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i* Modeling of Agent-based RE
 Processes – A Basic Tutorial
     ROLE PLE Expert Workshop
        Leicester, July 23, 2009...
Motivation - Traditional RE

 •   Emphasis on Late Phase RE
 •   OO RE (Classes/Objects)
 •   Ill-suited for Socio-Technic...
Motivation - Agent-Oriented RE

•   Intentional Agents p
                 g     pursuing Goals
                           ...
What is an Agent?

•   Person, Organisation, Software
•   BDI: Beliefs – Desires – Intentions
•   Autonomous, Flexible, So...
The i* Modeling Framework
• Developed by Eric Yu
• Distributed Intentionality (Actors with Goals)
• 2 Model Types
  – Stra...
i* - Syntax Element Overview

•   Actor
•   Actor Associations
•   Goal, Softgoal, Task, Resource,
•   Links
    – Strateg...
Actor, Agent, Role, Position

     • Actor
        – Abstract representation for active entity
        – Carries out actio...
SD - Actor Associations


• 6 Types:
  – plays
  – occupies
  – covers
  – is a
  – is Part Of
  – is Instance


         ...
SD - Strategic Dependencies

Four Dependency Types:
 • Goal (fulfill)                 • Task (complete)
 • Softgoal (fulfi...
SD - Vulnerability




• Vulnerability implied with dependencies
• 3 Degrees of strength
  – Open: slightly affects depe d...
SR – Actor Boundaries




•   Intentional boundary of actor
                       y
•   Elements within explicitly desire...
SR – Means-Ends Links




• Relationship between
  – an end
  – a means for attaining end
• E d G l ( h t)
  End: Goal (wh...
SR – Decomposition Links




•   Task-Goal
    Task Goal Decomposition: Subgoal
•   Task-Task Decomposition: Subtask
•   T...
SR – Contribution Links




• contribution to fulfillment of softgoals
• 9 Types:
   Make         Break                 ...
SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SD)




               R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen             15
                                ...
SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SR)




               R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen             16
                                ...
Further Information – I* Wiki

•   Available at http://istar.rwth-aachen.de
                    p
•   Tutorials & Modeling...
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i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial

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i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial

ROLE PLE Expert Workshop Leicester, July 23, 2009

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i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial

  1. 1. i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial ROLE PLE Expert Workshop Leicester, July 23, 2009 Ralf Klamma Chair f C Ch i of Computer Science 5, t S i 5 RWTH Aachen University, Germany Technical Leader Community Facilitator © www.role-project.eu
  2. 2. Motivation - Traditional RE • Emphasis on Late Phase RE • OO RE (Classes/Objects) • Ill-suited for Socio-Technical Systems • “What“ & “How“, but not “Why“ What How Why • Neglection of Stakeholder Interests g • Early Choice between Alternatives  Agent-Oriented RE R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 2 © www.role-project.eu
  3. 3. Motivation - Agent-Oriented RE • Intentional Agents p g pursuing Goals g • Focus on Early Phase RE • Seamless R l S l Replacement Ht Human/SW A /SW Agent t • Continuous Adaptability p y – New Components – New Requirements • Flexibility – Alternative Ways towards Goals – Open towards Unknown Components R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 3 © www.role-project.eu
  4. 4. What is an Agent? • Person, Organisation, Software • BDI: Beliefs – Desires – Intentions • Autonomous, Flexible, Social • Goal-Oriented • Partial Description of Human Agents • Full Formal Description of SW Agents R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 4 © www.role-project.eu
  5. 5. The i* Modeling Framework • Developed by Eric Yu • Distributed Intentionality (Actors with Goals) • 2 Model Types – Strategic Dependency (SD) • Intentional, strategic relationships among actors • Actor Diagram – Strategic Rationale (SR) • Rationale behind dependencies p • Analysis of alternatives & dependency fulfillment g • Goal Diagram R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 5 © www.role-project.eu
  6. 6. i* - Syntax Element Overview • Actor • Actor Associations • Goal, Softgoal, Task, Resource, • Links – Strategic Dependency (SD) – Strategic Rationale (SR) • Decomposition • Means-Ends • Contributions R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 6 © www.role-project.eu
  7. 7. Actor, Agent, Role, Position • Actor – Abstract representation for active entity – Carries out actions to reach goals • Agent – Concrete manifestation of actor – Human/Software /S f • Role – Domain specific behaviour of actor Domain-specific – Played by actor • Position – Covers set of roles – Occupied by agent p y g R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 7 © www.role-project.eu
  8. 8. SD - Actor Associations • 6 Types: – plays – occupies – covers – is a – is Part Of – is Instance R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 8 © www.role-project.eu
  9. 9. SD - Strategic Dependencies Four Dependency Types: • Goal (fulfill) • Task (complete) • Softgoal (fulfill) • Resource (provide) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 9 © www.role-project.eu
  10. 10. SD - Vulnerability • Vulnerability implied with dependencies • 3 Degrees of strength – Open: slightly affects depe de Ope s g y a ec s depender – Committed: causes action in depender – Critical: causes all depender actions to fail R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 10 © www.role-project.eu
  11. 11. SR – Actor Boundaries • Intentional boundary of actor y • Elements within explicitly desired by actor • Actor A t must depend on others’ i t ti td d th ’ intentions • Actor is depended upon by others p p y R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 11 © www.role-project.eu
  12. 12. SR – Means-Ends Links • Relationship between – an end – a means for attaining end • E d G l ( h t) End: Goal (what) • Means: Task (how) ( ) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 12 © www.role-project.eu
  13. 13. SR – Decomposition Links • Task-Goal Task Goal Decomposition: Subgoal • Task-Task Decomposition: Subtask • Task-Resource Decomposition: ResourceFor • Task-Softgoal Decomposition: So tgoa o as So tgoa eco pos t o SoftgoalFor R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 13 © www.role-project.eu
  14. 14. SR – Contribution Links • contribution to fulfillment of softgoals • 9 Types:  Make  Break  Unknown  Some+  Some Some-  And  Help  Hurt  Or R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 14 © www.role-project.eu
  15. 15. SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SD) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 15 © www.role-project.eu
  16. 16. SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SR) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 16 © www.role-project.eu
  17. 17. Further Information – I* Wiki • Available at http://istar.rwth-aachen.de p • Tutorials & Modeling Guidelines • Tools T l • Publications categorized by domain g y – Requirements Engineering – Trust in Multi Agent Systems – Variability and Personalization – Knowledge Management R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 17 © www.role-project.eu

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