1. Contemporary Issue on Seminar
A Study On
In The Partial Fulfillment of
Masters of Business Administration
Rajasthan Technical University, Kota
Deepshikha college of technical education ,
Submitted By: Submitted To:
JITENDRA ( MBA-II nd sem ) Ms.
This is to declare that the Seminar titled “E-waste management” is a bona fide work and
is not copied from any source or is submitted by any one else for academic or non –
( MBA-II nd sem )
Every project begins with an idea and materializes with concrete efforts. In the
beginning, I would like to thank the almighty God who gave me the strength and
capability to work on this Seminar Topic and complete it successfully.
It is indeed gratifying to have the privilege to express my deep sense of Gratitude &
Appreciation to my esteemed guides Miss Anuradha mam & Miss Neerul mam
D.C.T.E. ,JAIPUR for her scholarly painstaking & incessant encouragement, inspiring
supervision & valuable guidance during the course of investigation. For all this kind
consideration I’m beholden her in my feelings of respect of regards for her.
I would also like to thank my parents, my classmates , my all teachers and all other
people who helped me in successfully completing my topic.
( MBA-II nd sem )
Planning for E- waste management within the frame work of sustainable development
raises several intra inter generational issues such as public health their livelihood.
Changing lifestyle, advancement of new technologies scientific development has
contributed largely in exploitation of the environment. In the rat-race competition to grow
at a faster pace mankind has indirectly led severe damages of valuable assets i.e. our
natural resources, which is a vital aspect for the very existence of, human beings.
Various strategies have been led down for the management of E- waste by the
government and several attempts were made to improve manage the pathetic situations of
E- waste management. But it seems to be inadequate as per the present scenario is
The common problem faced by all the developing countries, especially Asia, is the
disposal of E- waste availability of dumping grounds. As management of E- waste is a
crucial & burgeoning issue developing countries are coming up with several affordable
alternatives & exclusive methods of sustainable E- waste management which is cost
effective, technically appropriate socially acceptable solutions to all.
E-waste management refers to improve imageof organization in society. In this study I
am going to find out the effect of E-waste management in present scenario and what
kinds of methods a firm use instead of E-waste management and how can a firm manage
5. TABLE OF CONTENT
S.No. CONTENT Page
4 At A Glance
7 Classification of E-Waste Management
8 General Facts on E-Waste Management
9 Components of E-Waste Management
10 How to handle E-Wastes
11 Effect on environment and human health
12 Management of E-Wastes
13 Status of E-Waste Management In India
14 Then indian scenario
15 The Challenges of E-Waste Management In India
16 Management option
17 Example of E-waste managment
19 Bibliography & Wibliography
6. AT A GLANCE
In a society where we think of so many things as disposable, where we expect to be
constantly discarding last year's gadget and replacing it with this year's model, do we end
up tempted to think of people and relationships as disposable? ...if we live in a context
where we construct everything from computers to buildings to relationships on the
assumption that they'll need to be replaced before long, what have we lost? ...God is
involved in building to last He doesn't give up on the material of human lives ...and He
asks us to approach one another and our physical world with the same commitment ...
God doesn't do 'waste'
-Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams,
New Years Message posted on youtube
E-waste Management Related Quotes
". . E-waste in our country is being increased by 1per cent every year and only five per
cent of urban e-waste are recycled in India "
"There must be a reason why some people can afford to live well. They must have
worked for it. I only feel angry when I see waste. When I see people throwing away
things we could use. "
-Mother Teresa (1910-1997), A Gift for God, 1975
E-waste is an important resource that can be made useful instead of shunning it as
a social and environmental burden. Attempts should be made to explore alternate sources
When they had all had enough to eat, he said to his disciples, Gather the pieces
that are left over. Let nothing be wasted.
7. Jesus in John 6:12 NIV Bible -
Use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without.
-New England proverb -
We are recycling not only to protect the environment, but for economic reasons as
well. Disposal is simply too costly and too dangerous. The challenge is to redirect the
flow of raw materials going to landfill into strengthening our declining local economies.
The solution to pollution is self-reliant cities and counties.
-Neil Seldman, Institute for Local Self-Reliance-
E-wastesare the discarded leftovers of our advanced consumer society. This
growing mountain of garbage and trash represents not only an attitude of indifference
toward valuable natural resources, but also a serious economic and public health problem.
-Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States,
Message to the Congress, 23 May
Waste is a terrible thing to mind -- Recycle
-U.S. bumper sticker -
What is E-Waste ?
Electronic waste (e-waste) comprises waste electronics/electrical goods that are
not fit for their originally intended use or have reached their end of life. This may include
items such as computers, servers, mainframes, monitors, CDs, printers, scanners, copiers,
calculators, fax machines, battery cells, cellular phones, transceivers, TVs, medical
apparatus and electronic components besides white goods such as refrigerators and air-
conditioners. E-waste contains valuable materials such as copper, silver, gold and
platinum which could be processed for their recovery.
"Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment
device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and
refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners.
"E-waste" is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of
their "useful life."E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some
electronic products contain materials that are hazardous, depending on their condition and
density. The hazardous content of these materials pose a threat to human health and
environment. Discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines,
electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries if improperly disposed can
leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater. Many of these products can be
reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less
harmful to the ecosystem. This paper highlights the hazards of e-wastes, the need for its
appropriate management and options that can be implemented.
This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale,
salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define there-usables (working and repairable
electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and
reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which was represented as working or
repairable but which is dumped or disposed or discarded by the buyer rather than
recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations.
The Schwab Foundation employs the following criteria when looking for leading
social entrepreneurs: Innovation, Sustainability, Reach and social impact.
"Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment
device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and
refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners.
Electronic waste, popularly known as 'e-waste' can be defined as electronic
equipments / products connects with power plug, batteries which have become obsolete
due to advancement in technology changes in fashion, style and status nearing the end of
their useful life.
E-Waste for short - or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) - is
the term used to describe old, end-of-life or discarded appliances using electricity. It
includes computers, consumer electronics, fridges etc which have been disposed of by
their original users.
Industrial revolution followed by the advances in information technology during
the last century has radically changed people's lifestyle. Although this development has
helped the human race, mismanagement has led to new problems of contamination and
pollution. The technical prowess acquired during the last century has posed a new
challenge in the management of wastes. For example, personal computers (PCs) contain
certain components, which are highly toxic, such as chlorinated and brominated
substances, toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and
plastic additives. The hazardous content of these materials pose an environmental and
health threat. Thus proper management is necessary while disposing or recycling ewastes.
These days computer has become most common and widely used gadget in all
kinds of activities ranging from schools, residences, offices to manufacturing industries.
E-toxic components in computers could be summarized as circuit boards containing
heavy metals like lead & cadmium. Basel Action Network (BAN) estimates that the 500
million computers in the world contain 2.87 billion kgs of plastics, 716.7 million kgs of
lead and 286,700 kgs of mercury. The average 14-inch monitor uses a tube that contains
an estimated 2.5 to 4 kgs of lead. The lead can seep into the ground water from landfills
thereby contaminating it. If the tube is crushed and burned, it emits toxic fumes into the
The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health
and pollution problems because electronic equipment contains some very serious
contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium and brominated flame retardants. Even in
developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste involves significant risk to workers
and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling
operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator
According to Toxics Link, a Delhi-based non-governmental organization (NGO),
India annually generates $ 1.5 billion worth of e-waste domestically, with the booming IT
sector being the largest contributor, as 30 percent of its machines reach obsolescence
annually. Bangalore alone generates 8,000 tons a year. A report put out by International
Resource Group (IRG) estimates that by 2012, India's domestic waste alone will amount
to 1,600,000 tons.
10. Classification of E-Waste
E-waste encompasses ever growing range of obsolete electronic devices such as
computers, servers, main frames, monitors, TVs & display devices, telecommunication
devices such as cellular phones & pagers,
calculators, audio and video devices, printers, scanners, copiers and fax machines
besides refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, and microwave ovens, e-waste
also covers recording devices such as DVDs, CDs, floppies, tapes, printing cartridges,
military electronic waste, automobile catalytic converters, electronic components such as
chips, processors, mother boards, printed circuit boards, industrial electronics such as
sensors, alarms, sirens, security devices, automobile electronic devices.
General Facts on E-Waste
o In India the amount of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate
of 1%- 1.33% annually.
o It is estimated that the total waste quantity generated in by the year 2047 would be
approximately 260 million tons per year.
o It is estimated that if the waste is not disposed off in a more systematic manner
more than 140sq.km of land would be required in the country by the year 2047 for
The rapidly growing quantities of e-waste make for some astonishing facts. Did
you know that the annual amount of e-waste generated from end-of-life electrical and
electronic products (WEEE) is estimated to be a two digit amount, in million tons! And
this is predicted to double in the coming decades. Explore further statistical data showing
global comparisons and country specific factsheets on quantities of e-waste, per capita e-
waste generation, composition of different appliances in the waste pile etc.
Electronic appliances are composed of hundreds of different materials that can be
both toxic but also of high value. Gold, silver, copper, platinum etc. are valuable
materials which recyclers recover from e-waste.
Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are made of a multitude of components
which contain toxic / hazardous substances, e.g. carcinogens such as lead and arsenic.
11. The recycling processes and disposal of these components, while being a lucrative
business proposition for some, poses serious health risks and environment dangers.
Components of E-Waste Management
The major components of e-waste management are:
E-waste collection, sorting and transportation.
E-waste recycling; it involves dismantling, recovery of valuable resource, sale
of dismantled parts and export of processed waste for precious
How to handle E-Wastes
At macro-level, there are two ways to handle the E-Wastes. They are
Recycle / Refurbish.
The anatomical architecture of computers are that, parts of micro-processor,
computer chip, monitor, circuit board, molded plastics make-up that gleam, think pad /
PC. At atomic level, the array of chemical constituents that make-up the computers are
the trail of lead and cadmium, barium, poly-chlorinated biphenyl, etc. De-facto horror is
that they all release highly toxic dioxins and furans under its own unfavorable conditions.
Land-filling E-waste, one of the most widely used methods of disposal, is prone to
hazards because of leach ate which often contains heavy water resources. Even state-of-
the-art landfills are sealed to the long-term. Older landfill sites and uncontrolled dumps
pose a much greater danger of releasing hazardous emissions.
Specialized electronic recyclers strip-off essential re-usable components and
incinerate the left-overs in smelters. However, the end product is a metal stream, which is
worth some money, based on the composition of the metals. It's got a lot of steel,
aluminum and copper. The scrapped chunks could be recycled / used, but it's the least
preferred, since the cost of recycling is not free. Either the producer should inflate the
cost of greener-product or the government should provide subsidiaries for it. That's not a
commercial equation which could be marketed since it's not a producer's responsibility to
give ultra-green products at a marketable cost. Added to that, due to regulations and
pollution laws, it's often cheaper to export the scrap to third world / needy countries
where such laws, if they exist at all, are more lax than those in Canada and the United
States. Cool, collect resourceful metals from the amalgamation of scraps! There are
12. number of countries that make a huge business in the processing, recycling, smelting and
disassembling of electronics, and pathetically, it is done in an environmentally unfriendly
EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH
Disposal of e-wastes is a particular problem faced in many regions across the
globe. Computer wastes that are landfilled produces contaminated leachates which
eventually pollute the groundwater. Acids and sludge obtained from melting computer
chips, if disposed on the ground causes acidification of soil.
For example, Guiyu, Hong Kong a thriving area of illegal e-waste recycling is
facing acute water shortages due to the contamination of water resources. exhorted the
need for a global agreement to address the problems and challenges posed by hazardous
waste. Also, in the late 1980s, a tightening of environmental regulations in industrialized
countries led to a dramatic rise in the cost of hazardous waste disposal. Searching for
cheaper ways to get rid of the wastes, "toxic traders" began shipping hazardous waste to
developing countries. International outrage following these irresponsible activities led to
the drafting and adoption of strategic plans and regulations at the Basel Convention.
The Convention secretariat, in Geneva, Switzerland, facilitates and
implementation of the Convention and related agreements. It also provides assistance and
guidelines on legal and technical issues, gathers statistical data, and conducts training on
the proper management of hazardous waste.
Source of e-wastes Constituent Health effects
Solder in printed
circuit boards, glass
panels and gaskets
• Damage to central and peripheral nervous
systems, blood systems and kidney damage.
• Affects brain development of children.
Chip resistors and
• Toxic irreversible effects on human health.
• Accumulates in kidney and liver.
• Causes neural damage.
• Chronic damage to the brain.
• Respiratory and skin disorders due to
bioaccumulation in fishes.
• Asthmatic bronchitis.
• DNA damage.
13. galvanized steel
plates, decorator or
hardner for steel
Burning produces dioxin. It causes
• Reproductive and developmental problems;
• Immune system damage;
• Interfere with regulatory hormones
Plastic housing of
• Disrupts endocrine system functions
Front panel of
Short term exposure causes:
• Muscle weakness;
• Damage to heart, liver and spleen.
• Carcinogenic (lung cancer)
• Inhalation of fumes and dust. Causes
chronic beryllium disease or beryllicosis.
• Skin diseases such as warts.
MANAGEMENT OF E-WASTES
It is estimated that 75% of electronic items are stored due to uncertainty of how to
manage it. These electronic junks lie unattended in houses, offices, warehouses etc. and
normally mixed with household wastes, which are finally disposed off at landfills. This
necessitates implement able management measures.
In industries management of e-waste should begin at the point of generation. This
can be done by waste minimization techniques and by sustainable product design. Waste
minimization in industries involves adopting:
• inventory management,
• production-process modification,
• volume reduction,
• recovery and reuse.
14. Proper control over the materials used in the manufacturing process is an
important way to reduce waste generation (Freeman, 1989). By reducing both the
quantity of hazardous materials used in the process and the amount of excess raw
materials in stock, the quantity of waste generated can be reduced. This can be done in
two ways i.e. establishing material-purchase review and control procedures and inventory
Developing review procedures for all material purchased is the first step in
establishing an inventory management program. Procedures should require that all
materials be approved prior to purchase. In the approval process all production materials
are evaluated to examine if they contain hazardous constituents and whether alternative
non-hazardous materials are available.
Another inventory management procedure for waste reduction is to ensure that
only the needed quantity of a material is ordered. This will require the establishment of a
strict inventory tracking system. Purchase procedures must be implemented which ensure
that materials are ordered only on an as-needed basis and that only the amount needed for
a specific period of time is ordered.
Changes can be made in the production process, which will reduce waste
generation. This reduction can be accomplished by changing the materials used to make
the product or by the more efficient use of input materials in the production process or
both. Potential waste minimization techniques can be broken down into three categories:
i) Improved operating and maintenance procedures,
ii) Material change and
Improvements in the operation and maintenance of process equipment can result
in significant waste reduction. This can be accomplished by reviewing current operational
procedures or lack of procedures and examination of the production process for ways to
improve its efficiency. Instituting standard operation procedures can optimise the use of
raw materials in the production process and reduce the potential for materials to be lost
through leaks and spills. A strict maintenance program, which stresses corrective
maintenance, can reduce waste generation caused by equipment failure. An employee-
training program is a key element of any waste reduction program. Training should
include correct operating and handling procedures, proper equipment use, recommended
maintenance and inspection schedules, correct process control specifications and proper
management of waste materials.
Hazardous materials used in either a product formulation or a production process
may be replaced with a less hazardous or non-hazardous material. This is a very widely
15. used technique and is applicable to most manufacturing processes. Implementation of this
waste reduction technique may require only some minor process adjustments or it may
require extensive new process equipment. For example, a circuit board manufacturer can
replace solvent-based product with water-based flux and simultaneously replace
solventvapor degreaser with detergent parts washer.
Installing more efficient process equipment or modifying existing equipment to
take advantage of better production techniques can significantly reduce waste generation.
New or updated equipment can use process materials more efficiently producing less
waste. Additionally such efficiency reduces the number of rejected or off-specification
products, thereby reducing the amount of material which has to be reworked or disposed
of. Modifying existing process equipment can be a very cost-effective method of
reducing waste generation. In many cases the modification can just be relatively simple
changes in the way the materials are handled within the process to ensure that they are
not wasted. For example, in many electronic manufacturing operations, which involve
coating a product, such as electroplating or painting, chemicals are used to strip off
coating from rejected products so that they can be recoated. These chemicals, which can
include acids, caustics, cyanides etc are often a hazardous waste and must be properly
managed. By reducing the number of parts that have to be reworked, the quantity of
waste can be significantly reduced.
Volume reduction includes those techniques that remove the hazardous portion of
a waste from a non-hazardous portion. These techniques are usually to reduce the
volume, and thus the cost of disposing of a waste material. The techniques that can be
used to reduce waste-stream volume can be divided into 2 general categories: source
segregation and waste concentration. Segregation of wastes is in many cases a simple and
economical technique for waste reduction. Wastes containing different types of metals
can be treated separately so that the metal value in the sludge can be recovered.
Concentration of a waste stream may increase the likelihood that the material can be
recycled or reused. Methods include gravity and vacuum filtration, ultra filtration, reverse
osmosis, freeze vaporization etc.
For example, an electronic component manufacturer can use compaction
equipments to reduce volume of waste cathode ray-tube.
Recovery and reuse
This technique could eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs
and provide income from a salable waste. Waste can be recovered on-site, or at an off-
site recovery facility, or through inter industry exchange. A number of physical and
chemical techniques are available to reclaim a waste material such as reverse osmosis,
electrolysis, condensation, electrolytic recovery, filtration, centrifugation etc. For
example, a printed-circuit board manufacturer can use electrolytic recovery to reclaim
metals from copper and tin-lead plating bath.
16. However recycling of hazardous products has little environmental benefit if it
simply moves the hazards into secondary products that eventually have to be disposed of.
Unless the goal is to redesign the product to use nonhazardous materials, such recycling
is a false solution.
Sustainable product design
Minimization of hazardous wastes should be at product design stage itself keeping
in mind the following factors.
• Rethink the product design: Efforts should be made to design a product
with fewer amounts of hazardous materials. For example, the efforts to reduce
material use are reflected in some new computer designs that are flatter, lighter
and more integrated. Other companies propose centralized networks similar to the
• Use of renewable materials and energy: Bio-based plastics are plastics
made with plant-based chemicals or plant-produced polymers rather than from
petrochemicals. Bio-based toners, glues and inks are used more frequently. Solar
computers also exist but they are currently very expensive.
• Use of non-renewable materials that are safer: Because many of the
materials used are non-renewable, designers could ensure the product is built for
re-use, repair and/or upgradeability. Some computer manufacturers such as Dell
and Gateway lease out their products thereby ensuring they get them back to
further upgrade and lease out again.
17. Status of E-Waste Management In India
Despite a wide range of environmental legislation in India there are no specific
laws or guidelines for electronic waste or computer waste (Devi et al., 2004).
As per the Hazardous Waste Rules (1989), e-waste is not treated as hazardous
unless proved to have higher concentration of certain substances. The import of this
waste therefore requires specific permission of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
As the collection and re-cycling of electronic wastes is being done by the informal sector
in the country at present, the Government has taken the following action/steps to enhance
awareness about environmentally sound management of electronic waste (CII, 2006):
Though the Indian Supreme Court banned the import of hazardous waste in 1997,
600 tons of e-waste still entered the country in the last six months under the guise of
charitable or re-usable materials, all duty-free.
It is estimated that the US alone exports 80 percent of its e-waste to China, India
Funnily enough, India's regulatory body, the Central Pollution Control Board,
continues to deny that e-waste is coming into India. But regardless, it is certain that legal
loopholes are being exploited by importers, traders and recyclers alike to take advantage
of a profitable business with a high human and environmental impact.
o Several Workshops on Electronic Waste Management was organized by the
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with Toxics
Link, CII etc.
o Action has been initiated by CPCB for rapid assessment of the E-Waste
generated in major cities of the country.
o A National Working Group has been constituted for formulating a strategy for
o A comprehensive technical guide on "Environmental Management for
Information Technology Industry in India" has been published and
circulated widely by the Department of Information Technology
(DIT), Ministry of Communication and Information Technology.
Demonstration projects has also been set up by the DIT at the Indian Telephone
Industries for recovery of copper from Printed Circuit Boards. Although awareness and
readiness for implementing improvements is increasing rapidly, the major obstacles to
manage the e wastes safely and effectively remain. These include:
18. o The lack of reliable data that poses a challenge to policy makers wishing to design
an e-waste management strategy and to an industry wishing to make rational
o Only a fraction of the e waste (estimated 10%) finds its way to recyclers due to
absence of an efficient take back scheme for consumers.
o The lack of a safe e waste recycling infrastructure in the formal sector and thus
reliance on the capacities of the informal sector pose severe risks to the
environment and human health.
The existing e waste recycling systems are purely business-driven that have
come about With out any government intervention. Any development in these e waste
sectors will have to be built on the existing set-up as the waste collection and pre-
processing can be handled efficiently by the informal sector, at the same time offer
numerous job opportunities. The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs
mandated the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA)
to implement the programme "Knowledge Partnerships in e-Waste Recycling" and
India is one of the partner countries
THE INDIAN SCENARIO
While the world is marveling at the technological revolution, countries like India
are facing an imminent danger. E-waste of developed countries, such as the US, dispose
their wastes to India and other Asian countries. A recent investigation revealed that much
of the electronics turned over for recycling in the United States ends up in Asia, where
they are either disposed of or recycled with little or no regard for environmental or
worker health and safety. Major reasons for exports are cheap labour and lack of
environmental and occupational standards in Asia and in this way the toxic effluent of the
developed nations 'would flood towards the world's poorest nations. The magnitude of
these problems is yet to be documented. However, groups like Toxic Links India are
already working on collating data that could be a step towards controlling this hazardous
It is imperative that developing countries and India in particular wake up to the
monopoly of the developed countries and set up appropriate management measures to
prevent the hazards and mishaps due to mismanagement of e-wastes.
The challenges of managing E-waste in India are very different from those in
other countries, both the developed and developing.
19. No doubt, there can be several shared lessons; the complexity of the E-waste issue
in India, given its vast geographical and cultural diversity and economic disparities,
makes WEEE management challenges quite unique. A few of these are: -
o Rapidly increasing E-waste volumes, both domestically generated as well as
through imports. Imports are often disguised as second-hand computer donations
towards bridging the digital divide or simply as metal scrap.
o No accurate estimates of the quantity of E-waste generated and recycled.
o Low level of awareness amongst manufacturers and consumers of the hazards of
incorrect E-waste disposal.
o Widespread E-waste recycling in the informal sector using rudimentary
techniques such as acid.
o E-waste workers have little or no knowledge of toxins in E-waste, and are
exposed to serious health hazards.
o Inefficient recycling processes result in substantial losses of material value.
Who can help in overcoming the challenges posed by e-waste, are:
o Policy makers
Considering the severity of the problem, it is imperative that certain management
options be adopted to handle the bulk e-wastes. Following are some of the management
options suggested for the government, industries and the public.
Responsibilities of the Government
(i) Governments should set up regulatory agencies in each district, which are
vested with the responsibility of co-ordinating and consolidating the regulatory functions
of the various government authorities regarding hazardous substances.
(ii) Governments should be responsible for providing an adequate system of laws,
controls and administrative procedures for hazardous waste management (Third World
Network. 1991). Existing laws concerning e-waste disposal be reviewed and revamped. A
comprehensive law that provides e-waste regulation and management and proper disposal
of hazardous wastes is required. Such a law should empower the agency to control,
supervise and regulate the relevant activities of government departments.
20. Under this law, the agency concerned should
o Collect basic information on the materials from manufacturers,
processors and importers and to maintain an inventory of these materials.
The information should include toxicity and potential harmful effects.
o Identify potentially harmful substances and require the industry to
test them for adverse health and environmental effects.
o Control risks from manufacture, processing, distribution, use and
disposal of electronic wastes.
o Encourage beneficial reuse of "e-waste" and encouraging business
activities that use waste". Set up programs so as to promote recycling
among citizens and businesses.
o Educate e-waste generators on reuse/recycling options
(iii) Governments must encourage research into the development and standard of
hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring and the regulation of hazardous
(iv) Governments should enforce strict regulations against dumping e-waste in the
country by outsiders. Where the laws are flouted, stringent penalties must be imposed. In
particular, custodial sentences should be preferred to paltry fines, which these outsiders /
foreign nationals can pay.
(v) Governments should enforce strict regulations and heavy fines levied on
industries, which do not practice waste prevention and recovery in the production
(vi) Polluter pays principle and extended producer responsibility should be
(vii) Governments should encourage and support NGOs and other organizations
to involve actively in solving the nation's e-waste problems.
(viii) Uncontrolled dumping is an unsatisfactory method for disposal of hazardous
waste and should be phased out.
(viii) Governments should explore opportunities to partner with manufacturers
and retailers to provide recycling services.
Responsibility and Role of industries
1. Generators of wastes should take responsibility to determine the output
characteristics of wastes and if hazardous, should provide management options.
2. All personnel involved in handling e-waste in industries including those at the
policy, management, control and operational levels, should be properly qualified
21. and trained. Companies can adopt their own policies while handling
e-wastes. Some are given below:
Use label materials to assist in recycling (particularly
Standardize components for easy disassembly.
Re-evaluate 'cheap products' use, make product cycle
'cheap' and so that it
has no inherent value that would encourage a recycling
Create computer components and peripherals of
Utilize technology sharing particularly for manufacturing
and de manufacturing.
Encourage / promote / require green procurement for
Look at green packaging options.
3. Companies can and should adopt waste minimization techniques, which will
make a significant reduction in the quantity of e-waste generated and thereby
lessening the impact on the environment. It is a "reverse production" system that
designs infrastructure to recover and reuse every material contained within e-
wastes metals such as lead, copper, aluminum and gold, and various plastics, glass
and wire. Such a "closed loop" manufacturing and recovery system offers a win-
win situation for everyone, less of the Earth will be mined for raw materials, and
groundwater will be protected, researchers explain.
4. Manufacturers, distributors, and retailers should undertake the responsibility of
recycling/disposal of their own products.
5. Manufacturers of computer monitors, television sets and other electronic
devices containing hazardous materials must be responsible for educating
consumers and the general public regarding the potential threat to public health
and the environment posed by their products. At minimum, all computer
monitors, television sets and other electronic devices containing hazardous
materials must be clearly labeled to identify environmental hazards and proper
Responsibilities of the Citizen
Waste prevention is perhaps more preferred to any other waste management option
including recycling. Donating electronics for reuse extends the lives of valuable products
and keeps them out of the waste management system for a longer time. But care should
be taken while donating such items i.e. the items should be in working condition.
22. Reuse, in addition to being an environmentally preferable alternative, also benefits
society. By donating used electronics, schools, non-profit organizations, and lower-
income families can afford to use equipment that they otherwise could not afford.
E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This should
be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations.
While buying electronic products opt for those that:
o are made with fewer toxic constituents
o use recycled content
o are energy efficient
o are designed for easy upgrading or disassembly
o utilize minimal packaging
o offer leasing or take back options
o have been certified by regulatory authorities. Customers should
opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic items to the
latest versions rather than buying new equipments.
NGOs should adopt a participatory approach in management of e-wastes.
Example of E-waste managment
HP, Takeback program and Recycling e-waste
HP (Hewlett Packard) has announced that it will accept used printers, scanners,
fax machines, personal computers (desktop and notebook), monitors, handheld devices,
cameras and associated external components such as cables, mice and keyboards, and
send them for recycling. Individuals and corporations can drop their end-of-life products
at some of the HP service centers. These centers are limited to some of the major cities in
India. Let HP increase the number of such take back centers.
HP is also inviting citizens to make a pledge to recycle e-waste responsibly. For
every pledge, HP will donate Rs 50 to Sashays, a voluntary organization committed to
finding solutions to problems related to solid waste and e-waste.
E-waste management is the need of present time becouse every electronic
product wasted when products are unusable & demaged. so present time it is required
every company manage e-waste. Like China, India is now confronted with the huge
23. problem of e-waste - both locally generated and internationally imported - and also both a
lucrative industry and yet also a serious threat to human health and the environment.
While there have been some initiatives to set regulations for e-waste management,
overall, these hazardous wastes are still typically dismantled and recycled by hand in
India in unorganized scrap yard settings that lack safeguards and government guidelines.
Large e-waste centres exist in Delhi, Meerut, Ferozabad, Chennai, Bangalore and
Mumbai, with 25,000 recyclers working in Delhi alone. Workers are poorly-protected in
an environment where e-waste from PC monitors, PCBs, CDs, motherboards, cables,
toner cartridges, light bulbs and tube-lights are burned in the open, releasing lead,
mercury toxins into the air. Metals and non-degradable materials such as gold and
platinum, aluminium, cadmium, mercury, lead and brominated flame-retardants are
"Trade in e-waste, like that in other scrap, is dominated by the 'informal' sector.
Although the waste trade sector in India is known as part of the 'informal' sector, it has a
system that is highly organized with extensive co-ordination in an established network,"
says K. K. Shajahan, principal consultant for Bangalore's Indian Institute of Material
e-waste management is not only improve company image in socity but also
improve the prfit & value of company .mostly part of e-waste is reuseble so company can
reuse the E-waste.
e-waste management is the requirment of present and feture time.
Rakesh Johri, Energy and Resources Institute “E-waste: implications, regulations,
and management in India and current global best practices”, illustrated edition,
Published by – Energy and Resources Institute.
Da Zhu, P. U. Asnani, Chris Zurbrugg “Improving municipal solid waste management
in Indiaa sourcebook for policymakers and practitioners", illustrated Edition, World
James I. Daven, Robert N. Klein “Progress in waste management research” illustrated
edition, published by- Nova Publishers.