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Concepts of Genetics in Ayurvrda

In Ayurveda we get explanation regarding genetics

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Concepts of Genetics in Ayurvrda

  1. 1. CONCEPT OF GENETICS IN AYURVEDA Dr.Vijayalaxmi.B Associate Professor Dept. of Kaumarabhrutya
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The concept of genetics is not new to Ayurveda. Atulya gotreeya stree purusha, Asanchaari Roga kula jaata stree. Ayurveda describes the anatomical aspect of the genetics. Bheeja bhaaga Bheeja bhaaga avayava. Classification of vyadhi. Adibalapravrutta, Sahaja vyadhi
  3. 3. GENETICS  Definition- Study of gene or Study of Heredity & its Variations.  Gene – Gennan (Gre) = to produce. Unit of inheritance carried on chromosomes & controlling expressions of a character chemically it is made of DNA.  DNA – Genetic code Specific sequences of DNA – Genes.
  4. 4. Chromosomes: Chroma - Colour ; Soma – Body . Linear thread of DNA. Genes arranged in a linear thread form.
  5. 5. Chromosome Basic unit of heredity
  6. 6. In Humans : Diploid number is 46 ( 23 pairs) 22 pairs- Autosomes ; A pair of Sex chromosomes ( XX or XY) Gamete formation : - 46 ( 23 pairs) 23 (Haploid) Ovum 23 Sperm 23  Random union determines the Sex.
  7. 7. CONCEPT OF GENE • Number of chromosome is small &number of gene is large. It is expected that each chromosome bears a large number of genes. The 46 chromosome of humans are supposed to carry about 40,000 genes. Genes occupy specific potions on the chromosomes. • A gene may be found in two or more forms or functional states, All modifications of original gene considered to be its alleles the alleles occupy the same position on the two homologous chromosome.
  8. 8. • If there are 2 alleles of a gene, one may behave as the dominant & other recessive. • Genes are able to make exact copies or replicas themselves. Replication distributes copies of genes to the daughter cells during divisions. Transmits characters from parents to offspring's.
  9. 9. GENETIC DISORDER Definition: A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosome. Mutation: “A state of heritable alteration in DNA” Etiology: Largely Unknown Environmental factors, Radiation, Viruses & Chemicals.
  10. 10. • Diseases caused by changes in gene mutation in the nucleotide sequence that effect the phenotype. • The mutation may vary. A mutation may completely halt the production of protein synthesis or decrease or alter the protein structure in such way that it is unable to carryout its function. • Mutation may occur in all cells of body or in some cells causing an autosomal gene disorder or on sex chromosome causing sex chromosomal gene disorder.
  11. 11. HOW GENETIC DISORDER ARE TRANSFERED • Genetic disease most commonly refers to disease present in all cells of the body & present since conception. • Some genetic disease caused by chromosomal abnormalities due to errors in meiosis the process which produces reproductive cells such as sperm & ova. • Defective genes may also be inherited intact from the parents, in this case the genetic disorder is known as a hereditary disease
  12. 12. TYPES OF GENETIC DISORDER • Single gene disorder • Multi factorial disorder Single gene disorder Where genetic disorders are the result of a single mutated gene they can be passed on to subsequent generations.
  13. 13. Autosomal dominant Only one mutated copy of the gene is needed for a person to be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder. Each affected person usually has one affected parent. There is a 50% chance that a child will inherit the mutated gene Marfan syndrome Autosomal recessive Two copies of the gene must be mutated for a person to be affected by an autosomal recessive disorder. Two unaffected people who each carry one copy of the mutated gene have a 25% chance with each pregnancy of having a child affected by the disorder. Cystic fibrosis, Sickle cell anemia X linked dominant X-linked dominant disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. The sons of a man with an X-linked dominant disorder will not be affected, and his daughters will all inherit the condition. A woman with an X- linked dominant disorder has a 50% chance of having an affected daughter or son with each pregnancy. Vit D resistant rickets
  14. 14. X linked recessive X-linked recessive disorders are also caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Males are more frequently affected than females, . The sons of a man with an X-linked recessive disorder will not be affected, and his daughters will carry one copy of the mutated gene. With each pregnancy, a woman who carries an X-linked recessive disorder has a 50% chance of having sons who are affected and a 50% chance of having daughters who carry one copy of the mutated gene. Hemophilia A colour blindness Y linked Y-linked disorders are caused by mutations on the Y chromosome. Only males can get them, and all of the sons of an affected father are affected. Male infertility
  15. 15. Knowledge of inheritance pattern is important in Genetic counseling to give the risk of recurrence. AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 50% chance of inheritance AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 25% chance to be affected 50% chance to be a carrier
  16. 16. MULTIFACTORIAL DISORDER • Genetic disorders may also be complex, multi factorial or polygenic, this means that they are likely associated with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. Multi factorial disorders include heart disease and diabetes.
  17. 17. SEX CHROMOSOMAL ANOMALIES • Klinfelters syndrome: Affected individual has 47 chromosome XXY • Downs syndrome: 47 chromosome XXX • Loss of chromosome 45 chromosome XO
  18. 18. • AYURVEDIC ASPECT OF GENETICS
  19. 19. SHUDDA SHONITA & SUKRA • aÉÑgeÉÉTüsÉxÉuÉhÉïÇ cÉ mÉkqÉÉsÉ£üMüxÉͳÉpÉqÉç | ClSìaÉÉåmÉMüxɃûÉzÉqÉÉiÉïuÉÇ zÉѬqÉÉÌSzÉåiÉç || (cÉ xÉ ÍcÉ 30) • ÎxlÉakÉÇ bÉlÉÇ ÌmÉÎcNûsÉÇ cÉ qÉkÉÑUÇ cÉÉÌuÉSÉÌWû cÉ || UåiÉ: zÉÑ¬Ç ÌuÉeÉÉlÉÏrÉÉzNûuÉåiÉÇ xTüÌOûMüxÉͳÉpÉqÉç | (cÉ xÉ ÍcÉ 30)
  20. 20. GARBHA FORMATION • zÉÑ¢üzÉÉåÍhÉiÉ eÉÏuÉxÉÇrÉÉåaÉå iÉÑ ZÉsÉÑ MÑüͤÉaÉiÉå aÉpÉïxÉÇ¥É pÉuÉÌiÉ | (cÉ xÉ zÉÉ 4/5) • qÉÉiÉ×eÉ: ÌmÉiÉ×eÉ AÉiqÉlÉ: xÉÉiqrÉiÉÉå UxÉiÉ:xÉiuÉiÉ CirÉåprÉÉå pÉÉuÉåprÉ: xÉqÉÑÌSiÉåprÉÉå aÉpÉï: xÉÇpÉuÉÌiÉ | (cÉ xÉ zÉÉ 3)
  21. 21. MATRUJA BHAVAS • Tvak • Lohita • Mamsa • Nabhi • Hrudaya • Kloma • Yakrut • Pleeha • Vruka • Basti • Amashaya • Pakvashya • Adharaguda • Uttar guda
  22. 22. PITRUJA BHAVAS • Kesha • Smashru • Nakha • Danta • Asti • Sira • Snayu • Dhamanya • Sukra
  23. 23. FACTORS FOR HEREDITARY DEFECTS rÉxrÉ rÉxrÉ ÌWû AÇaÉÉuÉrÉuÉxrÉ oÉÏeÉå oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉå EmÉiÉmiÉÉå pÉuÉÌiÉ iÉxrÉ iÉxrÉ AÇaÉÉuÉrÉuÉxrÉ ÌuÉ¢ÑüÌiÉÂcrÉiÉå :lÉ EmÉeÉÉrÉiÉå cÉ AlÉÑmÉiÉÉmÉÉiÉç | ( cÉ zÉÉ 3/17) oÉÏeÉ CÌiÉ zÉÑ¢üzÉÉåÍhÉiÉ| oÉÏeÉxrÉ AÇaÉmÉëirÉÇaÉ ÌlÉuÉïiÉïMüÉå pÉÉaÉå oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉ: qÉlÉÑwrÉ oÉÏeÉ ÌWû oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉ xÉqÉÑSÉrÉÉiqÉMüqÉç xuÉxÉSØzÉ mÉëirÉÇaÉ xÉqÉÑSÉrÉÂmÉ mÉÑÂwÉeÉlÉMüqÉç | (cÉ¢ümÉÉÍhÉ )
  24. 24. • xÉÎliÉ ZÉsuÉÎxqÉlÉç aÉpÉï MåüÍcÉͳÉirÉÉ pÉÉuÉÉ: xÉÎliÉ cÉÉÌlÉirÉÉ: MåüÍcÉiÉç | iÉxrÉ cÉ LuÉÉÇaÉuÉrÉuÉÉ: xÉÎliɸliÉå iÉÇ LuÉ x§ÉÏÍsÉÇaÉ mÉÑÂwÉÍsÉÇaÉ uÉÉ ÌoÉpÉëÌiÉ | (cÉ zÉÉ 430)
  25. 25. PURUSHA VYAPAT • LuÉqÉåuÉ mÉÑÂwÉxrÉ rÉSÉ oÉÏeÉå oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉå, iÉSÉ uÉlkrÉÇ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ: rÉSÉmÉÑlÉUxrÉ oÉÏeÉå oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉÉuÉrÉuÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉå, iÉSÉ mÉÔÌiÉmÉëeÉÇ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ; rÉSÉ iuÉxrÉ oÉÏeÉå oÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉuÉrÉuÉ: mÉÑÂwÉMüUÉhÉÉÇ cÉ zÉËUUoÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉÉlÉÉMüSåzÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉÏ, iÉSÉ mÉÑÂwÉÉ¢ÑüÌiÉpÉÔÌrɸqÉmÉÑÂwÉ §ÉhÉmÉŅ̃ÉMÇü lÉÉqÉ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ : iÉÉÇ mÉÑÂwÉurÉÉmÉSqÉÉcɤÉiÉå || (cÉ zÉÉ 4/31)
  26. 26. STREE VYAPAT • rÉSÉ ½ÉxrÉÉ: zÉÉåÍhÉiÉå aÉpÉÉïzÉrÉoÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉå, iÉSÉ uÉlkrÉÉÇ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ; rÉSÉ mÉÑlÉUxrÉÉ; zÉÉåÍhÉiÉå aÉpÉÉïzÉrÉoÉÏeÉpÉÉaÉÉuÉrÉuÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉå, iÉSÉ mÉÔÌiÉmÉëeÉÉÇ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ; rÉSÉ iuÉxrÉÉ; zÉÉåÍhÉiÉå aÉpÉÉïzÉrÉoÉÏeÉpÉaÉÉuÉrÉuÉ: x§ÉÏMüUÉhÉÉÇ cÉ zÉUÏUoÉÏïeÉpÉÉaÉÉlÉÉqÉåMüSåzÉ: mÉëSÉåwÉqÉÉmɱiÉå, iÉSÉ x§rÉÉ¢ÑüÌiÉpÉÔÌrɸÉqÉÎx§ÉrÉÇ uÉÉiÉÉïÇ lÉÉqÉ eÉlÉrÉÌiÉ, iÉÉÇ x§ÉÏurÉÉmÉSqÉÉcɤÉiÉå || ( cÉ zÉÉ 4/30)
  27. 27. GENETIC DISEASES IN AYURVEDA In classics Genetics diseases are described in different terms : • Vagbhata - Sahaja or Kulodbhava. • Charaka - Kulaja. • Bhelasamhita - Prakrutiprabhava. • Yanjavalkya - Sancari. • Sushruta - Adhibalapravruta.
  28. 28. ADHIBALA PRAVRUTTA VYADHI • iɧÉÉÌSoÉsÉmÉëuÉ×iÉÉ rÉå zÉÑ¢üzÉÉåÍhÉiÉSÉåwÉÉluÉrÉÉ: MÑü¹ÉzÉï: mÉëpÉ×iÉrÉ: iÉåAÌmÉ ÎuSÌuÉkÉÉ qÉÉiÉ×eÉÉ: ÌmÉiÉ×eÉɶÉÉ | (xÉÑ xÉÔ 24/6) • The genetic diseases are known to cause by defects in either the genetic contents of cause of sperm & ova & consequently they are sub classified into maternal & paternal groups. The some disease like kusta, arsha, are the examples of such diseases.
  29. 29. SAHAJA VYADHI • iÉ§É xÉWûeÉÉ: zÉÑ¢üÉiÉïuÉSÉåwÉÉluÉrÉÉ: MÑü¸ÉzÉÉåïqÉåWûÉSrÉ:| ÌmÉiÉ×eÉÉ qÉÉiÉ×eÉɶÉÉ | (A xÉ xÉÔ 22/1) • Sahaja are due to abnormalities of sukra & arthava. For examples kusta, arsha, prameha. • Classified two types Matruja pitruja
  30. 30. GENETIC DISEASES • There are certain reproductive abnormalities in females which are due to beejadosha. • ÍqÉjrÉÉcÉÉUåhÉç iÉÉ; x§ÉÏhÉÉÇ mÉëSÒ¸lÉÉiÉïuÉålÉç cÉ | eÉÉrÉliÉå SåuÉÉŠ oÉÏeÉSÉåwÉÉŠ zÉ×hÉÑ lÉÉ: mÉ×jÉMü || (cÉ ÍcÉ 30/8)
  31. 31. • oÉÏeÉSÉåwÉɨÉÑ aÉpÉïxiÉqÉÉÂiÉÉåmÉWûiÉÉzÉrÉÉ || lÉ×uSåÌwÉhrÉxiÉlÉÏ cÉæuÉ wÉhRûÏûû xrÉÉSlÉÑmÉ¢üqÉÉ | (cÉ ÍcÉ 30/34) • oÉÏeÉÉiÉç xÉqÉÉÇzÉÉSÒmÉiÉmiÉoÉÏeÉÉiÉç x§ÉÏmÉÑÇxÉÍsÉ…¡ûÏ pÉuÉÌiÉ Ì²UåiÉÉ:| (cÉ zÉÉ 2/18)
  32. 32. • Prameha • mÉëM×üÌiÉmÉëpÉuɶÉæuÉ lÉUxrÉ xuÉM×üiÉxiÉjÉÉ| ¥ÉårÉ: mÉëqÉåWûÉå ÎuSÌuÉkÉxiÉxrÉ uɤrÉÉÍqÉ sɤÉhÉqÉç|| (pÉå xÉ 3) • eÉÉiÉ: mÉëqÉåWûÏ qÉkÉÑqÉåÌWûlÉÉå uÉÉ ........ | (cÉ ÍcÉ 7/57) ARSHA • xÉWûeÉÉÌlÉ Ì§ÉSÉåwÉÉhÉÉÇ rÉÉÌlÉ cÉÉprÉÉliÉUÉÇ uÉÍsÉqÉç| eÉÉrÉliÉåAzÉÉïÇÍxÉ xÉÇÍ´ÉirÉ iÉÉlrÉxÉÉkrÉÉÌlÉ ÌlÉÌSïzÉåiÉç||
  33. 33. PROGNOSIS OF GENETIC DISEASE rÉå cÉÉÌmÉ MåüÍcÉiÉç MÑüsÉeÉÉ ÌuÉMüÉUÉ: pÉuÉÎliÉ iÉÉÇ¶É mÉëuÉSlirÉxÉÉkrÉÉlÉç || (cÉ ÍcÉ 7/57)
  34. 34. Prevention • Garbhopaghaatakara bhava varjana • Panchakarma. • Pumsavana • Vajeekarana • Treatment : Asaadhya - Yatha vyadhi chikitsa • Garbha sthapaneeya dravya sevana.
  35. 35. • Avoid Apachaara, Viruddha, Asaatmya ahara etc • Avoiding consanguinity • Educating – diseases, causes & preventive & curative • Follow Garbhini paricharya. • Fulfilling Douhridi.
  36. 36. Discussion • Gene - Bheeja bhaaga & Bheeja bhaaga avayava. • Causes- Unknown Environmental agents Apacharaja. Daiva.
  37. 37. • Sex determination- Randomly; Shukraadhikya or arthavadhikya & Daiva • Maatruja bhaavas – Dominant in female, Pitruja bhaavas – Dominant in male. • Genetic Counseling for prevention- Atulya gotreeya stree purusha, Asanchaari Roga kula prasuta etc.
  38. 38. • Dusti in matruja beejabhagavayava Dusti in gudavali Arsha ( C Chi 14)
  39. 39. Conclusion • We have a rich source of knowledge regarding Today’s Genetic Disorders. • Currently available Diagnostic methods to be followed. • These are considered as asaadhya, but still we can try to prevent them through genetic counseling. • At present there is lot of scope for research in the field of genetics.

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