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Marine piping systems

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Marine piping systems

  1. 1. Pipe Design and Production
  2. 2. Marine Piping Systems Ship Piping Systems
  3. 3. Bilge System Bilge System
  4. 4. Bilge System • Basic requirement is to provide effective drainage to all dry spaces and at the same time prevent water from entering the spaces through this system. • Discharge of oily water from machinery spaces is to comply with MARPOL Annex 1 • Oily water is treated in an oily-water separator before being allowed to be discharged. • Discharge water must be monitored with purity not to exceed ppm set by MARPOL.
  5. 5. Bilge System Bilge main diameter, dm d m = 1.68 × L × ( B + D ) + 25 (mm) L = length of ship B = Breadth D = Depth Branch bilge main diameter, db d b = 2.15 × l × ( B + D ) + 25 (mm) l = length of compartment
  6. 6. Bilge System Bilge pump capacity, Q 2 dm Q = 5.75 × 3 (m3/h) 10 • Two bilge pumps are required • Suctions are arranged such that water can be pumped out when ship is inclined 5° • Arrangement must be such that water cannot pass from sea or ballast system into dry spaces through the bilge system
  7. 7. Oily-water Separator
  8. 8. Ballast System Ballast System
  9. 9. Ballast System • For safe operation, at least two ballast pumps are to be connected to ballast tanks. • Stripping eductor can also be used for emptying the bilges in cargo holds with 2 non-return valves between hold and system • Ship side valve material must not of grey cast iron and to direct mechanical manual operate
  10. 10. Air and Sounding Systems Purposes • to secure ventilation of tanks, cofferdam and tunnels to prevent over-pressurizing and vacuum (air pipes) • to ascertain the level of liquid in tanks, cofferdam and tunnels (Sounding pipes) • Vent pipes need to prevent flooding of spaces through their upper ends • Vent pipes need to safely prevent flammable liquids or vapours due to their fire hazards
  11. 11. Air and Sounding Systems Machinery Spaces • Heavy fuel oil overflow tank has short self-closing type sounding pipe • HFO overflow tank air pipe is led to open deck as required. • Lubricating oil sump tank air pipe may end inside machinery space but away from ignition sources
  12. 12. Air and Sounding Systems Machinery Spaces • Air or overflow pipes internal are are normally required to be 1.25 times the area of respective filling pipes for a tank. • Velocity in the air pipe is not to exceed 4 m/s when using one pump for one tank.
  13. 13. Air and Sounding Systems
  14. 14. Air and Sounding Systems
  15. 15. Fire-Fighting Systems Fire-fighting System
  16. 16. Fire-Fighting Systems Three groups: • Fire Main – Seawater as fire extinguishing medium – At least two fire pumps and are located in two different compartments – An international shore connection is provided at port and starboard for external water supply – System is tested with at least streams of water directed from one fire pump. – Pressure relief valve is fitted to mains to protect sudden over-pressure.
  17. 17. Fire-Fighting Systems Three groups: • Carbon Dioxide system – Dry fire protection – Used in compartments that have potential for fire: engine room, emergency generator room, paint locker and galley hood – System is equipped with audio and visual alarm to alert personnel to evacuate – Prior to CO2 release, ventilation fans and fire damper to be shut.
  18. 18. Fire-Fighting Systems Three groups: • Sprinkle system – Wet fire protection mainly for accommodation area – System is filled with fresh water and pressurized by compressed air – Subsequently, water is supplied from fire main – Sprinkle and fire main systems are separated by an alarm check valve. – When the pressure in the sprinkle drops below the fire main fire pressure, the fire main pressure will overcome the internal pressure of the valve lift and automatically push open to accommodate the fire main.
  19. 19. Fuel Oil Systems Main concerns • Fire hazards – Flash point – Insulation – Remote control of fuel oil valves – Stopping of pumps – Collection of drains from leaks • Materials – Fuel oil pipes and their valves and fittings is required to be of steel or other fire-resistance materials
  20. 20. FO Storage and Transfer FO Storage and Transfer
  21. 21. FO Storage and Transfer Important concerns • Overflow pipes • Quick-closing valves • Drain to waste oil tanks (spill trays) • Level gauge with heat-resistant glass for sounding • Remote control of fuel oil valves • Insulation of hot surfaces where fuel oil leaks (possibly in a spray form) is possible
  22. 22. HFO Settling Tank
  23. 23. HFO Service Tank
  24. 24. Quick-closing Valves
  25. 25. FO Supply to Engine FO System
  26. 26. FO Supply to Engine Main components • Storage (bunkers) • Transfer pump • Settling tank • Heater • Purifier • Service tank • Filter • Viscosity controller • Return Tank (10 to 15 minutes engine operation)
  27. 27. HFO Duplex Filter
  28. 28. HFO Transfer Pump
  29. 29. HFO Heater
  30. 30. HFO Separator
  31. 31. HFO Separation System
  32. 32. Diesel Fuel Separation System
  33. 33. Diesel Fuel Separation System
  34. 34. Lubricating Oil Storage and Transfer
  35. 35. Lubricating Oil Storage and Transfer Main components • Filling from deck to tanks • Main LO storage tank to deliver to ME sump tank • Quick-closing valves operable from outside ER where valves are below top of tanks (not applicable for small tanks below 0.5 m3) • Air pipes may terminate inside ER provided their openings do not constitute a fire hazard • Duplex filters (or self-cleaning) are used without interrupting operations
  36. 36. Lubricating Oil Circulation System
  37. 37. Lubricating Oil Service Tank
  38. 38. Lubricating Oil Pump
  39. 39. Lubricating Oil Filter – Self-cleaning
  40. 40. Lubricating Oil Filter – Self-cleaning
  41. 41. Lubricating Oil System - Thermostatic Valve
  42. 42. Shell-and-Tube LO Cooler
  43. 43. Lubricating Oil Purifier
  44. 44. Lubricating Oil Purifier
  45. 45. Seawater Cooling System
  46. 46. Seawater Cooling System Arrangement • Conventional and Central cooling • High and low sea chests • Suctions are arranged from two sea inlets preferably on the opposite sides of the ships • Filters can be cleaned without interrupting the water supply in the system. • Temperature controlled three-way valves to re- circulate water when the water is cold
  47. 47. Seawater Cooling System
  48. 48. Overboard Discharge
  49. 49. Freshwater Cooling System Freshwater Cooling System
  50. 50. Freshwater Cooling System Arrangement • Freshwater from engine is delivered to freshwater generator (evaporator) • Pressure in the system is regulated by he expansion tank • Temperature-controlled three-way valves to allow re-circulation • High-temperature circuit (jacket cooler), low- temperature circuit (lubricating oil)
  51. 51. Freshwater Generator (Evaporator)
  52. 52. Freshwater Cooler (Plate-type)
  53. 53. Jacket Water Pump
  54. 54. Freshwater Header Tank
  55. 55. Compressed Air System
  56. 56. Compressed Air System • Normally three systems – Starting air – Service air – Control air • Require two main compressors to charge two air receivers from atmospheric within one hour • Capacity of receivers sufficient to produce: – 12 starts for reversible engines – 6 starts for non-reversible engines – 3 starts for auxiliary engines
  57. 57. Compressed Air System • No connections to other machinery between air compressors and main air receivers • Emergency air compressor can be diesel driven or power supplied from emergency generator • Pressure reduction stations and filters are required to be duplicates • Safety relief valves are fitted at receivers and set at 10% above operating pressure • Compressed air line is classes as Class II due to high pressure.
  58. 58. Air Compressors
  59. 59. Air Receivers
  60. 60. Auxiliary Air Receiver
  61. 61. Emergency Air Receiver
  62. 62. Control Air Dryer (Refrigerant-type)
  63. 63. Pressure-reducing Station
  64. 64. Domestic Water System Domestic Water System
  65. 65. Domestic Water System • Freshwater is made by Freshwater generator (evaporator) • Delivery of water to accommodation from hydrophore units is by compressed air • Domestic water is sterilized before consumption • Domestic water is heated and then circulated (by hot-water circulating pumps) • Domestic water is also used by HFO, DO and LO separators
  66. 66. Hydrophore unit
  67. 67. Domestic Water Heater
  68. 68. Power Generating System
  69. 69. Generator System Diesel Generator System
  70. 70. Steam System Steam System
  71. 71. Steam System • Normally divided into: – Feed water systems – Steam supply • For heating tanks • For heating pipelines • To heat exchangers – Condensate • Heat of exhaust gas is recovered in economizer to generate steam • Diesel propulsion system is normally fitted with an auxiliary boiler
  72. 72. Steam System • Steam with pressure above 7 bar or temperature above 170°C are considered Class II piping. • Steam with pressure above 16 bar or temperature above 300°C is of Class I piping. • With respect to materials for valves and fittings in Class II piping system, grey cast iron may not be used up to ND 200, pressure up to 13 bar and temperature up to 250°C
  73. 73. Auxiliary Boiler
  74. 74. Cargo Pump Turbine and Condenser