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Post colonialism

Post-colonialism is one of critical approaches to analyze social and political literature...

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Post colonialism

  1. 1. POST-COLONIALISM Arranged by: Kinkin Susansi Faculty of Letters English Department University of Pamulang 2013
  2. 2. DEFINITION  Post-colonialism (or Postcolonialism) is the outlook and studies as responses to colonial subjugation of European or Western to Third and Fourth-world that emerged in 70’s.  However, it’s not only talking about Western colonial subjugation but also various reality of injustice, culture and gender domination, sexual orientation issues, social class, subaltern people experiences, etc.  Thus in literature, it is an interaction and reaction in colonial societies and the effects of colonial practices on literary productions. 1
  3. 3. POST-COLONIAL MAIN CONCEPTS MIMICRY “The copying of the colonizing culture, behavior, manners and values by the colonized contains both mockery and a certain ‘menace’, ‘so that mimicry is at once resemblance and menace”. (Bhabha 1994:86).  From the theory of Homi K. Bhabha, mimicry is a concept of imitating coloniser’s behaviors intended to mock which can appear as a parody in literature. It’s a sort of anti-colonial movement in literature that producing social-political works.  Mimicry is a severe criticism as an implement to resist colonization. The most radical anti-colonial writers often called the “mimic men”. 2
  4. 4. HYBRIDITY HYBRIDITY  The fusion of two traditions to which create new trans-cultural elements and produce a double identity that contradicted, as a colonizer and colonized at the same time.  In literature, it causes ambivalency and confusing whether it is oppossing or supporting colonialism. Because for whatever, post-colonial texts suppose to uncontaminated by the colonialist's concepts. In this perspective, texts which are anti-colonial, which reject the premises of colonialists intervention ( the civilizing mission, the rejuvenation of stagnant cultures ) might be regarded as post – colonial insofar as they have ‘got beyond’ colonialism and its ideologies, broken free of its lures to a point from which to mount a critique or counter – attack. ( Childs & Williams 1997 : p. 4 ) 3
  5. 5. ORIENTALISM ORIENTALISM “...It is, rather than expresses, a certain will or intention to understand, in some cases to control, manipulate, even incorporate, what is a manifestly different world” (Said 1978: 12).  In Edward Said’s book “Orientalism” it is clear that orientalism is the project of European/Western for having authority over the orient and reconstruct in European thinking. In another word, it’s the concept for dominating, manipulating, exploiting the orient. An interestedness in Orient world recorded in so many Western texts. 4
  6. 6. UNIVERSALISM / UNIVERSALITY • Universalism is Eurocentric view that claims their civilizations in experiences and values are the standard for all humanity. • In literature, we are often told that what makes Shakespeare ‘great’ is his ability to reveal something of ‘the universal human condition’. Universalism gives assumption that ‘European’ equals ‘universal’. It’s the way of European to elevate their status. That is why universalism rejected by post-colonialism. • Universalism is a strategy of imperialism and colonialism by saying the ‘universal’ features of humanity are the characteristics of those who occupy positions of political dominance in this case, European/Western. 5
  7. 7.  Post-colonial is synonym with “post-independence” or the era after the independence when the colonialists had left the country. However, their concepts still remain and their practices are still used up to now.  The concept of ruling class is significant in colonialism. As we see today in our community, for it is a fact that concept still exists. There are gaps between the Rich and Poor, the Superior and Inferior, the Lord and Servant, the Aristocrat and Commoner, or the hegemony and subaltern. They are two contradict aspects to play the roles as the “colonizer” and “colonized” just like in colonial era. These are the reasons that gave birth to post-colonial literary productions in purpose to reject that concept and meant to be the theme of many post-colonial literary works. 6
  8. 8. METHODS OF ANALYSIS In analysis of post-colonial literature is examined:  Historical aspect Trace the history of colonialism and subjugation during the colonial period. In this case, there’s always the subject and the object of colonialism.  Physical and psychological aspect Oppression and intimidation, are the ways to make colonized feel weak, frightened, devaluate pride, submissive, and obedient to the colonizer.  Ideological aspect In whose perspective it is narrated , colonizer or colonized?  Gender aspect man as colonizer, woman as colonized.  Cultural aspect Domination of a certain culture, including ethnicity, race and religion. 7
  9. 9. POST-COLONIAL LITERARY ANALYSIS NINETEEN HUNDRED AND NINETEEN William Butler Yeats ... All teeth were drawn, all ancient tricks unlearned, And a great army but a showy thing; What matter that no cannon had been turned Into a ploughshare? Parliament and king Thought that unless a little powder burned The trumpeters might burst with trumpeting And yet it lack all glory; and perchance The guardsmen’s drowsy chargers would not prance. Now days are dragon-ridden, the nightmare Rides upon sleep: a drunken soldiery Can leave the mother, murdered at her door, To crawl in her own blood, and go scot-free; The night can sweat with terror as before We pieced our thoughts into philosophy, And planned to bring the world under a rule, Who are but weasels fighting in a hole. ... 8
  10. 10. William Butler Yeats is Ireland’s most famous poet, dramatist, critic, Senator and post-colonial writer. Yeats’s position as postcolonial writer is a polemic because of his double identity. For his post-colonial works "Meditation in Time of Civil War" and "Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen", Yeats's position is to live in an in between status. Two key elements in post-colonialism describing his identities as the colonized and colonizer, it called the concepts of ambivalence and hybridity. Note: Post-colonial critics, Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in “The Empire Writes Back” exclude Ireland from the list of postcolonial nations. On the other hand, Edward Said, in ”Culture and Imperialism”, argues that Ireland is a postcolonial nation. The title of this poem, “Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen” is the year in which the Anglo-Irish war began. This political poem explores the human condition where the things most precious are lost in violence. Many of the Irish patriots were connected intimately with Yeats, had hoped that the time would freeing their country from the English subjugation. 9
  11. 11. CONCLUSION Post-colonialism realized that even though the colonial era has finished yet, but the practices have not come to an end and now has turned it face into neo-colonialism. In post-colonial perspective, literary works emerged to unveil subjugation, injustice, violence, discrimination, inequality, to sound the marginal and subaltern people, so that from post-colonial productions yielded social and political products. Post-colonial literature is a kind of literary work which describes realistic experience of what really happens around us and to remind don’t just shut our eyes. It is believe that one voice could lead into a betterment for our future and society. 10
  12. 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY -----Barry, Peter (2009) Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory, Manchester: Manchester University Press. -----Endraswara, Suwardi (2013) Metodologi Penelitian Sastra, Yogyakarta: CAPS. -----Ashcroft, Bill, et al. (2007) Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts, London and New York: Routledge. -----Ashcroft, Bill, et al. (2003) The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, London and New York: Routledge. 11