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Develop work priorities

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BSBWOR301B Organise own work priorities and development

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Develop work priorities

  1. 1. Develop work priorities
  2. 2. What this unit is about… This unit, develop work priorities, will assist you to plan your own work schedules, to monitor and to obtain feedback on work performance and development. It also addresses the requirement to take responsibility for one's own career planning and professional development. This unit is divided into three key areas: 1. Plan and complete own work schedule 2. Monitor own work performance 3. Coordinate professional development
  3. 3. Key objectives If you are to be successful in this unit, it is critical that you posses the ability to: • prepare and communicate own work plan • schedule work objectives and tasks to support the achievement of goals • seek and act on feedback from clients and colleagues • review own work performance against achievements through self- assessment • access learning opportunities to extend own personal work competencies • use business technology to monitor self development.
  4. 4. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule • Your role in the planning process is threefold. As the frontline manager you have responsibility for: – devising a workgroup plan that includes setting objectives and targets for the team, – incorporating the team objectives into your personal work plan and – helping each team member develop their own work plan. To be able to do this you need a thorough understanding of how all the plans fit together and affect each other. • A well-planned and executed work schedule helps your team achieve its objectives and the organisation achieves its goals. You may need to consult the workgroup plans of other departments, sections or areas to ensure that any inter-dependence between your team and others is planned for. You also need to identify any factors that could adversely affect your team's work and plan to avoid or overcome them. Throughout these processes you need to rely on your knowledge of the organisation and the industry you are working in, your understanding of team dynamics and your expertise with business technology.
  5. 5. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Preparing workgroup plans Workgroup plans are developed to formally document the daily, weekly or monthly actions a team is responsible for achieving on behalf of their department or section. They provide an overall picture of each project or activity the team will be involved in over a specific period. Let’s take a look at some of the plans that the organisation uses.
  6. 6. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule STRATEGIC PLAN Developed by senior management for the whole organisation. Helps achieve the organisation's goals OPERATIONAL PLANS Developed by each department manager WORKGROUP PLANS Developed by each team TEAM MANAGER PLANS Developed by each team manager TEAM MEMBER PLANS Developed by each team member The connections between plans Every plan developed in the organisation's is directly linked to all the others. Each plan adds to the achievement of the organisations' strategic plan. The following diagram illustrates the connection between plans.
  7. 7. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Here is an example of work schedule - The work plan you develop for the team might include the following items. Goals-the things your team is aiming for. Reflects the wider goals of the organisation. Objectives-the measurable goals you aim to achieve. Targets-the measurable outcomes that indicate whether your objectives are being achieved. Tasks and activities-the actions you undertake to reach the targets and objectives. Resources-the items the team members need to meet their responsibilities. Timelines-each target and task should have a time element so that team members know when they should carry out and complete tasks. Milestones- the key steps you must complete as you work towards the targets or objectives. Team Member responsibilitie s- the allocation of tasks to individuals or groups. `Increase sales revenue by 10 per cent per annum'. `Retain all current clients’, ‘Gain 10 new clients per month’, ‘Reduce customer complaints by five per cent in the next three months’. ‘Customers increased to 110 by end of July’, ‘Complaints reduced to three per month by October’. ‘Contact all current clients each month to check client satisfaction and any supply requirements’, E.g. tools, communication equipment, product samples, computers, vehicles and other items specific to the work undertaken. For example, if your overall objective is to `Prepare and produce the annual report', a milestone could be that `All financial information is gathered from all departments'. Departmental trainer (Paul) to run Customer Service Training each quarter.
  8. 8. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Defining team objectives • Objectives form the basis of your work plan and help you define and organise daily tasks. You may be responsible for setting the team's objectives and you may also be judged on whether your team achieves its objectives. The team's objectives are the measurable aims that must be reached by the team. These are often referred to as Key Result Areas (KRAs) or Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). You will be held accountable for achieving these objectives when your manager reviews your performance. • As a frontline manager you are expected to have both technical skills (specific to the work your team does) and management skills to ensure your team meets its objectives.
  9. 9. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Recognising how client needs relate to objectives 1. Understanding client needs • Everyone has clients, whether they are internal (colleagues, team members, managers) or external (suppliers, business associates or purchasers) to the organisation. Regardless of your specific role you will always be responsible for providing some type of service or product to your clients. You and your team must have a clear understanding of how to best satisfy and fulfil your clients' needs. You should know how these needs are translated into your team's objectives and work plan. • Client needs are rarely static: they change over time. the organisation's goals will also change over time and your team's goals will change correspondingly. As a frontline manager you must understand the environment the organisation is operating in and prepare your team to take advantage of opportunities and counteract threats. 2. Understanding business cycles and the market • Knowledge of your market and clients includes understanding any trends or purchasing patterns and planning for them in your workgroup plan. If there are certain times of the year when customers are more likely to purchase your product or service, other tasks may be restricted during these periods. Understanding the market you operate in helps you prepare the workgroup plan. 3. Incorporating client needs into your plan • You may decide to meet regularly with your clients to monitor their requirements and determine their expectations of your team. Your primary interest is to know more about clients’ needs and how you can help them meet these needs. Client meetings are an opportunity to manage customer expectations. Frontline managers are responsible for ensuring that clients clearly understand how the organisation can help them and that the team does not misrepresent products or services or create false expectations. Whatever methods you choose to understand your clients’’ needs, you should include these methods in your work plan.
  10. 10. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Be SMART Your workgroup plan is likely to contain numerous targets – one type of measure of success. Remember that each target must have a quantifiable measurement so that your team knows: • what to aim for. • when the target has been achieved. As we have discussed earlier in the first two units of this course: Show leadership in the workplace and Implement operational plan, all measures of success (MOS) must be SMART S Specific M Measurable A Achievable R Realistic T Trackable
  11. 11. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Be familiar with other teams’ work plans. It is rare that a workgroup operates in isolation from other workgroups in an organisation. Usually it is necessary to consider the work plans of other areas of the organisation to develop your own workgroup plan. Incorporating work group objectives into personal schedules • With your work group's objectives and priorities determined, it is time to incorporate them into individual work plans. The individual work schedules should include all the objectives, allocated tasks and timelines. The work schedule is the document that each team member consults each day to monitor their own performance and progress. You will also use this document to evaluate the team members' performance. Preparing your own work schedule • The team's work plan forms the basis of your own team leader work plan. The layout, choice of headings and degree of detail depend on organisational requirements and the amount of information you require to work efficiently. When preparing your work plan, focus on the priority objectives. Look at the tasks that need to be done to achieve the objectives and identify your role in achieving the tasks, for example managing, coordinating, liaising, preparing, organising and delegating.
  12. 12. 1. Activity - Reflection A plan alone does not guarantee that you will achieve your goals. What factors do you need to consider that might hinder completion of daily tasks and that could prevent you and your team from achieving your objectives.
  13. 13. 1. Plan and complete own work schedule Understanding factors that can affect your achievement • Once you have identified these factors you can prepare a contingency plan detailing the risks that you and your team face in implementing your work plan and how you will manage the risks. It is unlikely that all the risks you identify will eventuate; however, you need to be prepared to deal with any possible risks. • To identify potential risks, you need to think laterally. It is not always the obvious risks that pose the greatest threat. Some common risks are discussed below, although there will always be other risks you need to consider.
  14. 14. 1. Activity – common risks Identify some of the common risks that may hinder achievement of your goals.  Competing work demands  Technology and equipment breakdowns  Unforeseen incidents  Personnel  Time  Weather  Resource and materials availability  Budget constraints Some risks can easily be averted or quickly overcome with little impact on the rest of your work plan. However, other risks pose a greater threat to your team's success and you will need to consider the result of inadequate or unsuccessful contingency plans.
  15. 15. 2. Monitor own work performance Monitoring helps you determine whether you are meeting your responsibilities and how well you are achieving them. Monitoring your work performance takes into account your own assessment along with the feedback you receive from others. Regularly monitoring your own work performance helps you to be sure you are meeting the organisation's’expected standards as well as the needs and expectations of customers. It is vital in the process of continuous improvement. What are performance standards? To understand your responsibilities you must know the level of performance required of you. You should have clear and concise goals and measurable objectives and/or targets that clearly state • what is aiming to be achieved, • by when • and how. If you are not clear about any aspect of your responsibilities you should talk to your manager immediately. Objectives or key result areas (KRAs), as well as targets and key performance indicators (KPIs) are aids to monitor your performance.
  16. 16. 2. Monitor own work performance Key result areas - KRAs • Key result areas (KRAs) describe the main areas of accountability and responsibility of a role and provide a framework for your activities. They usually summarise the key goals and objectives you are responsible for achieving. Your KRAs will contribute to achieving the team's goals and objectives. Key performance indicators - KPIs • Each key result area should have two or three targets that include key performance indicators (KPIs) or measures of performance (MOPS). Performance indicators should measure the most important or critical aspects of the KRA and contribute to overall team and organisational goals. The relationship between KRAs and KPIs; the example below shows the relationship in tabular format. Key result areas - KRAs Key performance indicators - KPIs Customer Service •95% of deliveries on time •All complaints to be investigated within three working days. •Helping an average of 10 customers per hour with queries and problems. Health and safety •No smoking in the workplace • Reduce smoking breaks of employees by 15 minutes per day.
  17. 17. 2. Monitor own work performance Forward-thinking managers must constantly reassess the direction of their work by evaluating and reflecting on progress to date and determining whether any adjustments or changes are needed. By conducting a self-assessment and acting on what you discover, you demonstrate your commitment to achieving your objectives and targets. the organisation has regular performance appraisals to review your work, you should complete your self-assessment and revise your work beforehand. Self-assessment should be ongoing Reflecting on your performance does not always require formal, documented processes. The more you can build personal reflection into your day, the more likely you will routinely meet your performance standards. If you identify that your performance was a bit weak in a couple of areas, you can concentrate on improving those areas in the days ahead. If you think you handled certain situations very well, try to determine what it was that enabled you to do this. Successful self-assessment requires self-awareness • Evaluating your performance standards requires a high degree of self-awareness. What are your strengths and weaknesses? In what area of your work do you feel most threatened? What motivates you and what are your personal standards? • Having too high or too low an opinion of yourself can affect your ability to accurately assess your own performance, or to accept other people's assessment of your performance.
  18. 18. 2. Monitor own work performance Identifying your personal attributes • Your personal attributes include values and traits such as honesty, integrity, reliability, taking responsibility, continuous learning and self-awareness. These are characteristics your employer most values. Recognising your personality type • There are several theories regarding personality types that can encourage self-knowledge and help you analyse your strengths and weaknesses within your work. Which one is most like you?
  19. 19. 2. Activity – Personality type Personality type – Select which personality type best reflects who you are. • Thinkers: Thinkers are strong on clear, logical reasoning; they are methodical and enjoy analysing problems. In organisations, thinkers are often found working with facts and figures, in systems analysis or research. • Intuitors: Intuitors are good at using their imagination to come up with ideas. They see the `big picture' easily and are often the strongest at long-term planning and creative tasks. • Feelers: Feelers rely on their personal values and instinctive reactions rather than their technical knowledge. They are perceptive about people's moods, feelings and reactions. They make good counsellors and public-relations people. • Sensors: Sensors are straightforward, energetic and hard working, preferring action to words or ideas. They are practical people who rely on common sense. They are usually well organised and good at setting things up, negotiating, trouble-shooting and converting ideas into action. Often people display a combination of these personality types, to varying degrees. By being aware of your personality, how you deal with others and how you deal with problems and pressure, you can try to place yourself in situations where you feel most comfortable and able to contribute. Your self-awareness will also help you identify areas you may need to improve. The more thoroughly you understand your strengths, weaknesses and behaviour in groups, the better you will be able to assess your performance and focus on improving weak areas.
  20. 20. 2. Monitor own work performance Evaluating your behaviour There are always reasons for the way people behave. As you become more self-aware you will understand why you behave in certain ways. Another model for self-awareness was developed by Joe Luft and Harry Ingham, called the Johari Window. Models such as this can help you evaluate your behaviour by analysing the situations in which you lack confidence, feel vulnerable or are threatened. The Johari Window relies on two dimensions to understanding yourself. • Aspects of your behaviour and style that are known or not known to you (self). • Aspects of your behaviour and style known or not known to those you have contact with (others). A combination of these two dimensions reveals four areas of self-knowledge, as shown below.
  21. 21. 2. Monitor own work performance The Johari Window The arena or public self (upper left-hand square) is that part of yourself that both you and others know. It includes such information as your name, job and experience in the organisation. The blind area (upper right hand square) contains things about yourself that others perceive but of which you are unaware. For example, the way you ask questions may irritate people, or others may see that your listening skills are more developed than you think. The closed area contains things that you know about yourself but which others do not. For example, you might feel that your experience or skills are lacking in some area and try to conceal this from others. You may also be able to contribute in ways that others are not aware of. The dark (or unconscious) area contains things about yourself that are unknown to both you and others. This information is generally not needed in day-to-day interactions. For each person, the relative size of each Johari area is different. One of the goals of personal development according to this model is to enlarge the ‘arena’ by shrinking the ‘blind’ and `closed' areas. This can be done through self-reflection, asking others for their feedback about you, taking risks, trying new things and revealing You know You don’t know They know Arena (free and open communication) Blind (others know, you don’t) They don’t know Closed (facades, games, secrets) Dark (unconscious)
  22. 22. 2. Monitor own work performance Seeking and using feedback from others Although you may be performing your role to a high degree of personal satisfaction, does it also satisfy and fulfil the expectations of your clients, peers, supervisors and managers? How do you know what others think of your performance? Feedback is essential in the context of both your individual and team requirements. Most people enjoy getting positive feedback and find that it is harder to receive negative feedback. However, negative feedback is valuable because it challenges you to re-evaluate your personal behaviour and goals and the way you achieve objectives. There are numerous ways to obtain feedback including: 1. Feedback from formal performance appraisals A performance appraisal is a formal process through which you gain feedback that helps you ascertain how effectively you are achieving your work objectives. Performance appraisal helps both parties involved to: • clarify goals • identify the gaps between current and desired performance • agree on actions to fill performance gaps, such as participation in external courses, coaching on the job, structured reading etc.
  23. 23. 2. Monitor own work performance 2. Seeking formal feedback from colleagues • You can seek formal feedback by scheduling meetings with people formally or asking them to complete a feedback form or questionnaire. Staff meetings, team meetings and project management meetings can all be used to solicit formal feedback (either verbally or written) about your performance. In your team meetings, peer ratings can be susceptible to a number of potential biases. As a frontline manager, encourage a team culture in which everyone's opinions are respected, so that third-party feedback is a valuable part of the feedback process. 3. Receiving 360 degree feedback • Another way of receiving feedback is known as ‘360 degree feedback’. This process involves obtaining anonymous feedback from others in the organisation. The feedback can include comments and reports from supervisors, managers, peers, customers and suppliers. It can provide you with valuable insights into how your behaviour helps or hinders others in the pursuit of the organisation's goals. It can also form a sound basis for planning improvements to your operating style. 4. Seeking feedback from clients • There are various ways to solicit feedback from clients to determine whether their needs are being met. Formal feedback includes customer surveys and questionnaires. 5. Seeking informal feedback • You can seek informal feedback by asking for advice, talking to colleagues and asking relevant people whether or not your work was satisfactory. Informal feedback works particularly well in an organisation that actively encourages open communication, and where leaders speak openly and honestly with staff. Open communication promotes feelings of trust and confidence.
  24. 24. 3. Professional development To realise its full potential, the organisation needs appropriately skilled and motivated employees who are focused on achieving the organisation's goals. Management needs to determine what those necessary skills are, and assess the existing skills of employees to determine whether extra training is needed. In order to take advantage of work opportunities and remain a valuable member of the organisation, you need to recognise and take advantage of your current skills, identify the skills you need to develop and access relevant professional development to acquire the skills you need Valuable employees are those who grow with an organisation and continuously develop their skills to contribute as effectively as possible to their organisation's goals. To do this you should regularly assess your: • knowledge, • abilities, • aptitudes, • skills, • interests and • values wherever possible relate these to your organisational and career objectives. Always consider the different ways you can contribute to your organisation, learn to take advantage of potential opportunities for learning and contributing and also think about the career path you are pursuing and how your work supports this path.
  25. 25. 3. Professional development Self-assessing knowledge and skills When assessing your personal knowledge and skills, think about the following aspects. • Your body of knowledge-job-specific, industry-specific, scientific, historical, artistic, technical, geographic, linguistic, cultural, economic etc. • Your abilities-researching, writing, editing, communicating, problem-solving, speaking, teaching, leading, critical thinking, creative thinking etc. • Your aptitudes (what you are good at doing)-working with people, working independently, learning new things, applying knowledge to new situations, clarifying information, linking information, motivating people, finishing complex tasks accurately, planning and organising etc. • Your skills-administration, recruitment, project management, training, managing, accounting, selling, marketing, reception, information technology, design, manufacturing, processing etc. • Your work interests-learning new things, becoming a manager, running your own business, working part-time, becoming a technical specialist, working with people etc. • Your values and beliefs-honesty, integrity, compassion, work ethic, commitment to family, moral standards, social responsibility etc. • Your motivation-financial security, job security, opportunity for travel, opportunity for promotion, job satisfaction, achievement, appreciation, recognition etc. • Your short- and long-term career objectives- to specialise in one activity, to progress through a range of activities, to achieve a certain organisational status, to work autonomously etc.
  26. 26. 3. Professional development Understanding competency standards Competency standards describe in general terms how to carry out tasks and duties and the level to which the tasks and duties should be performed. They are a measure of the personal and technical knowledge required to effectively and efficiently carry out the work of a certain job role. There are two types of competencies: generic and industry-specific. • Generic work-related competencies underpin a person's ability or capacity to enter the workforce. • Industry-specific, work-related competencies underpin the technical skills needed to carry out the work a person is employed to do. Have a look at the National Training Information Service database which shoes the industry competencies required for this unit: Develop work priorities: http://www.ntis.gov.au/Default.aspx?/trainingpackage/BSB07/unit/BSBWOR404B Using competency standards to assess your skills and knowledge • Competency standards describe a range of things you need to be able to do to successfully achieve a certain level of ability. To measure your skills and knowledge against competency standards, you need to know whether competency standards exist that cover your industry and your job role, or whether your organisation has developed its own competency standards or adapted national standards to its specific area of work. Once you have identified the competency standards that cover your job role, you can go through the process of matching your skills to those given. The skill gaps you identify indicate your development needs and can become the basis for a learning program that may also lead to a formal qualification in your case the program you are participating in will lead to a Certificate IV in Frontline Management.
  27. 27. 3. Professional development Determining development needs and priorities • Once you have matched your skills to the competency standards that address your work and noted your skill gaps, you have determined your development needs for your current role. Determining which skill needs are the most urgent or important requires an understanding of the priorities of your work responsibilities. Researching opportunities for improvement • Although personal development and career planning is your responsibility, you often need guidance on how best to achieve your goals. You also need to research opportunities for improvement and source learning avenues. Researching training and professional development activities and opportunities helps you to: • Analyse your interests, values, goals and capabilities and source avenues for advancement that suit your personality and interests. • Consider available options and identify opportunities to advance your career, given your qualifications and skills • Match the current and future needs of the organisation with your own aspirations and goals • Establish personal development plans and identify the benefits to you that are likely to also benefit the organisation. The organisation is keen to provide their employees with opportunities to improve their skills and knowledge. Managers value employees who want to further their skills and are likely to encourage you.
  28. 28. 3. Professional development Understanding the impact of your training You must be clear about exactly what you need to learn and the resources and time commitment involved in undertaking the training. A clear outline of the training you wish to undertake should include: • a description of the training, what it covers, why you wish to undertake it and how it will address your development needs • how you can access the training, for example at work observing other colleagues, out of work hours attending a formal course, job-swapping with another colleague • the costs involved (don't forget to include the work hours of any staff involved) • the benefit to the team and organisation of you undertaking the training. Remember: if your manager can see how the training will benefit the team and organisation, they will be more inclined to support you. Developing a professional development plan • A professional development plan outlines the objectives of the professional development and shows when and how skill or knowledge gaps will be addressed. It should indicate priority areas, the time frame for achieving the objectives, the training methods to be used and the specific skills, knowledge or approach to be taught or developed. • This plan can be incorporated into the annual performance appraisal form.
  29. 29. 3. Professional development Types of professional development activities Professional development activities range from formal accredited courses of several years duration to one-off information sessions. In between these extremes there are many methods of learning new skills and acquiring knowledge. Professional development does not necessarily involve undertaking a formal training course. Depending on your needs, professional development can include: • establishing coaching and/or mentoring in the workplace • attending internal and/or external training provision, including information sessions addressing an identified need • attending conferences in your field • joining a work exchange program • joining a professional association and attending meetings • undertaking personal study • conducting performance appraisals and workplace skills assessment • implementing recognition of prior learning or current competence procedures • accessing career counselling.
  30. 30. 3. Professional development Storing and maintaining records and documents Company Human Resources departments holds a personal file on each of its employees. The file contains confidential information relating to an individual's employment. It should also hold documentation that pertains to your qualifications and your position. These documents include: • your resume • a copy of your job description • your employment contract • documentation regarding your qualifications • documentation regarding courses, workshops and professional development activities you have completed in the course of your employment.
  31. 31. 3. Professional development Continuous learning and career development the organisation continues to develop a culture of continuous learning in order to operate and compete in a continuously changing environment. Employees are encouraged to be ‘learning individuals’ who reflect on their work and career experiences and strive to update their skills. Employees committed to lifelong learning are those who are best able to adapt and cope with constant change, and who discover strategies to improve their skills and opportunities. Life long learning