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Civilization: Definition and Characteristics

Civilization: Definition and Characteristics

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Civilization: Definition and Characteristics

  1. 1. Definition and Characteristics By Antonio Delgado Faculty, General De Jesus College
  2. 2.  How is civilization defined?  Distinguish civilization from “kabihasnan”.  What are the seven major first civilizations?  What are the different characteristics of civilization?  How are these characteristics exemplified in the oldest civilization: Sumer (Mesopotamia)?
  3. 3. Latin word meaning “city”
  4. 4.  According to Beck, et al (2009), it is a complex culture with five characteristics: 1. Advanced cities 2. Specialized workers 3. Complex institutions 4. Record keeping 5. Advanced technology
  5. 5.  Cities were the birthplaces of civilizations.  Although Strayer & Nelson (2016) describes a city as having a population in the tens of thousands, a city is more than a large group of people living together.  It is a center of trade.
  6. 6. c. 3800 – 500 BCE
  7. 7. c. 3800 – 500 BCE
  8. 8. c. 4500 BCE
  9. 9. Population: 40,000 – 80,000 “first true city”
  10. 10.  specialization – development of skills in a specific kind of work  artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hand
  11. 11. Standard of Ur (c.. 2600 BCE)
  12. 12.  institution – long-lasting pattern of organization in a community  Examples: government, religion
  13. 13. Code of Ur-Nammu
  14. 14.  cuneiform – first system of writing invented by the Sumerians around 3000 BCE  pictographs – symbols of the objects or what they represented  scribes – professional record keepers
  15. 15. clay tablet with cuneiform writing
  16. 16. “wedge-shaped”
  17. 17. clay tablet and stylus
  18. 18.  quipu – system of record keeping of the Incans which used a set if colored strings tied with different-sized knots at various intervals
  19. 19. Example of quipu from Larco Museum Collection
  20. 20.  technology – refers to the people’s use of tools and processes to make their work faster and easier.
  21. 21. mass-produced pottery
  22. 22. hydraulic engineering
  23. 23. plow
  24. 24. textile mill
  25. 25. mass-produced bricks
  26. 26. Ur-Nammu as Basket Carrier, c. 2111 - 2905 BCE
  27. 27. c. 3000 – 1200 BCE
  28. 28.  According to CrashCourse (2012), it is a social order with four or more of the following “symptoms”:  Surplus production  City  Specialization of labor  Trade  Social stratification  Centralized government  Shared values (religion)  Writing
  29. 29.  surplus - agricultural produce or a quantity of food grown in excess of one’s needs
  30. 30.  For our course, these are the characteristics of a civilization: 1. Advanced cities 2. Surplus production 3. Specialization 4. Social stratification 5. Government 6. Belief system 7. Economy 8. Record keeping 9. Advanced technology 10. Associated with a river
  31. 31. 1. Mesopotamian Civilization (Sumerian) – Tigris and Euphrates 2. Nile Valley Civilization (Old Kingdom) – Nile 3. Indus Valley Civilization – Indus and Sarasvati (Ghaggar-Hakkar) River 1. Chinese Civilization (Shang dynasty) – Huang He and Yangtze (Chiang Jiang)  These are known as the Four Great River Valley civilizations.
  32. 32. Tigris
  33. 33. Euphrates
  34. 34. Euphrates
  35. 35. Nile River
  36. 36. Indus
  37. 37. Ghaggar-Hakra River
  38. 38. Ghaggar-Hakra River
  39. 39. Huang He
  40. 40. Chiang Jiang
  41. 41. Chiang Jiang
  42. 42. 5. Norte Chico Civilization – Supe River 6. Mesoamerican Civilization (Olmec) – Coatzacoalcos River 7. Oxus Civilization – Amu Darya
  43. 43.  In Filipino, “sibilisasyon” has a different meaning from “kabihasnan”.  The word “kabihasnan” comes from the word “bihasa”
  44. 44.  It is a society that has a high standard of living, an organized government, religion, a system of labor, and social stratification (Cruz, et al, 2015).
  45. 45.  According to Cruz, et al (2015), there are five standards by which by which the presence of a “kabihasnan” may be measured: 1. Government 2. Economy 3. Religion 4. System of Writing 5. Advanced level of technology
  46. 46. Boxer Codex (c. 1590)
  47. 47.  Civilization is a reflection of who we are and what we value (Osborne, 2006).  “Hindi sibilisado.”  “Taga-bundok”  “Barbarian” – anyone who did not speak ancient Greek  Civilization is an intellectual construct (CrashCourse, 2012).
  48. 48.  Beck, R. et al (2009). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, pages 14 – 25  CrashCourse. (2012, February 2). Indus Valley Civilization: Crash Course World History #2 [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM  Cruz, A. et al (2015). World History. Quezon City: Vibal Group, Inc., pages 43 – 44  Strayer, R. & Nelson, E. (2016). Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s. pages 24 – 47

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