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Hrm iv hrd_techs

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON HRD Techniques [Human Resource Development] Subject: Personnel Management PREPARED BY : KINJAL H. RAJBHAR SY BBA [ROLL NO. – 24] SHRI K.M. SAVJANI & SMT. K.K. SAVJANI BBA/BCA COLLEGE, VERAVAL
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  3. 3. <ul><li>Concept of HRD: </li></ul><ul><li>HRD is mainly concerned with developing the skill, knowledge & competencies of people & it is people oriented concept. HRD from the organizational point of view is a process in which: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Employees of an organization are helped/motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Acquire, develop and mould various aspects of human resources; and, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Contribute to the organizational, group, individual and social goals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>HRD is needed by the organization that wants to be dynamic and growth oriented or to succeed in fast changing environment. Organizations can become dynamic and will grow only through the efforts and competencies of their human resources. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Performance Appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Training. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Change. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers participation Management. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Quality Circles. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Work. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: <ul><li>Performance appraisal is a systematic way of reviewing and assessing the performance of an employee during a given period of time and planning for his future. To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development. To judge between actual and desired performance. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Flippo, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Performance Appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process of Performance Appraisal :
  9. 9. POTENTIAL APPRAISAL: <ul><li>The potential appraisal refers to the appraisal i.e. identification of the hidden talents and skills of a person. The person might or might not be aware of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential appraisal is a future – oriented appraisal whose main objective is to identify and evaluate the potential of the employees to assume higher positions and responsibilities in the organizational hierarchy. Many organizations consider and use potential appraisal as a part of the performance appraisal processes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Potential appraisal serves the following purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>To advise employees about their overall career development and future prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate the employees to further develop their skills and competencies. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the training needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform employees about their future prospects. </li></ul><ul><li>Advise employees about what they must do to improve their career prospects. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CAREER PLANNING : <ul><li>Career planning is the systematic process by which one selects career goals and path to these goals. From the organizations point of view it means helping the employees to plan their career in terms of their capacities within the context of the organizations need. </li></ul><ul><li>Its managerial technique for mapping out the entire career of young employees. It involves designing an organizational system of career movement and growth opportunities for employees from the employment stage to the retirement stage. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Advantages of Career Planning : </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of various career opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to select the career which is suitable to his life style, preference, family environment and self development. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to identify talented employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal promotion, up gradation and transfers boost up motivation and morale. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves employees’ performance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CAREER DEVELOPMENT : <ul><li>Career development refers to a formal approach used by the firm to ensure that people with proper qualifications and experiences are available when needed. It benefits the employer and employee both, as proper developed employees are better developed to add value to themselves, and to the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations devise and implement several initiatives in order to develop their employees’ career. More significant of them are career planning, workshops, career counseling, mentoring, personal development plans, and career workbooks. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Career Planning Integrate short-term and long-term human resource needs. Develop a career plan for each individual. Individual Career Planning Assess personal interests and abilities. Collect data about organizational Opportunities. Set career goals Develop a strategy to achieve career Goals. Integrate organizational needs and individual career plans. Designing individual career paths, create developmental Strategies and provide career counseling. Career Development Implement career plans Publicize job vacancies Appraise employee performance Employee development through on-and -off the job experiences Evaluate career progression
  15. 15. EMPLOYEE TRANING : <ul><li>Training improves, changes and moulds the employees’ skill, knowledge, behavior and aptitude and attitude towards the requirements of the job and the organization. It refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Training is needed to match the employee satisfactions with the job requirements and organizational needs, for technological advances, for organizational complexity, for maintaining human relations and to increase the productivity, organizational climate and quality of the product. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reasons: <ul><li>Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT : <ul><li>Executive development is the whole of the activities aimed at developing the skills and competencies of those that will have executive position in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive development is also used to evaluate future potential, future executives as well as the mechanism for the CEO, and the executive team to cascade their strategies, goals and even elements of the culture to rest of the management team and ultimately the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It also helps to provide input to the strategy creation process. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Objectives of Executive Development: </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the performance of the managers. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify persons with the required potential and prepare them for senior positions. </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the morale of the management group. </li></ul><ul><li>To keep executives abreast with the changes and development in their respective fields. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve thought of process and analytical ability. </li></ul><ul><li>To broaden the outlook of the executive towards his position and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate creative thinking. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : <ul><li>The concept of the organizational change is in regard to the organization wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding new person, modifying a program, etc. Its example may include change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, re-engineering, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force, e.g., substantial cuts in funding, address major new markets/clients, need for dramatic increases in productivity/services, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change may be defined as ‘the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. It is a way of modifying an existing organization. Organizational change is largely structural in nature as it brings about modifications in organizational structure, methods and processes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Features of Change: </li></ul><ul><li>It is deliberate, systematic and intentionally undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes place in all organizations at varying speeds and different degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>It challenges the status quo and sets the organization on a new path. </li></ul><ul><li>Change may focus on organization’s technology, products, markets, processes, people, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes are difficult to bring about, costly and time consuming. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>Commonly, the planned efforts in the response of the organizational change is known as Organizational Development. </li></ul><ul><li>According to French & Bell, </li></ul><ul><li>“ OD is a long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture −with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams− with the assistance of a agent, or a catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavior science, including action research.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Features of OD: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on whole organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of a Change agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Group processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Team building . </li></ul>
  23. 23. WORKERS’ PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT (WPM): <ul><li>Workers’ participation in management means giving scope for workers to influence the managerial decision-making process at different levels by various forms in the organization. The principal forms of workers’ participation are information sharing, joint consultation, suggestion schemes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial democracy converts the workers from the mere subjects obeying the orders of the employers, into citizens of the industrial world, with a right to self-determination and self-government, that is, representative participation in making rules and enforcing them. This is known as Workers’ Participation in Management. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Significance : </li></ul><ul><li>Higher productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource development. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced resistance to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced industrial unrest . </li></ul>
  25. 25. QUALITY CIRCLES: <ul><li>It is small group of employee in the same work area doing similar type of work who voluntarily meets to identify, analyze and resolve related problems not only to improve quality, productivity and the total performance of the organization, but also to enrich the quality of work life of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>It increases self-development in terms of skills, knowledge, sensitivity of employees, etc. The effective functioning of quality circle results in organizational development. It helps to develop the harmony and mutual trust between members and the management. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To develop, enhance and utilize human resources effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve quality of products/services, productivity and reduces cost of production per unit of output. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve various supervisory skills like leadership, problem solving, inter-personal and conflict resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance the employees’ morale and commitment by fulfilling the psychological needs for self-urge, participation, etc. </li></ul>
  27. 27. TEAM WORK: <ul><li>The process of working collaboratively with a group of people, in order to achieve a goal. Team work is often a crucial part of a business, as it is often necessary for colleagues to work well together, trying their best in any circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Team work means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between individuals. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves interdisciplinary knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage in diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One vision, many hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared responsibilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves mutual understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective productivity. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. ROLE ANALYSIS: <ul><li>Over a period of time, roles to be played by a job holder may undergo a change, and due to this reason role analysis becomes an important task of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A role is a set of expectations people have about the behavior of a person in particular position. A position holder may perform three types of role in day to day life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enacted Role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role analysis may be helpful in job analysis as it is based on job description and specification which nothing different but role analysis. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>It clarifies the role of each individual clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>Authority and responsibilities are unambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces conflicts among the employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Good for effective management. </li></ul>
  31. 31. COMMUNICATION POLICIES AND PRACTICES : <ul><li>Communication is a process by which an individual exchanges the information with others effectively. Raymond V. Lesikar describes four factors that influence the effectiveness in the organizational communication i.e. The formal channels of communication, The organizations’ authority structure, Job specialization and Information ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational communication may be formal or informal. The communication may flow in either horizontal or vertical direction. The vertical communication may be upward or downward. The informal communication is also known as grapevine. There are many other types of communication practices such as verbal and nonverbal communication, oral and written communication and informal communication. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is needed to exchange the information, ideas, thoughts, opinions, etc. with the colleagues, superiors & subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee orientation and socialization programme becomes possible mostly through communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee performance is evaluated by getting information, opinions, ratings from the superiors, subordinates and employers. In all these activities communication plays a crucial role. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all the training and development programme are possible due to communication only. </li></ul><ul><li>Participative management is possible due to communication only </li></ul>
  33. 33. MONETARY REWARDS: <ul><li>The purpose of monetary incentives is to reward associates for excellent job performance through money. Monetary incentives include profit sharing, project bonuses, stock options and warrants, scheduled bonuses (e.g., Christmas and Diwali). </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally these have helped maintain a positive motivational environment in the organization. This may increase the morale of the employee which will deliver the best result of the work done in the organization. </li></ul>
  34. 34. NON MONETARY REWARDS: <ul><li>Employees today are ravenous for encouragement and positive feedback, but few feel they are receiving it. Here are the five top non-monetary rewards in the workplace that employees want: </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to Learn, Develop and Advance as an Employee: Employees understand they need to grow, learn and develop new skills in order to advance. The ability to be able to choose their assignments and rise to new challenges offered by new responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Hours: Family, children, friends, church, sports, hobbies and other activities all have demands on today's employees. A flexible schedule or the occasional afternoon off can help employees meet some of these obligations. By allowing some flexibility in an employees schedule you can increase their desire and motivation. This, to some, is considered the most important of the non-monetary rewards in the workplace. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Recognition: In today's high paced work environment it is reported that employees consider it very rare and infrequent that they receive recognition of their work and efforts. Think about it - What better way to have employees continue their good work and success then to offer them praise-verbal, written or ideally a public announcement. Recognition is probably the most sought after of the non-monetary rewards in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>The Opportunity to Contribute: The opportunity to be part of the team. To work closely with managers and management. To be involved in key decisions. To be listened to and heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Independence and Autonomy: Employees want to be able to work independently. They do not want someone constantly watching over them and questioning their every move. They like to receive their assignments -preferable with the time frame required for completion and then have the independence to complete the work given the guidelines and framework you have set on their own merits. </li></ul>
  36. 36. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS : <ul><li>Employee benefits and services include any benefits that the employee receives in addition to direct remuneration. The synonyms used are fringes, services programs, employee benefits and hidden payroll. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant benefits and services programs may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment for the time not worked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pension plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knick-knacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokens. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. GREIVANCE MECHANISM : <ul><li>Management and trade unions try to provide the best benefits and services to the workers but still the workers may feel some dissatisfaction. Workers’ dissatisfaction are dealt through the grievance procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Flippo, grievance as, </li></ul><ul><li>“ A type of discontent which must always be expressed. A grievance is usually a more formal in character than a complaint. It can be valid or ridiculous, and must grow out of something connected with the company operation or the policy. It must involve an interpretation or application of the provisions of the labor connected. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Need for G.P : </li></ul><ul><li>Most grievances disturb the employees which affects there morale and productivity. If an explosive situation develops it can be handled easily if there grievance handling procedure already in existence. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not possible that all the grievances will be handled easily by the supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee are entitled to legislative, executive and judicial protection and they get this protection from the grievance redressal procedure, which also acts as a means of upward communication </li></ul>
  39. 39. EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING : <ul><li>Employee face a variety of uncertainties, issues and problems both at the work and the family. Counseling is one of the efficient interventions to find out work and family related employee problems that affect the work negatively. Counseling is the process of helping other persons to find and act upon a solution to their problems, anxieties, uncertainties and issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling is provided for work and personal issues such as : stress , change, conflict , career planning, communication, trauma, depression, relationship issues, family problems, anxiety, drug and alcohol problem, etc. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Objective of counseling: </li></ul><ul><li>To provide help for employees who are having problems before they develop into more serious issues e.g. alcohol/substance misuse, increased accident rate, stress related illness etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To offer counseling by fully counselors. Such counseling will be strictly confidential between the counselor and the employee . No details or records will be disclosed. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and Supervisors should assess whether counseling may be useful to support employees. Counseling may be at the suggestion of, or recommended by line management. </li></ul>