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Ocean thermal energy conversion

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Ocean thermal energy conversion

  1. 1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion OtEC utilizEs thE wOrld’s largEst solar radiation collector - the ocean. The ocean contains enough EnErgy pOwEr all Of thE wOrld’s OTEC is a way to generate electrical needs. the temperature electricity using difference of sea water at different depth.
  2. 2. DISCOVERY In 1881 Jacques Arsene d'Arsonval, a French physicist, was the first to propose tapping the thermal energy Arsonval In 1930 of the ocean. built an experimental open cycle OTEC system at Matazas Bay, Cuba.
  3. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE OTEC utilizes the OCEan’s 20ºC natural thermal gradient between the warm surface water and the cold deep sea water(around
  4. 4. Oceans surface waters acts as heat source and the cold water at 1,000 meters
  5. 5. 5. Heat extraction from COLD DEEP 4. Expanding vapor drive cold-water sink to WATER the turbine, and electricity condense the 5C is created by a generator working fluid in the condenser. CONDENSER TURBINE 2. Fluid pump pressurizes and pushes working fluid to evaporator GENERATOR WORKING FLUID (LIKE AMMONIA) EVAPORATOR 3. Heat addition from the hot-water source 1. Power input to used to evaporate the WARM SURFACE pumps to start WATER 28 C working fluid within process the heat exchanger (Evaporator)
  6. 6. OPEN CYCLE SYSTEM Open-cycle OTEC uses the tropical oceans' warm surface water to make electricity. When warm seawater is placed in a low-pressure container, it boils. The expanding steam drives a low- pressure turbine attached to an electrical generator. The steam, which has left its salt behind in the low- pressure container, is almost pure fresh water. It is condensed back into a liquid by exposure to cold temperatures from deep- ocean water. OPEN CYCLE SYSTEM SYSTEM
  7. 7. CLOSED CYCLE SYSYTEM Closed-cycle systems( Rankine ) use fluid with a low-boiling point, such as ammonia, to rotate a turbine to generate electricity. Here's how it works. Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger where the low-boiling-point fluid is vaporized. The expanding vapor turns the turbo-generator. Then, cold, deep seawater—pumped through a second heat exchanger—condenses the vapor back into a liquid, which is then recycled through the system. CLOSED CYCLE SYSTEM SYSTEM
  8. 8. ADVANTAGES i. Eco- friendly ii. Minimal maintenance costs compared to other power production plants iii. Provide air conditioning to buildings within the OTEC plant iv. Fresh water - first by-product is fresh water. A small 1 MW OTEC is capable of producing some 4,500 cubic meters of fresh water per day, enough to supply a population of 20,000 with fresh water v. Open cycle OTEC systems can produce desalinated water which is very important in third-world countries vi. Chilled soil agriculture- cold seawater flowing through underground pipes, chills the surrounding soil. Thereby allowing many plants evolved in temperate to be grown in subtropics due to temp. difference in the plant roots in cool soil and plant leaves in warm air
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES Vii. Mineral Extraction : OTEC helps in mining ocean water for 57 trace elements. Most economic analyses have suggested that mining the ocean for trace elements would be unprofitable as so much energy is required to pump the large volume of water
  10. 10. DISADVANTAGES i. OTEC-produced electricity at present would cost more than electricity generated from fossil fuels at their current costs. ii.OTEC plants must be located where a difference of about 20º C occurs year round. Ocean depths must be available fairly close to shore- based facilities for economic iii.No energy company will put money in this project because it only had
  11. 11. SUMMARY 1. Based on Rankine cycle - Thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work through a heat engine 2. As with any heat engine , the greatest efficiency and power is produced with the largest temperature differences. 3. Uses the vertical temperature gradient in the ocean as a heat
  12. 12. FUTURE The fossil fuels will in the near future be consumed, so we had to find some alternative energy sources. OTEC is a source, which uses the renewable solar collector, the sea, instead of an artificial collector. The problem is that this investment will be more expensive than the fossil fuels power plants, and it will take a long time before anyone will put some