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Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Public Health

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Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Public Health

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Robotics and Public Health Dr. Kirtan Rana
  2. 2. Outline • Definition • Artificial intelligence (AI) • Robotics • Public Health • AI and Public Health • Natural Language processing • ICDS CAS • Google trends • Robotics and Public Health • Challenges in AI and robotics • Potential Opportunities
  3. 3. Definitions • Artificial intelligence(AI) refers to “the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions”. • Robotics is an interdisciplinary research area at the interface of computer science and engineering • Public health is “the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society”. (Acheson ,1988; WHO)
  4. 4. Artificial Intelligence (AI) • Artificial Intelligence is a set of algorithms and intelligence trying to mimic human intelligence • AI term coined by John McCarthy in 1956 • Characteristic of AI: ability to take rationalize action in achieving a specific goal • 3 goals: • Learning • Reasoning • Perception
  5. 5. Intelligent agent: • An intelligent agent (programs) is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success • AI falls broadly under two categories: • Narrow AI: weak AI, limited context, less than human intelligence (google trends, alexa, Siri) • Artificial General Intelligence: strong AI, at par with human intelligence (moves like terminator, west world, star trek)
  6. 6. Natural language processing (NLP) • NLP is a subfield of AI that develops algorithms and builds model capable of using language as humans do • Frame work for approaches to public health • Rapidly analyze large amount of unstructured and semi structured texts • Identification of population, interventions and outcomes of interest
  7. 7. Example of NLP role in public health
  8. 8. Existing and potential applications of natural language processing in public health Type of activity Public health objectives Identification of at risk populations or condition of interest • To continuously measure the incidence and prevalence of diseases and disease risk factors (i.e. surveillance) • To identify vulnerable and at-risk populations Identification of health interventions • To develop optima recommendations/ interventions • To identify best practices Identification of health outcomes using real world evidences • To evaluate the benefits of health interventions • To identify unintended adverse outcomes related to interventions Knowledge generation and translation • To support public health research Environmental scanning and situational awareness • To conduct public health risk assessments and provide situational awareness • To monitor activities that may have an impact on public health decision making
  9. 9. Potential of AI for Public Health • AI based breast cancer screening, non invasive and low cost solutions based on heat mapping • Detects breast cancer 5 years earlier than mammography  Low doctor to patient ratio  Severe shortage of resources Need of technology to over come burden and constrains
  10. 10. • Smart phone anthropometry enables frontline workers to accurately report baby weight • A rapid detection and response devices directly alerts radiologist when it spots a pneumothorax • National health service in US adopted an AI cohort based triage system
  11. 11. ICDS CAS • Integrated Child Development Services Common Application Software • Strengthen delivery system as well as real time monitoring for nutritional outcome • Common Application Software captures data, ensures assigned service delivery and prompts for intervention whenever required • Real time position of anganwadi worker • Encourages the anganwadi worker to finish her work same day before stipulated time (2:00 pm)
  12. 12. Main page Home page
  13. 13. Growth monitoring Home visits
  14. 14. Immunization details Immunization Due status
  15. 15. Google search trends • 97% of the search engine market is shared by google • Google answer queries and keep record of that • Weekly trend can be accessed from google trends, a special open- access domain of Google (https://trends.google.com/trends/). • Gives option to hide identity also
  16. 16. Robotics • Goal is to design intelligent machines that can help and assist humans in their day to day lives • Involves design, construction, operation and use of robotics • Dates back to 420 BC-Archytas of Tarentum invented flying pigeon • First installed industrial robot – Unimate (1961) • COVID 19 could be a catalyst for an efficient robotic system
  17. 17. Robotics and public health • Robots are of great use during pandemics as they can be used for • Disinfection • Delivering medicines and food • Measuring vital signs • Assisting border controls • During Ebola outbreak (2015) it has been identified that robot can make a difference in • Clinical care • Logistics • Reconnaissance
  18. 18. Robotics in health care • Receptionist robots: disseminate information about various units/ sections of hospitals and guide patients and visitors. (a) • Nurse robots: assist doctor in hospitals in same manner as human nurse , more common in Japan. (b,c) a b c
  19. 19. • Serving robots in hospital: HOSPI • Ambulance robots: Ambu dot • Telemedicine robots: RP-VITA HOSPI RP-VITA: FDA approved telemedicine robot Ambu dot
  20. 20. • Surgical robots: Da Vinci robotic surgical system • Rehabilitation robots: Kinova assistive robotic arm, EksoNR exoskelton Da Vinci robotic surgical system Kinova assistive robotic arm and EksoNR exoskelton
  21. 21. Medical robots with applications
  22. 22. Robots in action during COVID 19 pandemic
  23. 23. Temperature monitoring Disinfection robots Sterilization robots Receptionist robot
  24. 24. Robotic solutions during COVID 19
  25. 25. Risks and Challenges with AI • Injuries and errors • Data availability • Privacy concerns • Bias and inequality • Professional realignment • Algorithmic bias • Susceptibility to adversarial attack or manipulation • Logistical difficulties in implementing AI system • Human barriers to AI adoption in healthcare
  26. 26. Possible solutions • Data generation and availability • Quality oversight • Provider engagement and education
  27. 27. Concerns of healthcare robotics • Replacement and its implication for labour • Replacement and its implication for the quality of care: de humanization and “cold” care • Autonomy • Role and tasks • Moral agency • Responsibility • Deception • Trust • Privacy and data protection • Safety and avoidance of harm
  28. 28. Potential Solutions • Collaboration with the developers of technology about ethics during the research projects. • Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) Doing science and innovation with society and for society, including the involvement of relevant stakeholders groups ‘very upstream’ in the processes of research and innovation to align its outcomes with the values and expectations of society A wide umbrella that brings together different aspects of the relationship between science and innovation and society:  Public engagement  Open access  Gender equality  Science  Education  Ethics and governance
  29. 29. Open House Discussion
  30. 30. Thank you!!!

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