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The Role of Motivational and Affective Aspects: Empirical Results and Future Directions
The Role of Motivational and Affective Aspects: Empirical Results and Future Directions Christine Kunzmann Andreas SchmidtProfessional Training Facts 2011 FZI Research Center for Information Technologies, Karlsruhe
Motivation is key for knowledge work“Knowledge workers are those people whohave taken responsibility for their work lives.They continually strive to understand theworld around them and modify their workpractices and behaviors to better meet theirpersonal and organizational objectives. Noone tells them what to do. They do not takeNo for an answer. They are self motivated.” David Gurteen 2 2
Emotions and affective aspects, too.Anxiety Joy Stress Frustration 3 3
But so far, the perspective has been limitede.g., incentive systems 4 4
And what about emotions… … they should not be part of professional life, … should they? 5 5
Research has been fragmented. Knowledge Management CSCW HR Development Psychology HCI EconomicsSensor engineering Each with different ideas of man, research methodologies, … 6 6
Management & HR: Dan Pink - Drive▪ Motivation 1.0 • largely based on our biological drive • We eat to sate our hunger, we drink to slake our thirst.▪ Motivation 2.0 • rewards & punishments, carrots & sticks▪ Motivation 2.1 • flexible schedules, a little bit more autonomy, socially responsible businesses▪ Motivation 3.0 • Autonomy - desire to be self-directed • Mastery – desire to get better • Purpose – a reason for existing 8 8
Enterprise 2.0▪ Collaboration behavior and effects of social dynamics▪ Identifying different personality types▪ Web 2.0 and basic needs, e.g., Deci & Ryan: • experiencing autonomy • experiencing competence • experiencing social relatedness 9 9
Leveraging bio-sensors▪ Capture activity-level and stress level▪ Reflect on emotional reactions▪ Learn about decision behavior • physio-economics 10 10
Motivation in knowledge maturing processes Research on Motivation in the MATURE IP http://mature-ip.eu
Why is motivation so difficult to address?▪ There are plenty of models for human motivation in different fields▪ They help to describe a given situation, but they are of little use for deciding what to do in a (socio-technical) learning support systems. • Frequently only focussed on the individual (psychology) • Or too narrow in their understanding of human needs▪ Problem: motivation is a generic phenomenon, but can only be addressed in a context-specific way. 12 12
▪ Learn about the context ▪ empirical studies ▪ analysis framework▪ Develop context- specific solutions ▪ participatory development approach
Interview study: Motivational barriers 70 60 Fear of Disgrace Loss of Power 50number of mentions Lack of Usability 40 No Interest 30 Low Awareness 20 Lack of Time 10 0 unrelated Ia Ib II III IV V expressing appropriating distributing in formalising ad‐hoc standardising ideas ideas communities training phases of KMM 15 15
Conclusions – what we‘ve learnt so far▪ Addressing motivational aspects is challenging • multiple factors, individual differences • challenges of interdisciplinary work▪ Understanding real-world contextes and target persons is most important • Either through immersion in workplace reality • Or captured in narratives▪ Individual motivation deeply interlinked with team and organizational culture 16 16
How can we maketechnology more awareof motivational aspects?
Challenges▪ Incorporating motivational and affective aspects in (socio-technical) system design is currently more an art than an systematical engineering approach▪ We need to move towards design patterns.▪ This requires more investigation into existing systems, successes and failures. 21 21
Outlook & ContactMATURE IP – http://mature-ip.euIdentifying and overcoming barriers to knowledgematuring in organizationshttp://mature-ip.eu/files/2009-11_Motivation.pdfhttp://mature-ip.eu/results/representative-study Andreas Schmidt Department Manager / Scientific Coordinator MATURE FZI Research Center for Information Technologies, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 10-14 Karlsruhe, GERMANY (http://fzi.de/ipe) firstname.lastname@example.org, http://andreas.schmidt.name Christine Kunzmann FZI & Kompetenzorientierte Personalentwicklung Ankerstr. 47, 75203 Königsbach-Stein, GERMANY, http://kompetenzen-gestalten.de email@example.com 22 22