By : Kapil Kant Kaul
• The purpose of the presentation is for
information and awareness only.
• Research Sources and Models have been
attributed wherever appropriate. I cannot
vouch for the validity of the statistics
showcased but am quoting them verbatim
as available in public domain.
• Please feel free to share the presentation
with attribution to Kapil Kant Kaul.
•What is Change
•Surveys and Statistics
Introduction to Organization Change Management
•Steering Committee and their role
•Roles of Change Agents
•William Bridges Model
•Personal Change Curve
Change and Transition
•How to Manage Resistance
Challenges in Change ( Resistance)
Doing more of, or better
than, what currently exists
Implementing an evolutionary
new state, requiring major and
ongoing shifts in organizational
strategy and vision.”
Implementation of a new desired
state requiring dismantling
existing new ways
Any significant change has three aspects
WHILE PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY
CHANGES ARE FAIRLY
STRAIGHFORWARD AND CAN BE
DEALT WITH MINIMAL FUSS,
PEOPLE PRESENT A COMPLEX AND
Conscious World: TangiblesConscious World: Tangibles
• Rational Business
Case, Facts, Figures, Logic, Analysis, Systems
Sub - Conscious World: Intangibles
• Attitudes, Values, Beliefs, Feelings, Habits, Skills, Assumptions, Emotions, Norms, Culture
The world of technology implementations is littered with the
wreckage of financially and operationally sound programs crushed by
organization’s resistance to change
Conventional Management operates on the premise
of a conscious and rational ecosystem
While being indifferent to
Technology driven changes impact the
fundamental ‚ways-of-working‛ of any
Challenges in IT implementations
Deloitte Consulting CIO survey
• Is the CRAFT of helping
organizations, teams and individuals
evolve from their current state to a
planned and more desirable future state
in a sustainable fashion
• Is a multidisciplinary approach
Behavior, Psychology, Communication,
Management, Facilitation, Performance
Coaching and Counseling
• Is NOT HR though it primarily deals
with people issues
• Is NOT PROJECT MANAGEMENT
though it supplements it, is aligned
with Project Timelines and has an
interest in ensuring timely addressal of
user expectations and concerns
Role of Steering Committee
• Monitoring and review of the project at regular Steering
• Providing assistance to the projects
• Reviewing project scope as emergent issues force
changes to be considered, ensuring that scope aligns with
the objectives of the project sponsor and key stakeholder
• Formal review of project deliverables and
recommendations of co-ordination group
• Prioritization of future projects
• Quality of deliverables as identified in the project task
• Review of schedule
•Risk management strategies, ensuring that strategies to
address potential threats to the project's success have
been identified, estimated and approved, and that the
threats are regularly re-assessed
the key departments
involved in the project
control, and key
that have special
interest in the
outcome of the project.
Role of Change Agents as Focal Points
•Understanding and capturing requirements of the users
at respective assets
•Participating in Co-ordination group meetings
•Sharing the requirements with the Project Manager/
•Testing and validating the applications when requested
•Sharing user feedback with the project team
•Ensuring Changes (If any) are communicated to the
project team as per the defined process in the defined
As Focal Point- Work
closely with the
Project Manager and
development team for
Role as Change Agents
•Learning and Communication - Raising awareness of
change and the associated improvements and benefits
from the implementation of the Change.
•Gaining buy-in from all users/stakeholders through
participation in the relevant decision-making processes and
implementation as and where appropriate.
•Acting as on-job Trainer if required.
•Acting as the in-house Coach for the Asset and the first
level go to person in case of queries /doubts
•Ensuring participation of team members in trainings/
•Helping staff to accept and adjust to the physical and
mental aspects of the change and the new ways of working.
•Embedding the new ways of working into the day to day
workings for sustainability
•Ensuring compliance to the new systems and processes
As Change Agent -
Work closely with the
Change Manager for
Change & Transition
It isn't the actual change that individuals resist, but rather the
transition that must be made to accommodate the change.
Change is not the same as transition.
Change is situational: the new site, the new boss, the new team
roles, the new policy. Transition is the psychological process
people go through to come to terms with the new situation.
Change is external, transition is internal. Unless transition occurs,
change will not work"
- Malcolm Bridges
Ending, Letting Go-
Before you can begin something new, you often need to end what used to be. Often it may not be the
changes that people are resisting, but the losses and endings that go with it,
Identify what is actually ending and who is losing what
•Explain what will be different when the changes are complete. What is it that people will be asked to let go of, to give up -
relationships, current methods, values, expectations?
•Be as specific as you can by avoiding vague terms.
Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses
•Don't argue, as this is not the time to try to convince people. After all, loss is a subjective experience.
Don't be surprised at 'overreaction'
•Remember, people are probably reacting to the prospect of loss, not necessarily against the change. Sometimes people may be
reacting from past negative experience with change.
Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically
•It helps to talk openly. This approach also gives others permission to express their feelings.
Expect and accept the signs of grieving
•This might involve denial, anger, sadness, bargaining (to try and change the situation), fear and anxiety, disorientation or
depression. Stay tuned in, express your own feelings, give people a chance to get things off their chests, provide empathy and
reassurance, but don't reassure people with unrealistic suggestions of hope. Do what you can to restore people's sense of
having some control over their situation.
Define what's over and what isn't
•There can be a lot of confusion about what has changed often embellished by rumour. It is important to be clear about what
has changed and what continues or stays the same.
Treat the past with respect
•Don't denigrate it. Whilst it is important to move on to new and better ways, the trick is to do it without being too
judgemental about the past. If you can, honour the past for what it accomplished. Also, if possible, let people take a bit of the
old way with them, even if it is just symbolic.
The Neutral Zone
A phase where people have let go of the past but are not yet clear or confident about the future.
New ways may be in place but awkward and not yet working satisfactorily.
Normalise the neutral zone
•By explaining to people that it is a 'normal' part of the change process. That it is OK to experience some
confusion, loss of motivation and mix of feelings. That it is unrealistic to move straight from the past to
Create temporary systems
•Have systems or structures in place to help you through. For example, regular briefing meetings. Set and
monitor short-term goals. Be wary of expecting too much.
Strengthen relationships and interaction
•People can feel isolated and lonely, so create occasions for people to meet and interact - lunches, meetings
and briefings. Consider whether you should establish a Transition team to monitor and help manage this
phase. It could have a particular focus on the issues affecting people.
•Keep interaction with intact teams as consistent as possible, take the opportunity to evolve team
norms/behaviours for new teams.
Using neutral zone creatively
•Often in this phase, like any break point, unexpected possibilities and fresh ideas may emerge in regard
to how the organisation could act differently and better. Managers should consider creating a focus for
this and encouraging people to reflect on opportunities and possibilities.
Phase where the new world is largely in place. While often a time of relief and excitement, there may still be residual
anxieties about effectiveness of new ways of work, personal capability, risk of failure and so forth. It probably signals
the end of the transition period and the support systems that were put in place for that phase. Performance
expectations are likely to rise and there is now more a sense of 'business as usual.’
•People need to be reminded of the situation that was facing the organisation, and why the changes have occurred
and the new beginning embarked upon. This may include reflecting on what might have occurred had the changes
not been introduced.
•Accept that there will still be some ambivalence.
•Of what the future will be like. This helps people to clearly understand what the new world will be like and how it
will operate at quite a detailed level.
A transition management plan
•For what is going to happen on the people side (training, information, announcement of new roles etc) as the new
beginning is implemented. It is about when, what and how things will happen, step-by-step.
A part to play
•Giving people a clear understanding of their role, responsibilities and relationships in the new world. In other
words, how they fit in.
Reinforce the new beginning
•By being consistent in applying plans, targets, rules and rewards. Try and achieve some quick wins to build
confidence, create powerful symbols of the new identity and, most importantly, celebrate success.
Personal Change Curve
• Is RESISTANCE good or bad ?
• Can it be avoided or removed ?
• Any examples of resistance seen ?
Symptoms of Resistance
•Characterized by ‘direct confrontation’
• Ridiculing or undermining
•Appealing to fear
•Characterized by ‘Inaction’
•No response/ delayed response to emails/phone calls
Change is often associated with a perceived
sense of loss deeper than the prospective gain
Common Causes of Resistance
Sense of Loss
Lack of Trust
Fear of the
•The best approach to creating change is to work with them, helping them achieve goals that
somehow also reach to the goals of the change project. When you work with people, they
will be happier to work with you.
•This is a good practice when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to the
situation and achieve the goals of change.
•When people are not really bought into the rationale for the change, they may well come
around once they realize why the change is needed and what is needed of them. In
particular, if new skills are required, you can provide these via a focused course of
•When people are not involved physically or intellectually, they are unlikely to be involved
emotionally either. One of the best methods of getting people bought in is to get them
involved. When their hands are dirty, they realize that dirt is not so bad, after all. They also
need to justify their involvement to themselves and so persuade themselves that is the right
thing to do.
•When the other person cannot easily be persuaded, then you may need to give in order to
get. Sit them down and ask what they are seeking. Find out what they want and what they
will never accept. Work out a mutually agreeable solution that works just for them and just
•Manipulation means controlling a person's environment such that they are shaped by what
is around them. It can be a tempting solution, but is morally questionable and, if they sense
what you are doing, will lead to a very dangerous backlash. Only consider this when change
is necessary in the short term and all other avenues have been explored.
• . This should only be used when speed is of the essence or when the other person
themselves has taken to public and damaging actions.Coercion
There are four major phases of transition: Denial, Resistance, Exploration, and Commitment. During any type of change initiative people will focus on the past and what worked well. This almost always leads to people pushing back on the change that has been introduced. People will often go through a period where they evaluate how the change will impact them personally and where it may leave them. People will initially evaluate if the change will impact them in any negative way evaluating if they will be able to operate successfully in the “new” way. This is when resistance is usually experienced. As people enter the exploration and commitment phases, they start to better understand the change, they will start to understand to better understand what the change has to offer them personally. Most everyone moves through these phases and usually at different rates. Knowledge and understanding is key to successfully moving quickly through these phases. The ability of a an effective leader to illuminate the possibilities and vision, while removing fear and doubt, can help people and teams to be more successful and efficient in implementing the change. Denial – This phase typically represents people’s ability to ignore the immediate impact of change. People will continue to ignore change until forced to confront the change. Resistance – When people are continually confronted with change they will eventually start resisting change by becoming angry and laying blame on others. Exploration – Faced with the inevitability of change combined with knowledge and understanding, people will start embrace the change., experimentation and innovation are likely outcomes for this phase. Commitment – This phase is typically achieved once the change has been accepted and integrated by individuals and teams. Once this is achieved the foundation for additional change has been created. Summary As a change leader, it is imperative to fully understand the transition phases. This will enable you to develop strategies and methodologies for leading people through these phases quickly and successfully. Strategies should incorporate the sharing of drivers and expected outcomes of the change and ensuring that information is shared and understood by the team while gathering feedback from individuals and teams
12 typical reasons for resistance to change:Misunderstanding about the need for change/when the reason for the change is unclear — If staff do not understand the need for change you can expect resistance. Especially from those who strongly believe the current way of doing things works well…and has done for twenty years!Fear of the unknown— One of the most common reasons for resistance is fear of the unknown. People will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new directionLack of competence — This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very wellConnected to the old way — If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way – and that’s not trivialLow trust— When people don’t believe that they, or the company, can competently manage the change there is likely to be resistanceTemporary fad — When people belief that the change initiative is a temporary fadNot being consulted — If people are allowed to be part of the change there is less resistance. People like to know what’s going on, especially if their jobs may be affected. Informed employees tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than uninformed employeesPoor communication — It’s self evident isn’t it? When it comes to change management there’s no such thing as too much communicationChanges to routines — When we talk about comfort zones we’re really referring to routines. We love them. They make us secure. So there’s bound to be resistance whenever change requires us to do things differentlyExhaustion/Saturation — Don’t mistake compliance for acceptance. People who are overwhelmed by continuous change resign themselves to it and go along with the flow. You have them in body, but you do not have their hearts. Motivation is lowChange in the status quo — Resistance can also stem from perceptions of the change that people hold. For example, people who feel they’ll be worse off at the end of the change are unlikely to give it their full support. Similarly, if people believe the change favours another group/department/person there may be (unspoken) anger and resentmentBenefits and rewards — When the benefits and rewards for making the change are not seen as adequate for the trouble involved
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