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ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER
RECHARGE TECHNIQUES
NightFox
© NightFox
© NightFox
CONTENTS
• Introduction : groundwater
• What is artificial recharge?
• Importance of AR
• Identification of area for recha...
 GROUNDWATER:
• The water which is stored in the pores of the soil strata by
infiltration is known as groundwater.
• Ther...
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE?
• It is the process by which the ground
water is improved at a rate much
higher than those un...
IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE
• To maximize storage (long-term & seasonal)
• Water quality improvement through dilutio...
IDENTIFICATION OF AREAS FOR RECHARGE
• Where ground water levels are declining due to over-
exploitation.
• Where substant...
TECHNIQUES
Direct Methods
Surface method: to enhance
groundwater infiltration by
providing more residence
time with the he...
SURFACE METHODS
PERCOLATI
ON TANK
FLOODING
STREAM
AUGMENTA
TION
DITCH &
FURROW
SYSTEM
CONTOUR
BUND
SUBSURFACE METHODS
RECH...
PERCOLATION TANK
• Series of earthen dams are
constructed on suitable sites
for storing of adequate
quantity of surface wa...
• Effective in alluvial area, hard
rock area.
• Useful in providing continuous
recharge after the monsoon.
• Size of tank ...
FLOODING
• Flat region where water can be spread
as a thin layer.
• Water is distributed over the region
using a distribut...
STREAM AUGMENTATION
• Seepage from natural
stream or river is
artificially increased by
putting some series of
check dams ...
• The placing of check dams spread the water in a larger area
which eventually increases groundwater recharge.
• The sites...
DITCH & FURROW SYSTEM
• A system of closely spaced flat
bottom ditch or furrow is used to
carry the water from the source....
CONTOUR BUND
• Contour bund is a small
embankment constructed
along the contour in hilly
region to retain the surface
runo...
RECHARGE WELL
• Recharge wells are used to recharge water
directly to the aquifer.
• Recharge wells are similar to pumping...
DUG WELL
• In alluvial as well as hard
rock areas there are
thousand of dug wells have
either gone dry due to
considerable...
• These dug wells can be used for recharging groundwater.
The water from various sources can be collected through a
distri...
PITS & SHAFTS
• Recharge pits of variable dimensions
• Most of the time, especially in case of agricultural field, a
layer...
RECHARGE PIT
RECHARGE SHAFT
• Recharge shaft is similar to the
recharge pits, but the cross
sectional size of the recharge...
INDIRECT METHODS
INDUCED RECHARGE
AQUIFER
MODIFICATION
METHODS
INDUCED RECHARGE
• Water is pumped from the aquifer
hydraulically connected to the surface water
sources like stream, rive...
• This method is good, especially when quality of the surface water is
poor.
• The filtration of surface water through soi...
AQUIFER MODIFICATION METHOD
• This is used to change aquifer characteristics so it
can store more water and transmit more ...
TYPES OF AQUIFER MODIFICATION METHODS
BORE BLASTING
HYDRO-FRACTURING
JACKET WELL TECHNIQUE
PRESSURE INJECTION GROUTING
STR...
1.BORE BLASTING METHOD
• This method is used to increase the
fracture porosity of an aquifer.
• Shallow bore wells are dri...
2.HYDRO-FRACTURING METHOD
• Hydro-fracturing is used to improve the yield of a bore well.
• In this technique, water is in...
3. PRESSURE INJECTION GROUTING
• This technique is used to control the
outflow from an aquifer.
• Cement slurry is injecte...
4. JACKET WELL TECHNIQUES
• Jacket well technique is used to
increase the yield of a dug well.
• In this method, the effec...
5. STREAM BLASTING
• Blasting and widening cracks
near the streams and joining
them to the lineament or
aquifer so that th...
ADVANTAGES
• To enhance the ground water yield in depleted the aquifer
due to urbanization.
• Conservation and storage of ...
Thank you3rd year
© NightFox
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Groundwater recharge techniques

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Groundwater recharge techniques

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE TECHNIQUES NightFox © NightFox © NightFox
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Introduction : groundwater • What is artificial recharge? • Importance of AR • Identification of area for recharge • Recharge techniques • Direct methods • Indirect methods • Advantages
  3. 3.  GROUNDWATER: • The water which is stored in the pores of the soil strata by infiltration is known as groundwater. • Therefore the groundwater may defined as all the water present below the earth surface. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE? • It is the process by which the ground water is improved at a rate much higher than those under natural condition of percolation.
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE • To maximize storage (long-term & seasonal) • Water quality improvement through dilution • Preventing saline-water intrusion & land subsidence • Reducing reduction volumes from river flow • Controlling effects of climate change • Maintaining declining ground water levels
  6. 6. IDENTIFICATION OF AREAS FOR RECHARGE • Where ground water levels are declining due to over- exploitation. • Where substantial part of the aquifer has already been de- saturated. i.e. regeneration of water in wells and hand pumps is slow after some water has been drawn. • Where availability of water from wells and hand pumps is inadequate during the lean months. • Where ground water quality is poor and there is no alternative source of water.
  7. 7. TECHNIQUES Direct Methods Surface method: to enhance groundwater infiltration by providing more residence time with the help of structural and non- structural measures Subsurface method Indirect Methods Induced Recharge Method Aquifer Modification Method
  8. 8. SURFACE METHODS PERCOLATI ON TANK FLOODING STREAM AUGMENTA TION DITCH & FURROW SYSTEM CONTOUR BUND SUBSURFACE METHODS RECHARGE WELLS DUG WELL PITS & SHAFTS
  9. 9. PERCOLATION TANK • Series of earthen dams are constructed on suitable sites for storing of adequate quantity of surface water. • Tank area should be selected in such a way that significant amount of water infiltrates through the bed of the tank and reaches the groundwater table. Contd…
  10. 10. • Effective in alluvial area, hard rock area. • Useful in providing continuous recharge after the monsoon. • Size of tank depend upon percolation capacity of strata. Contd…
  11. 11. FLOODING • Flat region where water can be spread as a thin layer. • Water is distributed over the region using a distribution system. • This method can achieve higher rate of infiltration in a region having thin vegetation cover or sand soil cover.
  12. 12. STREAM AUGMENTATION • Seepage from natural stream or river is artificially increased by putting some series of check dams across the river or stream. ARIZONA
  13. 13. • The placing of check dams spread the water in a larger area which eventually increases groundwater recharge. • The sites for the check dams should be selected in such a way that sufficient thickness of permeable bed or weathered bed is available for quick recharging the stored water. Contd…
  14. 14. DITCH & FURROW SYSTEM • A system of closely spaced flat bottom ditch or furrow is used to carry the water from the source. • This system provides more opportunity to percolate the water into the ground. • The spacing of the ditch depends on the permeability of the soil. • For less permeable soil, more densely spaced ditch or furrow should be provided. • Uneven terrain.
  15. 15. CONTOUR BUND • Contour bund is a small embankment constructed along the contour in hilly region to retain the surface runoff for longer time. • This scheme is adopted for low rainfall area where internal subsurface drainage is good. CHINA RISE PADDIES
  16. 16. RECHARGE WELL • Recharge wells are used to recharge water directly to the aquifer. • Recharge wells are similar to pumping wells. • This method is suitable to recharge single wells or multiple wells. • This method is costlier than the other method as wells are required to be bored. However, sometimes abandoned tube wells can be used for recharging water into the aquifer
  17. 17. DUG WELL • In alluvial as well as hard rock areas there are thousand of dug wells have either gone dry due to considerable decline of water levels
  18. 18. • These dug wells can be used for recharging groundwater. The water from various sources can be collected through a distribution system and can be discharged at the dug wells. • Water for recharge should be guided through a pipe to the bottom of well to avoid entrapment of bubbles in the aquifer. Contd…
  19. 19. PITS & SHAFTS • Recharge pits of variable dimensions • Most of the time, especially in case of agricultural field, a layer of less permeable soil exist. • So the surface flooding methods of recharge do not show satisfactory performance so recharge pit can be excavated which are sufficiently deep to penetrate the less permeable strata.
  20. 20. RECHARGE PIT RECHARGE SHAFT • Recharge shaft is similar to the recharge pits, but the cross sectional size of the recharge shaft is much lesser than the recharge pits. • Like the recharge pits, recharge shafts are also used to recharge water to unconfined aquifer whose water table is deep below the land surface and a poorly impermeable strata exist at the surface level.
  21. 21. INDIRECT METHODS INDUCED RECHARGE AQUIFER MODIFICATION METHODS
  22. 22. INDUCED RECHARGE • Water is pumped from the aquifer hydraulically connected to the surface water sources like stream, river or lake. • Due to pumping, a reverse gradient is formed and water from the surface water source enters into the aquifer and thus the aquifer is recharged.
  23. 23. • This method is good, especially when quality of the surface water is poor. • The filtration of surface water through soil strata removes the impurities of the water. • Thus the quality of the water receives in the wells is much better than the surface water. Contd…
  24. 24. AQUIFER MODIFICATION METHOD • This is used to change aquifer characteristics so it can store more water and transmit more water . After application of it more recharge take place under natural as well as artificial condition.
  25. 25. TYPES OF AQUIFER MODIFICATION METHODS BORE BLASTING HYDRO-FRACTURING JACKET WELL TECHNIQUE PRESSURE INJECTION GROUTING STREAM BLASTING
  26. 26. 1.BORE BLASTING METHOD • This method is used to increase the fracture porosity of an aquifer. • Shallow bore wells are drilled in the area where fracture porosity of the aquifer is planned to increase. • These bore holes are blasted with the help of explosive which creates fracture porosity in the aquifer
  27. 27. 2.HYDRO-FRACTURING METHOD • Hydro-fracturing is used to improve the yield of a bore well. • In this technique, water is injected at a very high pressure to widening the existing fracture of the rock. • The high pressure injection of water also helps in removing of clogging, creates interconnection between the fractures, and extends the existing length of the old fracture. • The high pressure injection also creates new fracture in the rock strata. As a result of these, the water storing and transmitting capacity of the strata increases.
  28. 28. 3. PRESSURE INJECTION GROUTING • This technique is used to control the outflow from an aquifer. • Cement slurry is injected into the aquifer using mechanical means or manually near to the aquifer outlet like spring, etc. • The injection of cement slurry helps in reducing the fracture porosity of the aquifer near the outlet which will eventually reduce the outflow from the aquifer.
  29. 29. 4. JACKET WELL TECHNIQUES • Jacket well technique is used to increase the yield of a dug well. • In this method, the effective diameter of the well is increased by drilling small diameter bores around the well in a circular pattern.
  30. 30. 5. STREAM BLASTING • Blasting and widening cracks near the streams and joining them to the lineament or aquifer so that the water retention capacity of rises along the banks of the stream.
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES • To enhance the ground water yield in depleted the aquifer due to urbanization. • Conservation and storage of excess surface water for future requirements. • To improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. • To remove bacteriological & other impurities from sewage and waste water by natural filtration, so that water is suitable for re-use.
  32. 32. Thank you3rd year © NightFox

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