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THE HISTORY OF
Printing press & movable type
1447 by Johannes Gutenberg
Théophraste Renaudot (1586-1653)
French doctor & journalist. Created in 1631 the first French newspaper
called La Gazette. Invented the personal ad.
1st Industrial Revolution
(Hands to machines)
1760 – 1820/1840
2nd Industrial Revolution
1840 - 1870
The first agency in British:
Tayler & Newton
By William Tayler in 1786
in London’s Warwick Square
Sales representative for printers
The first agency in USA:
By Volney B. Palmer in 1842
A&F Pears. Work by Thomas J. Barratt (1841–1914)
The first media directory (more
than 5000 newspaper in US)
By George P. Rowell
in 1869 in Boston
The first fixed commission:
Established by Francis Wayland Ayer,
founder of N.W. Ayer & Son
John Emory Powers (1837 – 1919)
The 1st Copywriter, earning US$100/day in 1890s
Earnest Elmo Calkins (1868 – 1964)
Pioneer the use of art, the soft sell.
Calkins & Holden commissioned illustrator
Joseph Christian Leyendecker
(1872 – 1940)
American advertising man, founder of MacManus agency in 1911,
pioneer of soft selling copywriting, for Cadillac
Claude C. Hopkins (1866-1932)
“Dramatized salesmanship”, believing in research
“Scientific Advertising”, “My Life in Advertising”
Schlitz steam-cleaned case: “pre-emptive claim”
Worked for Lasker for US$1000/wk, later US$185k/yr in 1907
Albert Lasker (1880-1952), father of modern advertising
1912 bought out Lord & Thomas (founded in 1881 in
Chicago). Created 10 CW dept and closely monitored
J. Walter Thompson (1847-1928)
Brought his boss agency with US$1300
Create AE role, expand to England
Stanley Resor (1879-1964, AS), led
the J. Walter Thompson (JWT)
advertising firm in the mid-20th
century. He was 1st degree holder
in ad industry. “Sophistication.”
Helen Lansdowne Resor (1886-1964, CW),
the first woman in writing & planning
national advertising (1920s), the first
woman to present an advertising
campaign to Procter & Gamble’s board of
Bruce Fairchild Barton (1886 – 1967), author of “The
Man Nobody Knows” Join new start-up with Alex Osborn
& Roy Durstine in 1918 to form BDO. The three men
were involved in WWI sloganeering. Merged with
George Batten Company in 1928 to form BBDO.
1927 Radio ads started
24 Oct 1929
Great Depression started
1931 photos were adpoted
Raymond Rubicam (1892 – 1978, CW), an American
advertising pioneer who co-established the Young &
Rubicam (Y&R) advertising agency with John Orr Young.
Y&R was 1st agency to employ university professor
(George Gallup) for research. “Research-based
Marion Harper Jr. (1916-1989, RS). Manager of McCann
Erickson, which was a merger McCann (spun-off as dept
fr Standard Oil) and Erikson in 1902. “Total Marketing”.
COCA-COLA "I'D LIKE TO TEACH THE
WORLD TO SING"
Christmas Hilltop Commercial
Rosser Reeves (1910-1984, CW), follower of Claude
Hopkins' theory "Scientific Advertising”. “USP”.
Emerson Foote (1906-1992), Fairfax Cone (1903-1977)
and Don Belding (1897-1969), co-founder of Foote,
Cone & Belding. They bought Lord & Thomas from
Albert Lasker after he retired in 1942.
Clairol "Does she or doesn't she?
Only her hairdresser knows for sure”
PEPSODENT "YOU'LL WONDER WHERE THE
YELLOW WENT WHEN YOU BRUSH YOUR TEETH
An early TV advertising slogan for Pepsodent toothpaste, in use in the USA and UK from the
late 1940s to 1960s.
TWA "UP, UP AND AWAY WITH TWA”
A light piece of sunshine pop most famously sung by the Fifth Dimension
Commercial TV started in 1941
BBDO’s head Ben Duffy was keen on it.
Total US spending on TV rose from
US$12M in 1949 to US$158M in 3
David Ogilvy (1911-1999, CW), widely hailed as "The
Father of Advertising.“, In 1962, Time called him "the most
sought-after wizard in today's advertising industry."
Combining Claude Hopkins, JWT and Y&R.
Hathaway shirts in 1951
Rolls Royce in 1957
Commander Whitehead of Schweppes
Leo Burnett (1892-1971, CW), an advertising executive
and was among the most 'creative' men in the
advertising business. He was heavily involved in the
Creative Revolution in the 1960s. Set up in 1935, soared
after 1949 after P&G and Kellogg called. Disdain
Leo Burnett’s iconic work that kick started a career spanning
decades and dozens of multi-national agencies: The
Marlboro Man, The Jolly Green Giant and Tony the Tiger.
KELLOGG’S “TONY THE TIGER”
William Bernbach (1911-1982, CW), one of the three
founders in 1949 of the international advertising agency
Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB). 1st to put AD & CW in a
Other Figures (DDB)
James Edwin "Ned" Doyle
Robert “Bob” Gage (1921-
2000), an influential art
Helmut Krone (1925–
1996), a pioneer of
Julian Koenig (1921- ), widely
considered one of the greatest
copywriters in the history of
advertising. He was inducted
into The One Club Creative Hall
of Fame in 1966.
George Lois (1931- )
Ohrbach's - "bring in your wife"
Levy's Bakery “you don't have to be a
Avis "No. 2"
Volkswagen "Think small"
George Lois (1931- , AD), an American art director,
designer, and author. Lois is perhaps best known for
over 92 covers he designed for Esquire magazine from
1962 to 1972. Threatened to jump out of the window
for Goodman’s Matzo. Claimed PKL (set up in 1960) as
the second most creative agency but it was 1st to go
public in 1962.
XEROX "CHIMPANZEE MAKING
Carl Ally (1924-1999, AS), an American advertising executive
who founded Ally & Gargano, which broke out from PKL in
Hertz "We're going to tell you why"
Volvo “Drive it like you hate it”
Ed McCabe (1910-1984, CW), founded Scali McCabe
Sloves in 1967.
Perdue “It takes a tough man to make
tender chicken“ (Video)
Mary Wells Lawrence (1928- , CW), founding president
of Wells Rich Greene (set up in 1967). She was the first
female CEO of a company listed on the New York Stock
Exchange, and the first woman executive of an
advertising firm. Trained to be an actress. “TV as a form
of theatre”. “Hire youngster with a gift for cinematic
use of TV”.
Other figures (Wells Rich Greene)
Stewart Greene and Dick Rich (front), co-founders
of Wells Rich Greene in 1966
ALKA-SELTZER AS LIFE STYLE
Plop plop, fizz fizz - Alka-Seltzer(1960s)
I can't believe I ate the whole thing(1972)
Braniff Airways "End of The Plain Plane“
I LOVE NY
Continuing in UK
Colin Millward (1925-
2004), the former Collett
creative director and a
key figure in the
advertising in the 60s
John Pearce (1913-
1981, AS), a co-founder
of Collett Dickenson
Pearce (CDP set up in
Sir Alan William Parker
(1944- ), spent his early
part of career as a
copywriter and director
commercials. Then he
turns out into a
renovated film director.
CDP was 1st British agency to
team up CW & AD. AS was
only salesman. No research.
Targeted at Magazine
Other figures (Collett Dickenson Pearce)
Charles Saatchi (1943- ), co-
founder of the advertising
agency Saatchi & Saatchi.
Tony Brignull ,former head of
copywriting at Collett
Sir Ridley Scott (1937- ), an
famous English film director
Sir Frank Lowe (1940- ), a pioneer of the advertising
agency and founder of Tesco's ad agency The Red
Lord David Puttnam (1941- ),
a British film producer and
Benson & Hedges
"Happiness is a cigar called Hamlet" is one of the best remembered British advertising
campaigns for a tobacco product.
HEINEKEN. REFRESHES THE PARTS
OTHER BEERS CANNOT REACH.
FIAT "HAND BUILT BY ROBOTS"
John Webster (1935-2006), former
creative director of a British
advertising agency -- Boase
Massimi Pollitt (BMP). Good at TV
Stanley Pollitt (19??-1979), co-
founder of a British advertising
agency -- Boase Massimi Pollitt
(BMP) in 1968. “Father of
Account Planning”, combining
marketing, media & research,
put aside with AS.
CRESTA "IT'S FROTHY MAN"
The bear's widely quoted catch phrase "It's frothy man!" summed up the difference
between Cresta and more traditionally fizzy soft drinks.
SUGAR PUFFS "DON'T FORGET THE
HUMPHREYS "WATCH OUT THERE'S
A HUMPHREY ABOUT"
THE SMASH MARTIANS
Lee Clow (1943- , AD), the Chairman
and Global Director of
TBWAWorldwide. Advertising Age
referred to him as "advertising's art
Jay Chiat (1931-2002), an
designer. Set up Chiat/Day in
California in 1968. “A quest
for ads that jolt”. “We are
pirate, not navy”.
Other Figure (Chiat/Day)
Guy Day (1930-2010), was an American
advertising executive who cofounded
Chiat/Day with Jay Chiat in 1968.
HIJACKING THE 1984 LOS ANGELES
OLYMPICS FOR NIKE WITH OVERSIZED
(Converse the official sponsor for US$4M)
APPLE COMPUTER "BLADE
RUNNER" IN 1984
Charles Saatchi (1943- ) and Lord Maurice Saatchi
(1946- ), co-founder of the advertising agency Saatchi &
Saatchi in 1970. Ambitious expansion plan. Acquiring agencies
to be world no.3. Buying 4th bank in British but failed.
Other Figures (Saatchi & Saatchi)
Bill Muirhead (1943- ), founding
directors of M&C Saatchi -- an
international advertising agency
Jeremy Sinclair, was a founding
director of M&C Saatchi and in
1970 was one of the founders of
Saatchi & Saatchi.
Lord Timothy Bell (1941- ), a
British advertising and public
relations executive, best known
for his advisory role in Margaret
Thatcher's three successful
general election campaigns.
Sir Martin Sorrell (1945- ), an
English businessman and the
chief executive officer of WPP
Sir John Hegarty (1910-1984), co-
founder of British a based global
advertising agency -- Bartle
Antismoking "The tar and discharge that collects
in the lungs of an average smoker"
HEC "Would you be more careful if it was
you that got pregnant?"
Margaret Thatcher's election campaign
"Labour isn't working" in 1979
BRITISH AIRWAYS "THE WORLD'S
FAVOURITE AIRLINE" IN 1982
Sir John Hegarty (1910-1984), co-founder of British a
based global advertising agency -- Bartle Bogle Hegarty
Other Figures (Bartle Bogle Hegarty)
John Bartle (AP) and Nigel Bogle (AS), co-founders
2nd wave of work for the brand
AUDI "VORSPRUNG DURCH
One of the most recognized German catchphrases in British popular culture, 'vorsprung durch Technik'
(progress through technology).
JOHNNIE WALKER "KEEP WALKING"
AXE/LYNX "THE AXE EFFECT"
David Abbott (1938- , CW), a British advertising
executive who founded Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO.
Sainsbury's 'celebrity recipes‘
BRITISH TELECOM "IT'S GOOD TO
Bob Hoskins persuading Britons on behalf of BT that “it's good to talk”.
YELLOW PAGES "J.R. HARTLEY"
J. R. Hartley is the name of a fictional character in a popular advertisement promoting the
Yellow Pages which was first shown in 1983.
The advertisement shows an elderly man (actor Norman Lumsden) asking in several second-
hand bookshops for "Fly Fishing by J. R. Hartley".
Bill Muirhead (1943- ) and David Kershaw
(1946- ), founding directors of M&C Saatchi -- an
international advertising agency network.
Maurice Levy (1942- ), a leading French
businessman currently the chief
executive officer of Publicis.
Marcel Bleustein (1906-1996),
a ground-breaking French
advertising magnate best
known as the founder of
Publicis Groupe, currently the
third largest communications
Jacques Séguéla (1934- ), co-founder of the advertising
agency Euro RSCG in 1970
"English Ads: come from the head and touch the heart:
intellectual; French Ads: come from the heart and touch
the head: romantic, emotional and sensual; US Ads:
come from the head and touch the wallet”
1981 and 1988 election campaign for
1981 advertising, quoting “quiet strength”,
The result is the least successful!
In 1988 advertising use “Generation
Mitterrand” to attract the Generation Y
Philippe Michel ( -1993), founder of CLM / BBDO.
Kookai "feminine yet independent,
bitchy yet seductive"
Poster series for billboard contractor Avenir in
1981 Myriam "I'll take off the top"
Late August 1981, a pretty young woman smiling in a bikini on a beach, smiling appears on the walls of Paris
and several provincial cities. The poster reads: "On September 2, I removed the top." Nothing else, no brand
or logo, which could explain the strangeness of this billboard. Passersby are fairly intrigued. On September 2,
the same poster is everywhere, except in the model is now topless. The text has also changed: "On September
4, I remove the bottom." Emoi general, the media seized on the case, everyone has their own prognosis that
represent the next poster ... The morning of September 4 is expected in a stifling suspense. And September 4,
... The young woman displays effectively removes low! Photography is always taken in the same setting, but
this time, the model is back. Beside the young woman, the advertising slogan finally appears: "Future, the
display that keeps its promises."
Bill Tragos, Claude Bonnange , Uli Wiesendanger and
Paulo Ajroldi, All ex-Y&R and the retired founders of the
world wide advertising agency, TBWA.
Absolut vodka "Absolut perfection"
with a halo
1. An arrogant name
2. Urine bottle
3. Invisible logo
APPLE COMPUTER "THINK
"Think different" was an advertising slogan for Apple Inc (formerly Apple Computer Inc) in
1997 created by the Los Angeles office of advertising agency TBWAChiatDay. It was used
in a television commercial, several print advertisements and a number of TV promos for
Media Spins Off
After 1993 when "The Sapin Law" was introduced, it
became the media consultant rather than trader. It is
now part of the British Communications group Aegis.
Gilbert Gross (1931- ), founders of Carat Espace.
CIA (Chris Ingram & Associates)
Set up his own company after responsible for
merging 7 media dept in KMP group. Bought
by WPP in 2001 with 435M pounds.
Chris Ingram , founder of Chris Ingram
Associates (CIA) in 1976.
Ray Morgan set his company and sold to
Saatchis in 1988. Renamed afterward as
BBDO, DDB, Needham Harper, TBWA, OMD,
Acquired JWT in 1987 with US$566M, OM in
1989 with US$860M; Merged JWT & OM
media dept in 1997 to create Mindshare;
Bought Y&R in 2000 with US$4.7B, Grey in
2005 with US$1.75B. In 2006, billings over
US$50B, revenue US$11B, staff around 97,000,
offices 2,000 in 100 countries.
Start acquiring small agency in 1954; Bought
Lowe Group and Lintas International in 1980s,
FCB in 2001 with US$1.2B. Staff 43,000,
country 130, income US$6B
Acuquired a French network in 1993, Hal P.
Riney later, and then Fallon McElligott, Saatchi
in 2000 with US$1.9B, Leo Burnett in 2002
with US$3B. Now income US$5B.
Acquired Euro RSCG, Now income US$8B
Set up in 1999 by 4
executives from Dentsu.
JAPANESE RAILWAY "OSTRICH"
FUJI XEROX "SALESMAN"
PERFECTV "RONIN PITCHER"
Set up in 1999.
Set up in 1999
Set up in 1996
Steve Henry (1910-1984), a founder and creative
director of Howell Henry Chaldecott Lury (set up in
1987), the legendary advertising agency voted
Campaign's Agency of the Decade in 2000.
TANGO, THE FIZZY DRINK "YOU KNOW
WHEN YOU'VE BEEN TANGO'D"
Goodby, Silverstein & Partner
Set up in 1983
"GOT MILK?" CAMPAIGN "AARON
Fallon McElligott Rice
Set up in 1981
Crispin, Porter & Bogusky Set up in 1965
BURGER KING "THE SUBSERVIENT
The Subservient Chicken is an advertising program created to promote international fast
food restaurant chain Burger King's TenderCrisp chicken sandwich and their "Have it Your
Dotcom boom and bust
The agency of the future
Set up in 2000
Will Collin, Jon Wilkins and John Harlow
co-founders of Naked Communication.
property that it then
licenses to clients in
return for a share of
Set up in 2004
Virgin America, Anomaly
Set up in 2006
“Handle everything, with perfect
coherent branding, on a global basis.”
Set up in 2006
Evolution of media
• Printing press & movable type
Evolution of marketing
1900 1930 1950 1970 1990 2000
Strategic Marketing Concept
Marketing’s Past and Present Orientation
• Production era
• Distribution era
• Product era
• Positioning era
• Personalization era
Evolution of advertising
• Media era
• Creative revolution
• Digital advertising
Themes of advertising history
• A passive industry
– Clients lead. Agencies follow.
– New technology generates new era
• The ever lasting tug-of-war
– Logic vs creativity
– International vs local
– Conglomeration vs hot shops
– Manufacturers vs consumers
Move on to HK ad history