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Introduction to change management

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Introduction to change management

  1. 1. Managing Change By : Kapil Kant Kaul kapilkantkaul@gmail.com
  2. 2. Disclaimer • The purpose of the presentation is for information and awareness only. • Research Sources and Models have been attributed wherever appropriate. I cannot vouch for the validity of the statistics showcased but am quoting them verbatim as available in public domain. • Please feel free to share the presentation with attribution to Kapil Kant Kaul.
  3. 3. Index •What is Change •Surveys and Statistics •Change Management Introduction to Organization Change Management •Steering Committee and their role •Roles of Change Agents Project Governance •William Bridges Model •Personal Change Curve Change and Transition •Types •Symptoms •Causes •How to Manage Resistance Challenges in Change ( Resistance)
  4. 4. WHAT IS CHANGE ?
  5. 5. Change Developmental Change Transitional Change Transformational Change Doing more of, or better than, what currently exists Implementing an evolutionary new state, requiring major and ongoing shifts in organizational strategy and vision.” Implementation of a new desired state requiring dismantling existing new ways
  6. 6. P E O P L E Any significant change has three aspects CHANGE
  8. 8. 8 Conscious World: TangiblesConscious World: Tangibles • Rational Business Case, Facts, Figures, Logic, Analysis, Systems Sub - Conscious World: Intangibles • Attitudes, Values, Beliefs, Feelings, Habits, Skills, Assumptions, Emotions, Norms, Culture The world of technology implementations is littered with the wreckage of financially and operationally sound programs crushed by organization’s resistance to change Conventional Management operates on the premise of a conscious and rational ecosystem While being indifferent to
  9. 9. Technology driven changes impact the fundamental ‚ways-of-working‛ of any organization 9
  10. 10. 10 Challenges in IT implementations Deloitte Consulting CIO survey
  11. 11. Change Management ChangeManagement • Is the CRAFT of helping organizations, teams and individuals evolve from their current state to a planned and more desirable future state in a sustainable fashion • Is a multidisciplinary approach involving Organization Behavior, Psychology, Communication, Training, People Management, Facilitation, Performance Coaching and Counseling • Is NOT HR though it primarily deals with people issues • Is NOT PROJECT MANAGEMENT though it supplements it, is aligned with Project Timelines and has an interest in ensuring timely addressal of user expectations and concerns
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Project Governance and Roles
  14. 14. Project Governance
  15. 15. Role of Steering Committee • Monitoring and review of the project at regular Steering Committee meetings • Providing assistance to the projects • Reviewing project scope as emergent issues force changes to be considered, ensuring that scope aligns with the objectives of the project sponsor and key stakeholder groups • Formal review of project deliverables and recommendations of co-ordination group • Prioritization of future projects • Quality of deliverables as identified in the project task order • Review of schedule •Risk management strategies, ensuring that strategies to address potential threats to the project's success have been identified, estimated and approved, and that the threats are regularly re-assessed The Steering Committee includes management representatives from the key departments involved in the project oversight and control, and key stakeholder groups that have special interest in the outcome of the project. The responsibilities include
  16. 16. Role of Change Agents as Focal Points •Understanding and capturing requirements of the users at respective assets •Participating in Co-ordination group meetings •Sharing the requirements with the Project Manager/ Nominated person •Testing and validating the applications when requested for •Sharing user feedback with the project team •Ensuring Changes (If any) are communicated to the project team as per the defined process in the defined format As Focal Point- Work closely with the Project Manager and development team for
  17. 17. Role as Change Agents •Learning and Communication - Raising awareness of change and the associated improvements and benefits from the implementation of the Change. •Gaining buy-in from all users/stakeholders through participation in the relevant decision-making processes and implementation as and where appropriate. •Acting as on-job Trainer if required. •Acting as the in-house Coach for the Asset and the first level go to person in case of queries /doubts •Ensuring participation of team members in trainings/ workshops •Helping staff to accept and adjust to the physical and mental aspects of the change and the new ways of working. •Embedding the new ways of working into the day to day workings for sustainability •Ensuring compliance to the new systems and processes As Change Agent - Work closely with the Change Manager for
  18. 18. Change & Transition It isn't the actual change that individuals resist, but rather the transition that must be made to accommodate the change. Change is not the same as transition. Change is situational: the new site, the new boss, the new team roles, the new policy. Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Change is external, transition is internal. Unless transition occurs, change will not work" - Malcolm Bridges
  20. 20. ENDINGS
  21. 21. NEUTRAL ZONE
  23. 23. Ending, Letting Go- Before you can begin something new, you often need to end what used to be. Often it may not be the changes that people are resisting, but the losses and endings that go with it, Identify what is actually ending and who is losing what •Explain what will be different when the changes are complete. What is it that people will be asked to let go of, to give up - relationships, current methods, values, expectations? •Be as specific as you can by avoiding vague terms. Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses •Don't argue, as this is not the time to try to convince people. After all, loss is a subjective experience. Don't be surprised at 'overreaction' •Remember, people are probably reacting to the prospect of loss, not necessarily against the change. Sometimes people may be reacting from past negative experience with change. Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically •It helps to talk openly. This approach also gives others permission to express their feelings. Expect and accept the signs of grieving •This might involve denial, anger, sadness, bargaining (to try and change the situation), fear and anxiety, disorientation or depression. Stay tuned in, express your own feelings, give people a chance to get things off their chests, provide empathy and reassurance, but don't reassure people with unrealistic suggestions of hope. Do what you can to restore people's sense of having some control over their situation. Define what's over and what isn't •There can be a lot of confusion about what has changed often embellished by rumour. It is important to be clear about what has changed and what continues or stays the same. Treat the past with respect •Don't denigrate it. Whilst it is important to move on to new and better ways, the trick is to do it without being too judgemental about the past. If you can, honour the past for what it accomplished. Also, if possible, let people take a bit of the old way with them, even if it is just symbolic.
  24. 24. The Neutral Zone A phase where people have let go of the past but are not yet clear or confident about the future. New ways may be in place but awkward and not yet working satisfactorily. Normalise the neutral zone •By explaining to people that it is a 'normal' part of the change process. That it is OK to experience some confusion, loss of motivation and mix of feelings. That it is unrealistic to move straight from the past to the future. Create temporary systems •Have systems or structures in place to help you through. For example, regular briefing meetings. Set and monitor short-term goals. Be wary of expecting too much. Strengthen relationships and interaction •People can feel isolated and lonely, so create occasions for people to meet and interact - lunches, meetings and briefings. Consider whether you should establish a Transition team to monitor and help manage this phase. It could have a particular focus on the issues affecting people. •Keep interaction with intact teams as consistent as possible, take the opportunity to evolve team norms/behaviours for new teams. Using neutral zone creatively •Often in this phase, like any break point, unexpected possibilities and fresh ideas may emerge in regard to how the organisation could act differently and better. Managers should consider creating a focus for this and encouraging people to reflect on opportunities and possibilities.
  25. 25. New Beginnings Phase where the new world is largely in place. While often a time of relief and excitement, there may still be residual anxieties about effectiveness of new ways of work, personal capability, risk of failure and so forth. It probably signals the end of the transition period and the support systems that were put in place for that phase. Performance expectations are likely to rise and there is now more a sense of 'business as usual.’ Purpose •People need to be reminded of the situation that was facing the organisation, and why the changes have occurred and the new beginning embarked upon. This may include reflecting on what might have occurred had the changes not been introduced. •Accept that there will still be some ambivalence. A picture •Of what the future will be like. This helps people to clearly understand what the new world will be like and how it will operate at quite a detailed level. A transition management plan •For what is going to happen on the people side (training, information, announcement of new roles etc) as the new beginning is implemented. It is about when, what and how things will happen, step-by-step. A part to play •Giving people a clear understanding of their role, responsibilities and relationships in the new world. In other words, how they fit in. Reinforce the new beginning •By being consistent in applying plans, targets, rules and rewards. Try and achieve some quick wins to build confidence, create powerful symbols of the new identity and, most importantly, celebrate success.
  26. 26. Endings Neutral Zone New Beginnings Personal Change Curve
  27. 27. Challenges in change: Resistance
  28. 28. Resistance : Actions or Inactions displayed by individuals or groups that serve to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo
  29. 29. Future State Resistance
  30. 30. DISCUSSION • Is RESISTANCE good or bad ? • Can it be avoided or removed ? • Any examples of resistance seen ?
  31. 31. Symptoms of Resistance •Overt •Characterized by ‘direct confrontation’ •Arguments •Open Hostility •Threats • Ridiculing or undermining •Appealing to fear •Manipulation Active Resistance •Somewhat Covert •Characterized by ‘Inaction’ •Absenteeism/No Show •No response/ delayed response to emails/phone calls •Feigning ignorance •Avoiding Responsibilities •Withholding information Passive Resistance
  32. 32. Change is often associated with a perceived sense of loss deeper than the prospective gain
  33. 33. Common Causes of Resistance Resistance Comfort with Status Quo Sense of Loss Lack of Clarity Lack of Involvement Lack of Trust Fear of the Unknown Change Saturation/ Exhaustion Lack of Competence Temporary Fad Benefits and Rewards Poor Communication
  34. 34. Managing Resistance •The best approach to creating change is to work with them, helping them achieve goals that somehow also reach to the goals of the change project. When you work with people, they will be happier to work with you. •This is a good practice when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to the situation and achieve the goals of change. Facilitation •When people are not really bought into the rationale for the change, they may well come around once they realize why the change is needed and what is needed of them. In particular, if new skills are required, you can provide these via a focused course of education. Education •When people are not involved physically or intellectually, they are unlikely to be involved emotionally either. One of the best methods of getting people bought in is to get them involved. When their hands are dirty, they realize that dirt is not so bad, after all. They also need to justify their involvement to themselves and so persuade themselves that is the right thing to do. Involvement •When the other person cannot easily be persuaded, then you may need to give in order to get. Sit them down and ask what they are seeking. Find out what they want and what they will never accept. Work out a mutually agreeable solution that works just for them and just for you. Negotiation •Manipulation means controlling a person's environment such that they are shaped by what is around them. It can be a tempting solution, but is morally questionable and, if they sense what you are doing, will lead to a very dangerous backlash. Only consider this when change is necessary in the short term and all other avenues have been explored. Manipulation • . This should only be used when speed is of the essence or when the other person themselves has taken to public and damaging actions.Coercion
  35. 35. Change Vision Confusion Change Leadership Frustration Change Consensus Resistance Change Training Anxiety Change Workflow Improvement Stagnation
  36. 36. THANK YOU !

Notes de l'éditeur

  • There are four major phases of transition: Denial, Resistance, Exploration, and Commitment. During any type of change initiative people will focus on the past and what worked well. This almost always leads to people pushing back on the change that has been introduced. People will often go through a period where they evaluate how the change will impact them personally and where it may leave them. People will initially evaluate if the change will impact them in any negative way evaluating if they will be able to operate successfully in the “new” way. This is when resistance is usually experienced. As people enter the exploration and commitment phases, they start to better understand the change, they will start to understand to better understand what the change has to offer them personally. Most everyone moves through these phases and usually at different rates. Knowledge and understanding is key to successfully moving quickly through these phases. The ability of a an effective leader to illuminate the possibilities and vision, while removing fear and doubt, can help people and teams to be more successful and efficient in implementing the change. Denial – This phase typically represents people’s ability to ignore the immediate impact of change. People will continue to ignore change until forced to confront the change. Resistance – When people are continually confronted with change they will eventually start resisting change by becoming angry and laying blame on others. Exploration – Faced with the inevitability of change combined with knowledge and understanding, people will start embrace the change., experimentation and innovation are likely outcomes for this phase. Commitment – This phase is typically achieved once the change has been accepted and integrated by individuals and teams. Once this is achieved the foundation for additional change has been created. Summary As a change leader, it is imperative to fully understand the transition phases. This will enable you to develop strategies and methodologies for leading people through these phases quickly and successfully. Strategies should incorporate the sharing of drivers and expected outcomes of the change and ensuring that information is shared and understood by the team while gathering feedback from individuals and teams
  • 12 typical reasons for resistance to change:Misunderstanding about the need for change/when the reason for the change is unclear — If staff do not understand the need for change you can expect resistance. Especially from those who strongly believe the current way of doing things works well…and has done for twenty years!Fear of the unknown— One of the most common reasons for resistance is fear of the unknown. People will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new directionLack of competence — This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very wellConnected to the old way — If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way – and that’s not trivialLow trust— When people don’t believe that they, or the company, can competently manage the change there is likely to be resistanceTemporary fad — When people belief that the change initiative is a temporary fadNot being consulted — If people are allowed to be part of the change there is less resistance. People like to know what’s going on, especially if their jobs may be affected. Informed employees tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than uninformed employeesPoor communication — It’s self evident isn’t it? When it comes to change management there’s no such thing as too much communicationChanges to routines — When we talk about comfort zones we’re really referring to routines. We love them. They make us secure. So there’s bound to be resistance whenever change requires us to do things differentlyExhaustion/Saturation — Don’t mistake compliance for acceptance. People who are overwhelmed by continuous change resign themselves to it and go along with the flow. You have them in body, but you do not have their hearts. Motivation is lowChange in the status quo — Resistance can also stem from perceptions of the change that people hold. For example, people who feel they’ll be worse off at the end of the change are unlikely to give it their full support. Similarly, if people believe the change favours another group/department/person there may be (unspoken) anger and resentmentBenefits and rewards — When the benefits and rewards for making the change are not seen as adequate for the trouble involved