6. FEDRICK WINSLOW TAYLOR(1856-1915)
Father of Scientific Management
“one best way for
doing the job”
• Frederick Winslow Taylor (20 March
1856-21 March 1915), widely known
as F. W. Taylor, was an American
mechanical engineer who sought to
improve industrial efficiency.
• He is regarded as the father of
scientific management, and was
one of the first management
• He is sometimes called as “Father of
7. • He started the Scientific Management movement, and he
and his associates were the first people to study the work
•They studied how work was performed, and they looked at
how this affected worker productivity.
•Taylor's philosophy focused on the belief that making people
work as hard as they could was not as efficient as optimizing
the way the work was done.
•In 1909, Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific
Management." In this, he proposed that by optimizing and
simplifying jobs, productivity would increase.
8. •Taylor believed that all workers were motivated by money,
so he promoted the idea of "a fair day's pay for a fair day's
• In other words, if a worker didn't achieve enough in a day,
he didn't deserve to be paid as much as another worker who
was highly productive.
•With a background in mechanical engineering, Taylor was
very interested in efficiency.
•As such, he found that by calculating the time needed for
the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best"
way to complete that task.
9. •He also advanced the idea that workers and
managers needed to cooperate with
•This was very different from the way work was typically done
in businesses beforehand.
•A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the
workers, and he left them on their own to produce the
•There was no standardization, and a worker's main motivation
was often continued employment, so there was no incentive to
work as quickly or as efficiently as possible.
10. •Time study measures how long it takes an
average worker to complete a task at a
•Motion study is based upon the analysis of
work motion, consisting in part of filming
the details of worker’s activities and their
body posture while recording the time.
•These "time and motion" studies also led Taylor to
conclude that certain people could work more
efficiently than others. These were the people whom
managers should seek to hire where possible.
11. Therefore, selecting the right people for the job was another
important part of workplace efficiency. Taking what he
learned from these workplace experiments, Taylor developed
four principles of scientific management
12. (3)Monitor worker performance, and provide
instructions and supervision to ensure that they're
using the most efficient ways of working.
(4)Allocate the work between managers
and workers so that the managers spend their
time planning and training, allowing the
workers to perform their tasks efficiently.tific
management. These principles are also
known simply as "Taylorism"..
15. HENRI FAYOL(1841-1925)
Father • of Administrative Management
-French mining engineer and a
-Started as an engineer at a mining
company and became Director in 1888.
- Viewed management as a profession
that can be trained and developed.
-First one to analyze the functions of
management.He is sometimes called as
“Father of Administrative Management”.
Efficiency alone is not
enough to produce
Success also depends
treating workers well.
16. Major Contributions of Henri Fayol
First recognized that successful managers had to
understand the basic managerial functions and believed
specific management skills could be learned and taught.
He mentioned Six activities of an enterprise:
•Technical (production, manufacture, adaptation)
•Commercial (buying, selling, exchange)
•Financial (search for an optimum use of capital)
17. • Security (protection of property and persons)
• Accounting (Stock taking, balance sheets, cost
• Managerial: Fayol’s universal management functions:
• 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Leading
Developed a set of 14 general principles of
18. (1)DIVISION OF WORK OR
Division of work makes a man specialist. The reason is that
division of work helps to specialize in an activity which
increases the output with perfection. It also avoids wastage of
time. Division can be applied to both technical and managerial
kind of work.
19. (2)AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely
related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give
orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility
involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally
associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also
Discipline is essential in all levels of management. Discipline
is obtained through judicial application of penalties. Limits of
acceptable behavior are absolutely necessary to define, so that
everyone in an organization knows what can and cannot be
done. Often this principle is difficult for a supervisor to apply
21. (4)UNITY OF COMMAND
An employee should receive orders from only one
supervisor. Yet, because of a number of interacting
variables in any job situation, line and staff as authority
become opposed to line and staff as function.
22. (5)UNITY OF DIRECTION
The entire organization should be moving towards a
common objective in a common direction.
There should be only one plan, and the person should
be responsible for supervising it; all activities have the
same objective, should be supervised by one person.
23. (6)SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO
The interests of one employee should not be allowed to
become more important than those of the group. This
Generally speaking however, the companies’ interests must
be put ahead of personal interests .
Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for
everyone. This includes financial and non-financial
compensationRemuneration for work must be fair and
accurate, affording maximum satisfaction for both
employee and employer.
This principle refers to how close employees are to the decision-making
process. It is important to aim for an appropriate
balance. Fayol thought centralization of authority to be
desirable, at least for overall control. In other words, For
different business aspects, different solutions must be found.
26. (9)LINE OF COMMAND/SCALAR CHAIN
Employees should be aware of where they stand in the
organization's hierarchy, or chain of command. Organizations
need a formalized hierarchy that reflects the flow of authority
and responsibility. Fayol suggested that a chain of command
is necessary most of the time. The communication flows to
top to bottom or bottom to top. It should be proper.
It is applied to both material and men. The material should
be kept in order in the place where it is necessary. The
personnel are selected scientifically and assigned duties
according to there qualification and ability.
Employees must be seen as persons, not things to be
manipulated. If managers hope to create a good working
environment, they must treat everyone fairly and with
equity. Equity refers to a combination of fairness,
kindness and justice.
29. (12)STABILITY OF TENURE
The management should ensure stability or security of
job to every employee of the undertaken.
Employees should be given the necessary level of freedom
to create and carry out plans. The power of thinking out,
proposing and executing. Management should encourage
employees to originate and carry out plans. This urging
tends to boost levels of effort.
31. (14)ESPRIT DE CORPS
– Organizations should strive to promote team spirit and
unity. Fayol emphasizes the importance of meetings and
personal communication over written communications. The
importance of teamwork is mentioned, and Fayol warns
managers against believing they could achieve their goals by
the strategy “divide an rule”. This means union is strength or
Team Spirit. He felt that all successful organizations survive
only when a feeling of unity pervades the group.
33. MAX WEBER(1864-1920)
•German theorist and
•Follower of General
proposed by Henry Fayol.
•Introduced most of the
concepts on Bureaucratic
34. Birth of Bureaucracy
• A Bureaucracy is a way of administratively organizing large
numbers of people who need to work together.
• Organizations in the public and private sector, including
universities and governments, rely on Bureaucracies to
• The term Bureaucracy literally means “rule by desk or
office”, a definition that highlights the often impersonal
character of Bureaucracies.
35. Hierarchy: A bureaucracy is set up with clear chains of
command so that everyone has a boss. At the top of the
organization is a chief who oversees the entire
bureaucracy. Power flows downward.
36. Specialization: Bureaucrats specialize in one area of the issue
their agency covers. This allows efficiency because the
specialist does what he or she knows best, then passes the
matter along to another specialist.
Division of labour: Each task is broken down into smaller
tasks, and different people work on different parts of the task.
Standard operating procedure (SOP): Also called formalized
rules, SOP informs workers about how to handle tasks and
situations. Everybody always follows the same procedures to
increase efficiency and predictability so that the organization
will produce similar results in similar circumstances. SOP can
sometimes make bureaucracy move slowly because new
procedures must be developed as circumstances change.
37. ABRAHAM MASLOW(1908 – 1970)
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We all have a hierarchy of needs that
ranges from "lower" to "higher." As lower
needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for
other, higher needs to emerge.
38. MASLOW THEORIES
There are 5 levels of needs
All these needs are arranged in a hierarchy
Once one level is satisfied, the next level will emerge as the
depressed need seeking to be satisfied
The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs
of higher order are infinite and are likely to be dominant in
persons at higher levels in the organization.
Maslow suggests that various levels are interdependent and
40. Physical Needs: Level One
These are the basic human needs including food, clothing,
shelter and other necessities of life.
According to Maslow’s theory, if such needs are not satisfied
then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them.
Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until
one has met the need’s basic to one’s bodily functioning.
41. Safety Needs: Level Two
Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job
security, and freedom from threats
• The innate desire to have a stable/safe life, a sense of
orderly world and personal as well as financial security
constitutes safety needs
42. Social Needs: Level Three(Generate a feeling
of acceptance, sense of belongingness )
• Social needs: Need for love, affection, emotional needs,
warmth and friendship.
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and
safety needs, higher level motivators awaken. Social
needs are those related to interaction with others.
43. Esteem Needs: level Four
• Self-esteem: Ego or self esteem, self respect, self
• Strength (esteem)
• Status (esteem)
• Maslow later refined his model to include a level
between esteem needs and self – actualization the need
for knowledge and aesthetics.
44. Self Actualization Needs: level five
• Self actualization needs: desire for personal
achievement or mission of his life.
• Self – actualized persons have frequent occurrence of
peak experiences, which are energized moments of
profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow,
only a small percentage of the population reaches the
level of self- actualization.