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The Ottoman Empire and its End SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century. a. Explain how European partitioning in Southwest Asia (Middle East) after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
Beginnings• The Ottoman Empire began in 1299 in Turkey• Osman a Turkish warrior was Muslim and had followers called Ottomans.• Osman conquered the last of the Byzantines and the Ottoman Empire began.• Osman became the first Sultan
Growth• By 1451 the Ottomans controlled much of the Middle East.• Constantinople was its capital and a center of learning and culture.• By 1500 they controlled the eastern Mediterranean, Northern Africa, and parts of Arabia.
• Suleiman ruled from 1520 to 1566 and became known as the greatest ottoman ruler.
Decline• After Suleiman death the empire began to decline over the next 300 years.• It would gain and lose territory over those 300 years.• By the 20th century it was weak and became known as the Sick man of Europe.
The End• During World War I the Ottomans sided with the Central powers• The British overtook Jerusalem and Baghdad from the Ottomans• Arabia then followed and rose up against the Ottoman rule• By 1918 the empire collapsed
After WWI• In 1920, the Treaty of Sevres split the Ottoman territory up between the Allied or Western powers.• France was given Syria and Lebanon• The British controlled Palestine and Iraq• Turkey was independent.
Consequences• Europeans did not take into account religious and ethnic differences when creating the boundaries for the new countries.• As a result there has been a lot of conflict.