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Academic research and writing

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Academic Research & Writing

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Academic research and writing

  1. 1. ACADEMIC RESEARCH & WRITING BY KAMRAN ISHFAQ
  2. 2. What is academic writing • Precise, clear and objective language • Punctuation and grammar CORRECT • Soft and formal style • (not the style used in newspapers, novels, magazines, or everyday conversation, etc) • Logic text/ statements (s) based on reasoning
  3. 3. Managing your research and daily life challenges Direct Challenges • Financial constraints • Computer failure • University closure, political instability • Problem in data collection and analysis • Repeated rejection of draft chapters by your supervisor • Amendments suggested by external examiners Major Challenges in MS / PhD Research Indirect Challenges • Family Responsibility • No bijlee, no atta, no cheeni, no ghee, no gass, no petrol…. • Person specific problems……
  4. 4. Preparation of your research proposal (five pillars of research proposal) • Be courageous: put your idea on paper • Be confident: highlights the importance of your research topic( Introduction) • Select strong references ( literature review) • Describe and justify your technique of work ( methodology) • Outcome of your work: describe that how your findings would contribute to existing body of knowledge ( conclusion& recommendations).
  5. 5. Basic tips in Academic Writing Language • Be straightforward • Be impersonal (i.e. don’t use ‘I and ‘we) • Be cautious (i.e. the statement should not be easily challenged). • Don’t’ start sentences with linking words, e.g. such, but, and, or, yet….
  6. 6. Maintenance of Continuity in the Thesis (Useful words for developing linkage in the text) • When adding argument or emphasizing a statement and, also, as well as, moreover, further, furthermore, in addition, additionally, next, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, ...
  7. 7. • When making comparisons, highlighting similarities or differences • similarly, likewise, in the same way, equally, although, however, yet, conversely, • on the contrary, otherwise, but, even so, despite, notwithstanding, ...
  8. 8. • When providing reasons and/or explaining results • for this reason, to this end, for this purpose, because, since, so that, as, so, • as a consequence, as a result, hence, therefore, thus, inevitably, for example, • for instance, by way of illustration, such as, this demonstrates, ...
  9. 9. • When drawing conclusions • as has been noted, finally, in brief, in short, to summarize, consequently, so, therefore, in conclusion, accordingly, it reflects...
  10. 10. Reporting Verbs • During citation, choose suitable ‘reporting verbs’ as these can: • strengthen the arguments you are presenting; and, • help the reader to understand why the source is relevant.
  11. 11. Seven Person-specific Challenges Commonly Faced during Research and Write up • Unknown hesitation at pre-writing stage of research proposal • Lack of confidence in data collection / field work • During the thesis work, pre-write up nervousness and indecisiveness • Hesitancy and reluctance regarding how and where to start each chapter • Lack of confidence and skill with regard to critical analysis • Lack of expertise and appreciation with regard to cross-referencing • Inability to make the concluding chapter a true reflective of the thesis
  12. 12. What an examiner is looking for in your thesis: Seven Strands of Evaluation • Intellectual depth of the thesis • Originality of the work • Critical analysis of the issue • Adequate referencing and cross referencing • Quality and quantity of bibliography • Interwoven arguments and supporting information • Quality of English linguistic narration
  13. 13. thanks
  • MuhammadZeeshanZeesh3

    Apr. 23, 2020

Academic Research & Writing

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