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Writing research paper khalid

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Writing research paper khalid

  1. 1. Writing Research Paper Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Department of Library and Information Science University of the Punjab 1
  2. 2. Agenda• Research paper• Planning for writing a research paper• Identifying a topic• Formulating research questions/hypotheses• Types of research paper• Contents of a research paper• Writing tips• Publishing research paper• Legal and ethical issues in research 2
  3. 3. Other Writing vs. Research Paper• Fiction • Non-fiction• Poem • Analysis• Short story • Evaluation• Novel • Comparison• Play • Must have• Deals with: sources/ – Emotions – Feelings references• Sources???? 4
  4. 4. Planning for writing a research paper1. Writing research paper is a long and boring process2. It requires high level of commitment3. Start work well before the due date4. Break down the research process into steps.5. Assign a due date for each step.6. Make weekly and daily priority lists. 5
  5. 5. Identifying a topic• Interesting to you• Enhancement of previous research• Areas of weakness in current research• Current trends• Not too broad or too narrow• Workable• Acceptable to the funding agency, conference organizers or journal editor 6
  6. 6. Formulating a research question • Decide what question you want to answer with your research. • Formulate a question. • For example: – How does exercise improve someone’s mental health? – What are the effects of violent video games on elementary school children? – Should elementary schools provide more programming in the arts? 7
  7. 7. Hypothesis• Hypotheses are more specific predictions about the nature and direction of the relationship between two variables. 8
  8. 8. Types of research paper• Empirical study• Literature review• Theoretical article• Methodological article• Case study 9
  9. 9. Contents of a research paper • Title • Results • Author’s name and • Discussion affiliation (Byline) • Conclusion • Abstract • References • Keywords • Acknowledgements • Introduction • Biographical sketch • Literature review • Appendices • Method 10
  10. 10. Title• Clear and explanatory title• An incomplete sentence• Brief and concise 11
  11. 11. Abstract• Miniature of the text• 150 to 200 words• Paragraph or structured• Descriptive or informative• Complete concise sentences• Contents of Abstracts: – Purpose or scope of the paper – Methods – Results, conclusions and recommendations 13
  12. 12. Introduction• Identifies subject area of interest• States the purpose and hypothesis of the study• Provides a statement of the rationale for approach to the problem studied. 15
  13. 13. Literature review• Establishes context of the study by providing a brief and balanced review of pertinent published literature available on subject.• General to specific• Name-date citations 16
  14. 14. Method• Study design• Participants and their characteristics• When and where study conducted• Sampling method and size• Variables measured• Method of collecting data• How data analyzed: Statistical procedures used 17
  15. 15. Results• Objective presentation of key findings without interpretation• Orderly, logical sequence using text and illustrations (figures/tables) 18
  16. 16. Discussion• Answers questions posed in introduction• Interprets results in comparison to what is already known on the subject.• Explains new understanding of the subject based on present results• It tells the readers how present study moved from what was known to what is new• Outlines limitations of the study• Discusses ideas for future research 19
  17. 17. Conclusion• Summary• Recommendations 20
  18. 18. References• Complete citations for research cited• References are listed in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name• Citations according to style manual, e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. 21
  19. 19. Acknowledgments• Included as needed• Significant help in thinking, designing, implementing, materials supplied etc.• Funding agency. 22
  20. 20. Appendix• Begins on a new page• If you have only one then label it “Appendix”• If you have more than one, label with a letter in the order mentioned in the text, Appendix A, Appendix B• Each appendix should have a title that reflects the content 23
  21. 21. Writing clearly and concisely• Length• Organizing a paper with headings 24
  22. 22. HeadingsFive levels CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase HeadingFlush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period, with following text starting on the same line. 25
  23. 23. Writing style• Continuity in presentation of ideas – Punctuation marks – Transitional words• Smoothness of expression – Simple language – Different from literary writing• Economy of expression – Avoid wordiness and redundancy• Precision and clarity – Avoid jargon and slang 26
  24. 24. Grammar• Prefer active voice• Select tense carefully 27
  25. 25. Style• Capitalization• Spacing• Italics• Spelling (American or British)• Abbreviations 28
  26. 26. Numbers• In general write as words all numbers from one to nine and use numerals for all numbers 10 and over.• Never begin a sentence with a numeral. 29
  27. 27. Seriation• Within paragraph or sentence: use lowercase letter in parentheses Participants considered (a) some alternative courses of action, (b) the factors influencing the decision, and (c) the probability of success.• Separate paragraphs: number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, followed by a period 1. Begin with paragraph indent. Type second and succeeding lines flush left. 2. The second item begins a new paragraph. 30
  28. 28. Tables Table 2 Reading Level for First Through Third Graders Children Number of ViewingGrade Reading Level HoursFirst Grade 5 - 10 hours 2.8Second Grade 16 - 20 hours 2.6Third Grade 11 - 15 hours 4.2Note. Reading level refers to average reading level for students inthat year and month of school. 31
  29. 29. FiguresFigure 2. Pie chart of total sales Other 3% IT Services 14% Imaging and Printing Systems 41% Computing Systems 42% 32
  30. 30. Tips in writing results• Do not reiterate each value or finding from the table – only mention salient points• Do not present the same data in table and figure: this is redundant• Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percent, etc.• Statistical test and value should be mentioned• Always mention appropriate units with data• Only present percentages to one decimal point 33
  31. 31. Editing• Consistent font (style, size, color)• Consistent line spacing• Break up text with bullets• Include figures, drawings, photos• Use subheads 34
  32. 32. Do Your Numbers Add Up? • Have you accounted for all of your study participants? – Do number of patients in treatment and control groups match total number of participants? • Do your percentages add up to 100? • Do your percentages and raw numbers agree? 35
  33. 33. Final manuscript• Use 8 ½” x 11” white paper• Print on only one side of each piece of paper• Double line spacing• Use one inch margins at the top, bottom, and sides• Indent each paragraph ½ inch (5 spaces) from the left margin• Number each page in the top right corner 36
  34. 34. How to find journals for publishing research paper• Ulrichs International Periodical Directory• Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)• Journal Citation Reports• IngentaConnect• HEC recognized journals 37
  35. 35. How to select right journal • Look at your reference list • Ask your colleagues for advice • Think about who will want to read your paper • Read papers from short-listed journals • Put your shortlist of journals in rank order, from first choice to last choice • Discuss your choice with your co-authors 38
  36. 36. Criteria for journal selection • Referring system • Citation scores • Circulation • Journal type • Time lag • Reputation of editors • Professional vs. commercial ownership • Quality of production 39
  37. 37. Manuscript submission to journals • Guidelines for authors • Process of submission • Acknowledgement by editor 40
  38. 38. Reviewprocess 41
  39. 39. Process of review• First scanning by editor• Selection of reviewers• Double blind review• Time for review• Decision of reviewers• Communication of decision to author• Acceptance, Rejection or Revision• Submission and review of revised version• Final decision 42
  40. 40. Handling reviewers’ comments • Make adjustments and attach explanation • Don’t feel obligated to make all recommended changes • Don’t take comments personally • Be polite in all correspondence 43
  41. 41. Publishing process• Paying for publication• Copyright agreement by author• Decision of issue to include paper• Copy editing• Proof reading• Printing• Notification of publishing to author• Delivery of printed issue and off-prints 44
  42. 42. Ethical issues in research• Accurate reporting of research results• Data retention and sharing• Duplication and piecemeal publication• Plagiarism• Protecting confidentiality• Conflict of interest 45
  43. 43. Legal issues in research• Publication credit – Co-authorship – Order of authorship• Publishing contract• Copyright• Defamation 46
  44. 44. Thanks for your patience 47