to increase the consistency of national policies and discourage unethical practices” – Sue George, “Assessing the cause and effect of health worker migration”, The Guardian, 18th January 2011.
  68. 68. Which actors in the UK health sector are talking about the migration of health workers?
  69. 69. Rogers, R., Sanchez Querubin, N. & Kril, A. (2015) Ageing Places: A Digital Issue Mapping. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.
  70. 70. Findings for UK" Notable difference between sectors. Most vocal are government and academia. Less discussion amongst healthcare NGOs. Next to no discussion in private sector.
  71. 71. Who is recruiting Polish health workers?
  72. 72. Findings for Poland" ! Demand for Polish care workers greater outside country than within. ! Based on recruitment postings, Poland looks to be susceptible to care drain.
  73. 73. Rogers, R., Sanchez Querubin, N. & Kril, A. (2015) Ageing Places: A Digital Issue Mapping. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.
  74. 74. story #4:" which US embassies acknowledged" cablegate?
  75. 75. The Guardian (2010) “US embassy cables leak sparks global diplomatic crisis”. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/nov/28/us-embassy-cable-leak-diplomacy-crisis
  76. 76. Cables from 274 embassies, consulates and diplomatic missions.
  77. 77. US Embassies: http://www.usembassy.gov/
  78. 78. Do the embassies mentioned in the cables acknowledge the issue on their official websites?
  79. 79. 1. Get links for US embassy websites 2. Compile list of embassies mentioned in cables 3. Compare lists 4. Query mentioned embassy website for key terms using Google Scraper tool 5. Get number of cables per embassy 6. Visualise output
  80. 80. Findings Only 5 embassies explicitly mentioned the leaks on their websites.
  81. 81. Digital Methods Initiative (2011) “The Response of the Source”. Available at: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ResponsesoftheSources
  82. 82. story #5:" mapping the influence of climate skeptics
  83. 83. BBC News (2007) “BBC switches off climate special”. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6979596.stm
  84. 84. “The skeptics were increasingly at the top of the news. […] Are the skeptics at the top of the web too?” – Richard Rogers, Digital Methods (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013), pp.7-8
  85. 85. Who talks about climate skeptics?
  86. 86. Climate Skeptics" ! S. Fred Singer Robert Balling Sallie Baliunas Patrick Michaels Richard Lindzen Steven Milloy Timothy Ball Paul Driessen Willie Soon Sherwood B. Idso Frederick Seitz
  87. 87. Climate Skeptic Organisations" ! American Enterprise Institute American Legislative Exchange Council Center for Science and Public Policy Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow Competitive Enterprise Institute Frontiers of Freedom Marshall Institute Heartland Institute Tech Central Station
  88. 88. Google Scraper: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolGoogleScraper
  89. 89. Findings Influence of climate skeptics in media is disproportionate given their relatively marginal influence in key spaces.
  90. 90. Digital Methods Initiative (2007) “Climate Change Skeptics”. Available at: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ClimateChangeSkeptics
  91. 91. 5 innovations
  92. 92. innovation #1:" ! social media and web as data about society
  93. 93. “The social is visible only by the traces it leaves..” – Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 8
  94. 94. ““The interest of electronic media lies in the fact that every interaction that passes through them leaves traces..” – Bruno Latour & Tommaso Venturini, “The Social Fabric: Digital Traces and Quali-quantitative Methods”, p. 6
  95. 95. Web and social media data are digital traces of the social.
  96. 96. Not just content, but metadata, relationships and interactions.
  97. 97. Digital methods are “methods of the medium” designed to repurpose digital objects such as tags, likes, links and hashtags to study issues.
  98. 98. Some tools that organise web and social media for research…
  99. 99. “Netvizz is a tool that extracts data from different sections of the Facebook platform (personal profile, groups, pages) for research purposes.”
  100. 100. Rieder, B. (2013). Studying Facebook via data extraction: the Netvizz application. In WebSci '13 Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (pp. 346-355). New York: ACM.
  101. 101. Netvizz: https://tools.digitalmethods.net/netvizz/facebook/netvizz/
  102. 102. “The Twitter Capture and Analysis Toolset (DMI-TCAT) captures tweets and allows for multiple analyses (hashtags, mentions, users, search, ...).”
  103. 103. Borra, E. & Rieder, B. (2014) “Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing tweets”. Aslib Journal of Information Management. Vol. 66 No. 3: 262-278.
  104. 104. TCAT: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolDmiTcat
  105. 105. TCAT: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolDmiTcat
  106. 106. innovation #2:" ! search engines as research machines
  107. 107. “We look at Google results and see society instead of Google.” – R. Rogers, F. Jansen, Stevenson, M. & Weltevrede, E. (2009) “Mapping Democracy”. Global Information Society Watch 2009.
  108. 108. For example: ! What kinds of rights are most prominently recognised or referred to in different countries?
  109. 109. Query the term “rights” in the local languages in the local Google versions. ! List top ten distinctive rights types in the order that Google provided them.
  110. 110. Google.se with query “rattigheter” (13.07.09) Google.fi with query “oikeudet” (13.07.09) Google.ee with query “oigused” (15.07.09) Google.lv with query “tiesibas” (16.07.09) Google.co.uk with query “rights” (13.07.09) Google.nl with query “rechten” (13.07.09) Google.be with query “rechten van” (15.07.09) Google.be with query “droits” (14.07.09) Google.lu with query “rechte” (15.07.09) Google.de with query “rechte” (15.07.09) Google.at with query “rechte” (15.07.09) Google.ch with query “rechte” (15.07.09) Google.fr with query “droits” (14.07.09) Google.pt with query “direitos” (14.07.09) Google.es with query “derechos” (13.07.09) Google.it with query “diritto al” OR “diritto all” OR “diritto alla” (13.07.09) Google.ro with query “drepturile” (13.07.09) Google.mo with query “drepturile” (13.07.09) Google.ru with query “prava” (13.07.09) Google.com.tr with query “haklari” (17.07.09) GGoogle.com.ph with query “karapatang” (16.07.09) Google.ci with query “droits” (17.07.09) Google.com.au with query “rights” (14.07.09) Google.ca with query “rights” (15.07.09) Google.ca with query “droits” (15.07.09) Google.com with query “rights” (14.07.09) Google.com with query “derechos” (15.07.09) Google.com.mx with query “derechos” (15.07.09) Google.com.br with query “direitos” (15.07.09) Google.ar with query “derechos” (15.07.09) Google.pe with query “derechos” (15.07.09)
  111. 111. R. Rogers, F. Jansen, Stevenson, M. & Weltevrede, E. (2009) “Mapping Democracy”. Global Information Society Watch. Available at: http://www.giswatch.org/fr/node/158
  112. 112. innovation #3:" ! co-occurrence analysis to identify themes
  113. 113. Venturini, T., Baya-laffite, N., Cointet, J., Gray, I., Zabban, V., & De Pryck, K. (2014) “Three Maps and Three Misunderstandings : A Digital Mapping of Climate Diplomacy.” Big Data and Society, 2014, 1(1). Available at: http://medialab.sciences-po.fr/publications/misunderstandings/
  114. 114. innovation #4:" ! network analysis to identify actors
  115. 115. “The main tenet of [social network analysis] is to envision groups and other social units as networks, that is, as connected ensembles that emerge from tangible and direct connections (friendships, work relationships, joint leisure, direct interactions, etc.) rather than as social categories.” – Bernhard Rieder. “Studying Facebook via data extraction: the Netvizz application.”
  116. 116. “Gephi is an interactive visualization and exploration platform for all kinds of networks and complex systems, dynamic and hierarchical graphs.”
  117. 117. Gephi: http://gephi.org
  118. 118. innovation #5:" ! hyperlink analysis to explore "politics of association"
  119. 119. Rogers, R. et al (2013) “Right-Wing Formations in Europe and Their Counter-Measures: An Online Mapping”. Digital Methods Initiative. https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/RightWingPopulismStudy
  120. 120. The Issue Crawler
  121. 121. “A software tool that locates and visualizes networks on the web”
  122. 122. Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
  123. 123. Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
  124. 124. Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
  125. 125. Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
  126. 126. Issue Crawler: https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/ToolIssueCrawler
  127. 127. Hyphe: http://hyphe.medialab.sciences-po.fr/demo/
  128. 128. 5 opportunities for journalists
  129. 129. Data Journalism Handbook: http://datajournalismhandbook.org/
  130. 130. social science researchers leading digital newsrooms new ways of covering complex issues + =
  131. 131. Some preliminary thoughts…
  132. 132. opportunity #1:" ! using digital methods to identify sources
  133. 133. opportunity #2:" ! using social media and web as sources
  134. 134. opportunity #3:" ! new forms of analysis and verification
  135. 135. opportunity #4:" ! establishing source partisanship
  136. 136. opportunity #5:" ! new ways to present complex issues
  137. 137. Wired Italia (2014) “Cambiamenti del clima: 20 anni di conferenze”. March 2014. No. 60.
  138. 138. Digital Methods Initiative. “Counter-Jihadist Networks: Mapping the Connections Between Facebook Groups in Europe.”
  139. 139. Reuters (2013) “Connected China”. Available at: http://china.fathom.info/
  140. 140. “So here is the question I wish to raise to designers: where are the visualization tools that allow the contradictory and controversial nature of matters of concern to be represented?” – Bruno Latour. “A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design”. Talks for the Design History Society Falmouth, Cornwall, 3rd September 2008
  141. 141. In conclusion…
  142. 142. 2 reflections
  143. 143. reflection #1:" ! from digging to tracing?
  144. 144. reflection #2:" ! mapping for what and for whom?
  145. 145. From physical to social maps?
  146. 146. Issue mapping for journalism?
  147. 147. To recap…
  148. 148. 1. story #1: climate negotiations 2. story #2: rise of the far right 3. story #3: “care drain” 4. story #4: cablegate 5. story #5: climate skeptics 6. innovation #1: social media and web as data 7. innovation #2: search as research 8. innovation #3: co-occurrence analysis 9. innovation #4: network analysis 10. innovation #5: hyperlink analysis 11. opportunity #1: identifying sources 12. opportunity #2: social media and web as sources 13. opportunity #3: analysis and verification 14. opportunity #4: source partisanship 15. opportunity #5: presentation 16. reflection #1: from digging to tracing? 17. reflection #2: mapping for what?
  149. 149. Thank You! Liliana Bounegru | lilianabounegru.org | @bb_liliana Jonathan Gray | jonathangray.org | @jwyg Sciences Po médialab http://www.medialab.sciences-po.fr/ ! Sciences Po médialab - Tools http://tools.medialab.sciences-po.fr/ Digital Methods Initiative https://digitalmethods.net Digital Methods Initiative - Tools https://tools.digitalmethods.net

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