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Public Policy

Comparative Government and Politics: Public Policy

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Public Policy

  1. 1. PUBLIC POLICY Presented by Mr. Antonio T. Delgado
  2. 2. LESSON OUTLINE 01. Overview 02. Policy Process 03. Policy Cycle 04. Policy Diffusion and Convergence 05. Public Policy in Authoritarian States
  3. 3. PUBLIC POLICY: AN OVERVIEW 01.
  4. 4. Public Policy  the positions adopted and the actions taken (or avoided) by governments as they address the needs of society  consists of all the authoritative public decisions that governments make
  5. 5. Public Policy POLICY OUTPUTS Authoritative public decisions that governments make End results promoted by policy outputs POLICY OUTCOMES
  6. 6. Everything we do in public policy prevents us from doing something else. To govern is to choose. —RICHARD LAMM “ “
  7. 7. Policy Analyisis  the systematic study of content and impact of public policy
  8. 8. POLICY PROCESS 02.
  9. 9. MODELS OF POLICY PROCESS RATIONAL MODEL Identification of most efficient means INCREMENTAL MODEL Small changes following negotiations GARBAGE-CAN MODEL Emphasizes partial, fluid and disorganized qualities
  10. 10. Source: Hague, R., et al. (2015). Political Science: A Comparative Introduction, 8th Edition.
  11. 11. Cost-Benefit Analyis  It is an effort to make decisions on the basis of a systematic review of the relative costs and benefits of available options.
  12. 12. POLICY CYCLE 03.
  13. 13. 5 steps
  14. 14. INITIATION STEPS IN THE POLICY CYCLE Placing the problem on the public agenda
  15. 15. INITIATION FORMULATION STEPS IN THE POLICY CYCLE Placing the problem on the public agenda Developing a response
  16. 16. INITIATION FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATION STEPS IN THE POLICY CYCLE Placing the problem on the public agenda Acting upon the policy Developing a response
  17. 17. Implementation TOP-DOWN policy execution delivers the outputs and outcomes specified by the policy-makers Policy execution should adapt to local and changing circumstances BOTTOM-UP
  18. 18. INITIATION FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION STEPS IN THE POLICY CYCLE Placing the problem on the public agenda Acting upon the policy Developing a response Assessing the effects of the policy
  19. 19. Evaluation POLICY OUTPUTS: ACTIONS relatively easily identified and measured more difficult to confirm and measure POLICY OUTCOMES: ACHIEVEMENTS
  20. 20. TYPES OF POLICY OUTPUTS DISTRIBUTIONEXCTRACTION OF RESOURCES SYMBOLIC OUTPUTS REGULATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  21. 21. Evaluation POLICY OUTPUTS: ACTIONS relatively easily identified and measured more difficult to confirm and measure POLICY OUTCOMES: ACHIEVEMENTS
  22. 22. Source: Powell, Jr., G.B., et al. (2015). Comparative Politics Today: A World View, Eleventh edition.
  23. 23. REVIEWINITIATION FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION STEPS IN THE POLICY CYCLE Placing the problem on the public agenda Acting upon the policy Developing a response Assessing the effects of the policy Deciding what to do next
  24. 24. THREE OPTIONS CONTINUE, REVISE, or TERMINATE?
  25. 25. Source: Hague, R., et al. (2015). Political Science: A Comparative Introduction, 8th Edition.
  26. 26. Why is policy termination rare? Five possible explanations (Bardach, 1976):  Policies are designed to last a long time.  Policy termination brings conflicts.  No one wants to admit the policy was a bad idea.  Policy termination may affect other programs and interests.  Politics rewards innovation rather than tidy housekeeping.
  27. 27. PUBLIC POLICY DIFFUSION & CONVERGENCE 04.
  28. 28. Policy Diffusion and Convergence POLICY DIFFUSION the tendency for policy programs to spread across countries the tendency for policies in different countries to become more alike POLICY CONVERGENCE
  29. 29. Source: Hague, R., et al. (2015). Political Science: A Comparative Introduction, 8th Edition.
  30. 30. PUBLIC POLICY IN AUTHORITARIAN STATES 05.
  31. 31. Public Policy in Authoritarian States CENTRAL THEME: subservience of policy to politics political survival and personal enrichment GOALS:
  32. 32. Rent Seeking  seeking to make an income from selling a scarce resource without adding real value
  33. 33. RESOURCE CURSE A state that is well- endowed in a particular natural resource experiences low economic growth.
  34. 34. RESOURCE CURSE A state that is well- endowed in a particular natural resource experiences low economic growth.
  35. 35. The Exception  Modernizing regimes whose ruling elite displays a clear sense of national goals and a secure hold on power follow long-term policies, especially for economic development.
  36. 36. The Exception  Such countries do not suffer from inertia, but find it easier to push through policy change, because they can suppress short-term demands that would arise in an open political system.
  37. 37. No matter if it is a white cat or a black cat; as long as it can catch mice, it is a good cat. —DENG XIAOPING “ “
  38. 38. LESSON REVIEW 01. Overview 02. Policy Process 03. Policy Cycle 04. Policy Diffusion and Convergence 05. Public Policy in Authoritarian States
  39. 39. CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik THANKS! Do you have questions? addyouremail@freepik.com facebook.com/kazekage15 twitter.com/sirtonydelgado
  40. 40. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES ● Hague, R., et al. (2015). Political Science: A Comparative Introduction, 8th Edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 324 – 341 ● Powell, Jr., G.B., et al. (2015). Comparative Politics Today: A World View, Eleventh edition. Esexx, England: Pearson Education Limited, pp. 146 – 171 ● Policy instruments – definition. Retrieved from https://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Definitions/Policy _instrument.html

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