2. Importance of Distinguishing between Capital & Revenue Items
•TO DETERMINE WHICH ITEMS APPEAR IN WHICH FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
Revenue items - profit and loss account
Capital items - balance sheet
•DETERMINATION OF THE NET PROFIT
Requires Matching of revenue expenditure and revenue income (As per Matching Concept)
PROFITS = REVENUE RECEIPTS – REVENUE EXPENSES
3. Capital and Revenue Receipts
•Capital Receipts comprise of
•Contributions of capital into the business by the proprietor, partners or shareholders
•any sums received from debenture holders,
•any loans and
•Sale proceeds of any fixed assets & long term
•Revenue Receipts or income
–are the outcome of firm’s activity in the accounting period;
–money received on sale of goods in trade or on rendering of services.
•Examples: Sales, commission and fees received, interest /dividend on investments
4. Distinction Between Capital and Revenue Receipts
Includes amounts realized by sale of fixed assets or by issue of share or debentures.
Includes amount realized by sale of goods or rendering services
It is a receipt in substitution of a source of income
It is a receipt in substitution of an income.
Amount received for surrender of certain rights under an agreement is a capital receipt, because a capital asset is being given up in the form of these rights
Amount received as compensation under an agreement for the loss of future receipts is a revenue receipt
6. Capital Profits / Capital Income
•Capital income is an income which does not relate to operations of the business or which does not grow out of or pertain to the running of the business proper.
Capital profits are profits earned on account of sale of fixed assets or in connection with share capital
7. Capital Profits / Capital Income
sale of a fixed asset for a value more than that for which it was purchased.eg. Capital gain of Rs 150,000 arises when building bought for Rs. 200,000 is sold for Rs. 350,000.
•Note: Only the profit realised over and above the cost of the fixed asset should be taken as capital profit (transferred to capital reserve) while the profit realised over and above book value of the asset till it does not exceed the original cost of the asset should be taken as revenue profit (credited to Profit and Loss Account)
8. Revenue Profits / Revenue income
•Revenue income is an income which arises out of and in the course of regular operations of the business concern
•Revenue profits appear in the Profit and Loss Account
•Revenue profit and revenue income are synonymous.
Revenue profits are those earned in the ordinary course of business
Profit made on sale of goods, income received from letting out of the business property, dividends received on business investments, etc.
11. Capital Expenditure
Such expenditure is either incurred for
•acquisition of a fixed asset (tangible or intangible) or
•permanent improvement or addition or substitution or extension to an asset to increase the earning capacity of the business enterprise
Capital Expenditure is any expenditure which is incurred for the purpose of long term advantage
12. Capital Expenditure Definition:
Expenditure incurred in purchasing or constructing property which is intended to assist in the production of profit or in permanently improving, enlarging or extending existing property in order to increase its profit earning capacity. The direct benefit of such an expenditure will extend over several trading periods and it replaces cash by permanent asset.
(Rowland, S.M. in Principles of Accounting)
13. Guidelines to determine that expenditure is capital expenditure:
•If expenditure is for the purpose of increasing profit either positively by increasing earning capacity or negatively by decreasing working expenditure (day to day expenses)
2.Produces an asset
•If whether increasing the earning capacity or not, it produces an asset comparatively permanent in nature.
14. Examples of Capital Expenditure
1.Purchase of permanent tangible asset
–such as plant and machinery, office equipment, furniture
2.All sums spent up to the point an asset is ready for use
–including expenditure on its purchase, receipt or erection
•eg. cartage charges paid to bring the machinery to factory,
•fees paid to lawyer for drawing land purchase deed,
•overhauling expenses of second-hand machinery,
15. Examples of Capital Expenditure
3.Financing cost for a fixed asset
•(i.e. interest paid on loans to purchase a fixed asset) for the period up to the time the asset is put to use. Such interest is added to the cost of fixed asset.
4.The amount spent on existing asset for the purpose of its improvement or extension
•which will raise the output or reduce the cost of production
5.Money paid for goodwill
6.Money spent to reduce working expenses
•eg. Conversion of hand-driven machinery to power-driven machinery.
16. Revenue Expenditure
•It is an expenditure on consumable items, on services and on goods acquired for resale.
These are expenses whose benefit expires within the year of expenditure and which are incurred to maintain the earning capacity of existing assets.
17. Revenue Expenditure
Revenue items generally include:
•The cost of materials used in manufacturing goods intended for resale.
•Wages paid in connection with the production of goods meant for sale.
•Selling and distribution expenses.
•All expenses incidental to the working of the business such as depreciation, rent, salaries, interest, etc.
•All expenses incurred for maintaining the efficiency of fixed assets by means of repairs, replacement, renewals and insurance.
18. Principles for determining the nature of expenditure
1.Expenditure in the
–acquisition of an income earning asset - capital expenditure
–in the process of earning of the profits - revenue expenditure.
2.Expenditure made for the initiation or extension of a business or for a substantial replacement of equipment - deemed to be capital
3.Expenditure made not only once and for all but brings into existence an asset or an long term advantage - capital expenditure
4.Whether the expenditure incurred was part of the fixed capital of the business or part of its circulating capital
19. Distinction between Capital and Revenue Expenditure
Incurred in acquiring or improving permanent assets not meant for resale. May add to value of an existing asset
Is a routine expenditure incurred in the normal course of business and includes cost of sales and maintenance of fixed assets.
Increases earning capacity
Maintains the earning capacity
It is normally a non-recurring outlay.
It is usually a recurring item
It produces benefit over several years.
Thus a small part is charged to income statement as depreciation and the rest appears in the balance sheet
It is consumed within an accounting year i.e. benefits only one year.
Thus entire amount is charged to income statement.Does not appear in the balance sheet.
Is an item of balance sheet
Shown in Trading and profit & loss A/c
20. 1.Wages: wages on erection of plant & machinery or construction
2.Raw material and stores used in construction of fixed asset
3.Transport charges: incurred for new plant & machinery
4.Interest on capital: Interest on capital especially where the nature of business requires construction work for a long period, before the commencement of the production.
5.Legal expenses: Legal expenses incurred to acquire the assets
6.Repairs: Repairs on purchases of second-hand asset to put into workable condition
Certain revenue expenditures are treated as capital expenditures since they lead to the establishment of business and its efficient running in the following circumstances:
Revenue Expenditure becoming Capital Expenditure
21. Deferred Revenue Expenditure
For Example: Heavy advertising expenditure incurred in introducing a new line or developing a new market, Cost of issuing shares and debentures, Cost of experiments, discount on debentures, Preliminary expenses
Deferred revenue expenditures are expenditures which are basically in the nature of revenue expenditure but whose benefit covers a number of years i.e. their benefit may extend over a number of years.
22. Distinction between Capital Expenditure and Deferred Revenue Expenditure
1.Nature of expenditure -deferred revenue expenditure is a revenue in nature but it is incurred for > one accounting yr
2.Years of benefit: The deferred revenue expenditure benefits lesser number of years in comparison to capital expenditure.
–Deferred revenue expenditure-for 3-5 years
–Capital expenditure-for 10-15 years
–Deferred revenue expenditure - once incurred cannot be recovered back generally
–Capital expenditure - capable of being reconverted into cash though at a loss