The modern game actually grew out of three sports that were developed,
independently, in three different European countries: The Czech hazena ,
the Danish handbold , and theGerman Torball .
All three were based on soccer, but essentially replaced the foot with the
hand, so that the ball could be advanced by batting or throwing, rather
than by kicking.
Hazena was being played by Slovak peoples as early as 1892; its rules
were first codified in 1906, by a college professor. Handbold (the Danish
word for handball) was developed in 1898 by a teacher, Holger Nielsen,
as an alternative to soccer. In 1906, Nielsen revised the rules
considerably and began organizing competitions outside the school at
which he taught. Similarly, Torball was created in 1915 by a German
gymnastics teacher, Max Heiden.
Professor Carl Schelenz of the Berlin Physical Education School in 1919
combined elements of handbold and Torball and adapted the soccer
playing field for a new sport, which hecalled handball (actually
translating the Danish into German). Schelenz also borrowed from
basketball, which was just becoming popular in Germany, to allow
dribbling as a means of advancing the ball.
By 1925, the game had become fairly popular in other European
countries. The International Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was
established in 1928; handball was a demonstration sport at the
Olympics that year and again in 1932.
That form of handball, designed to be played outdoors by teams of
eleven players, was a full-fledged Olympic sport at the 1936 Munich
Games. The United States finished sixth and last in the competition.
Number of Players: There are seven players on each team (six court
players and one goalie). A maximum of 12 players may dress and
participate in a game for each team. Substitutes may enter the game at
any time through own substitution area as long as the player they are
replacing has left the court.
Uniform of the Players: Player numbers are 1 to 20. Uniform shirts and
shorts are the same color. The goalkeeper must wear a different color
shirt from teammates and opponents. No jewelry is allowed.
Referees: There are two referees, a court referee and a goal line referee.
Referees have complete authority: Their decisions are final; just like Mr.
Hough. The referees are assisted by a timer and a scorer.
Duration of the Game: For players 18 years and over, the game consists
of 2, 30-minute halves with 10-minute half-time. For tournament and
youth games 2, 15-minute or 2, 20- minute halves. This is running
time except for injury or one team time-out per half. The teams change
benches at half-time. The game ends in a tie unless the game demands
a winner. (Tournament rules dictate that a winner must be determined.)
Overtime consists of 2, 5-minute periods).
Passive Play: It is illegal to keep the ball in a team’s possession without
making a recognizable attempt to attack and to try to score. In other
words, a team cannot stall (free-throw awarded to the other team).
Throw-Off: A throw-off is taken by the team that wins the coin toss
and chooses to start the game with the ball. Each team must be in its
own half of the court with the defense 3 meters away from the ball.
Following a whistle, the ball is passed from center court to a teammate
and play begins. Throw-off is repeated after every goal scored and
Scoring: A goal is scored when the entire ball crosses the goal line
1. Bounce Pass :-
In bounce pass, the ball should be thrown in such a way that it should bounce
towards the teammate. It should bounce approximately three feet in front of the
receiver. The receiver should move towards the ball and try to catch the ball by
2. Hook pass :-
Hook Pass is used when a player is in the air for a jump shot. He simply releases
the ball, while at the top of his jump, to his teammate, who is expected to
penetrate towards the goal.
3. Chest pass :-
This pass is used frequently in handball. It is a short distance pass. This is
given by both hands. The sue of fingers makes this pass most accurate one.
4. Dive shot :-
In dive shot, the player stretches his body out and direct his momentum
towards the goal. He should release the ball at the last possible moment by taking
5. Jump Pass :-
Jump pass is executed with a jump The proper cafe should be taken to execute
such a pass after attaining maximum height in the jump and the ball should be
flicked with the help of wrists before the thrower starts losing the height.
6. Dribbling :-
Most of the American handball players use dribbling. For proper dribbling
action, a player should have his knees slightly bent, along with a body, leaning
forward. The ball should be pushed with the help of fingers. The hand should
remain in contact with the ball during its upward and downward motions.A
smooth and rhythmic action of the hand will help in keeping the control over the
ball.A player should feel comfortable in dribbling without at the ball