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Introduction to Project Design
@G-Space Monthly Tutorial
Graduate School of Project Design
Associate Professor
小塩篤史 Atsush...
• Self introduction
• Vision of Our Grad School
• How to make innovation
• Idea based innovation
• Imagination based innov...
Data Science
Simulation for Social Science
@ Graduate School of Frontier Science
The University of Tokyo
Visiting Scholar
...
Graduate School Overview
Founding 学校法人東教育研究団
Representative 東英弥
President 清成忠男
Address 3-13-16 Minami AoyamaMinato-Ku, Tok...
Recruting 30 Working GraduateStudents
For April 2015 Enrollment
The Power of Project Design is the Power to Open Up the Future
MBA allowsa business person to acquire management skills ho...
Existing MBA program extracts data from the past to identify phenomena that are striking,
and stock-piles case studies as ...
GeneralistIntensificationofExpertise↓Specialist
Business Flow →
MPD
MBA
Idea/conceptualvision
Comparison between MPD and M...
The Scope of MBA
(Research, planning,management, and making)
Utilizes past case studies
Beyond the Scope of MBA
(Idea and ...
事業構想の枠組みと流れ
ideation, inspiration,
imagination
• Idea
• Epiphany
• Awakening
• Detecting/Finding
Conceptual Vision Making
...
Prospective Students
Business persons
in charge of new projects
Business successors
Business persons aspiring
regional dev...
Research Department of
Project Design
Training for Project Design
Specialist
Basic Training Contents
The Graduate School of Project
Design is aimed to train business
persons aspiring to start a
project that is creative,
inn...
Graduate School of Project Design
Publishing Department
Media for Innovators
Research Institute of Project Design
A Platform for
Industry-Academia Collaboration
Project Research
Industry-Academia Collaboration Platform
Designing a Company’s New
研究員
研究員
研究員
研究員
研究員
研究員
研究員
Researcher...
Idea Concept Strategy Action
DegreeofFreedom
Idea Concept Strategy Action
Freedom
Resourceallocation
Upper process is more important
Focusing on upper process of busin...
The Innovator’s DNA
Innovator’s DNA
①The skill to combine
The four skill to discovery are:
②power of questioning (query power)
③power of obser...
The skill to combine
• The Medici Effect
• Einstein “Creative thinking is to play
with combinations”
• The more blocks of ...
Power of Question
• ”Why does a computer need a fan?”
• power to question; the query power
• Q/A Ratio
• Question storming...
Power of Observation
• Everything becomes the subject of
observation
• Customers, product, service,
enterprises, technolog...
Power of Networking
• Innovators come from diverse
background and holds a wide range
of networks
• Collecting information ...
Power of Experimenting
• Always challenge and try new things
• Experiment under hypothetical
settings
• Challenge experime...
Model of Innovator’s DNA
Object against
the current
situation
Taking Risks
Power of
question
Power of
observation
Power of...
How to make Innovation
• User-centered Approach
• Technology centered Approach
• Business model Innovation
All are importa...
Our approach
Idea based
innovation
Inspirationbased
Innovation
Imaginationbased
Innovation
Strategic VisioningGo to fieldw...
Whole Systemof Project Design
Creating Future (Future Life Style)
Vision (what you will create or provideto societ)
Resour...
Ideation Innovation
• Creating something new by strategic
process
• Using frameworks and patterns to
create new by combina...
Area/Field of Novelty
• Users (experience, new users, improved
access)
• Values (rational, emotional, social)
• Resources ...
Users
• New user experience
• Discover and develop new users
• Finding neglected users
• Improving user access
Values
• Rational Values (profit, and enjoying
the benefit of function)
• Emotional Values (passion,
aesthetics)
• Social ...
Resources
• Labor (new labor force, utilizing
diverse labor force, robots)
• Information, intellectual property
(knowledge...
Mechanism
• Business model
• Management style
• IT
• Operation
• Logistics
• Organization
• Finance
• Sales and marketing
Technology
• New technology (development of new
technology)
• Shuffling of technologies
(combinations of existing technolo...
Environment
• Field (industry, category)
• Rules (business practice, law
regulations, rules)
• Countries
• Relationship be...
Innovation Pattern
• Business Domain × Pattern
• Pattern
-SCAMPER
-TRIZ
-Innovators thinking
S Substitute
何を代用することができるか?誰を?他にないか?
他の能力に替えられないか?
他の場所はどうか?他のやり方はないか?代わりにどんなものがあるか?
他の手順はないか?
C Combine
どんなアイデアを結びつけられるか?...
お題
ヒト 資源 仕組み 技術 価値 環境
S
C
A
M
P
E
R
Innovators Thinking
• Analyzing Innovators thinking pattern
Process
プロセス
Input
情報
知識 体験
Output
アイデア
発明
発想を因数分解する
Personal
Computer =
発想を因数分解する
Personal
Computer = Main
Frame
× Individually
Owned
思考のパターン
発想を因数分解する
Personal
Computer = Main
Frame
×
Transistor
Radio
(Analogy)
思考の刺激
• You can find similar patterns in many
innovation
• Try to analyze your success and your
domain’s success
• Innovator gam...
Finding the Contradiction
Safety HighLow
ProductivityLowHigh
Transcending the Contradiction
Safety HighLow
ProductivityLowHigh
White space
イサドア・シャープ
Cozy HighLow
FunctionLowHigh
Four Seasons
First Motel
Imagination based Innovation
• Starting from WHY
• Making vision and imagine future life
style you will be creating
• Core...
Backcasting: Thinking from the Future
Backcasting
Current Stage
Forecasting
Ideal Future
Expected Future
The Words of Alan Kay
The best way to predict the
future is to invent it.
• The founding father of Personal Computers
• The Diagram shows how he envisioned the
future of PC in 1972
Ideal future
Probable future
A Personal Computer for
Childrenof All Ages.
The case of Sony
• Envisioned a future where radio
becomes portable
Applied to One’s Career Plan…
Predictive Thinking
Currentskills and
resources
Currentskills +α
CurrentResources+α
What he/...
Self-Career Examination
through Backcasting
Required Skills and
Resources
(necessarilyskills)-(currentskills)
= skills tha...
General Framework of Backcasting
② Current and the Past
Finding its Identity
Confirming its Mission
② Predictive Future
PE...
Backcasting is the Creation of ‘Exit’
(Exit Strategy)
• Backcasting has a policy implication on
Japan’s Product and Resear...
Backcasting is
Vision Making
• Where there is vision, there is evolution
• Vision attracts people
Backcasting is
Idea Making
• Different scenery lies at the top of the
mountain
• You can also find a new route that is lef...
Backcasting is
Story Making
• Offer experience by making a story
• Make a story that differentiates from
competitors
Kamiyama Town,
Tokushima Prefecture
Backcasting case of Kamiyama Town
② Current Situation
① Ideal Future
④ Solution
③ Gap
Example: Establishing ‘Regional
Cooperation System’
Existing discussion may include:
○Increase in the excess burden if the...
Backcasting example for Regional
Cooperation
② Current Situation
① Ideal Future
④ Solution
③ Gap
How Backcasting Flows
1. Envision your ideal future
2. Acknowledge your present situation
and predict the future
3. Find t...
Why do we need to build future visions?
• The foundation of futuristic thinking is
to build on ‘future visions’
• Vision i...
Vision is Free!!
• Good vision attracts
- myself (motivation)
- members (team building)
- customers (marketing & branding)...
One example of envisioning
Future Homes
Future Homes
The Future of ‘Living’
• Living together with someone
• Living in two places
• Living in places outside of homes
Thinking ...
Dialogue about the future with people at
present:
Thinking about the ‘verbs’ used to describe
‘living’
• living
• working
...
Thinking using ‘verbs’
• Helps to image the ‘subject’
It helps to envision the ideal future in detail
It can help imagine ...
Group Visioning
Creating Future Life Style Verb
Common Practices
Uncommon Practices
Future Trend
( Society, Technology, Value)
Future Life...
Creating Future Life Style Verb
Common Practices
-Agriculture is labor intensive
-Agriculture is unfashionable
Uncommon Pr...
Creating Future Life Style Verb
Common Practices
-Agriculture is labor intensive
-Agriculture is unfashionable
Uncommon Pr...
Creating Future Life Style Verb Growing
Common Practices
-Agriculture is labor intensive
-Agriculture is unfashionable
Unc...
Gspace20150719 introduction to project design
Gspace20150719 introduction to project design
Gspace20150719 introduction to project design
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Gspace20150719 introduction to project design

Preliminary lecture at G-Space monthly tutorial 19 July. Introduction to project design. -how to make innovation-

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Gspace20150719 introduction to project design

  1. 1. Introduction to Project Design @G-Space Monthly Tutorial Graduate School of Project Design Associate Professor 小塩篤史 Atsushi Koshio
  2. 2. • Self introduction • Vision of Our Grad School • How to make innovation • Idea based innovation • Imagination based innovation • Back casting work
  3. 3. Data Science Simulation for Social Science @ Graduate School of Frontier Science The University of Tokyo Visiting Scholar Healthcare Management System science @ MIT Sloan Business Producer CSK-IS Arthur Inc. Developing EMR, ERM system Assistant Professor Healthcare Management Health Informatics @ Nippon Medical School Associate Professor Project Design Data Science @ MPD Mina Lab Natural Language Processing Big data analysis Atsushi Koshio Associate Professor, Graduate School of Project Design
  4. 4. Graduate School Overview Founding 学校法人東教育研究団 Representative 東英弥 President 清成忠男 Address 3-13-16 Minami AoyamaMinato-Ku, Tokyo 1 min walk from Metro Omotesando Station Research Institution Research Institute of Project Design Affiliated Organization Research Laboratory of Project Design • Conducting Project Research and seminars Publishing Department ・Monthly“Project Design” and other books Established April 2012
  5. 5. Recruting 30 Working GraduateStudents For April 2015 Enrollment
  6. 6. The Power of Project Design is the Power to Open Up the Future MBA allowsa business person to acquire management skills however, are such skillsthe priority in starting a business project? Given how the world is changing in high speed, the needs of customers are also changing at the same rate. In times like this we are expected to respond and adapt in a timely manner. What is in need are the skillsto construct ideas and concepts that captures social needs. These skillsare not offered in MBA but at the GraduateSchool of Project Design.
  7. 7. Existing MBA program extracts data from the past to identify phenomena that are striking, and stock-piles case studies as business empirics. However this approachis insufficientin designing a new project. It is the power to foresee and envisionthe needs of the future that is required for the modern day project leader with a creative mind to conceptualize and implement new project design. The idea behindproject design is to link practice and theory. As the only graduate school in Japanthat offers a degree in project design, we engage in rigorous coaching and conduct research on conceptual vision making and designing projects.
  8. 8. GeneralistIntensificationofExpertise↓Specialist Business Flow → MPD MBA Idea/conceptualvision Comparison between MPD and MBA (conceptual diagram) Analysis & Optimization
  9. 9. The Scope of MBA (Research, planning,management, and making) Utilizes past case studies Beyond the Scope of MBA (Idea and ConceptualVision Making) Power to envisionthe future, requires visionary skills, and cannot be appliedusing past case studies
  10. 10. 事業構想の枠組みと流れ ideation, inspiration, imagination • Idea • Epiphany • Awakening • Detecting/Finding Conceptual Vision Making • knowledge and wisdom brainstorming • Empirical case analysis • Collecting necessarily information Field Research • Receiving Comments • Collecting feedbacks Conceptual Plan Making • Verifying management resources • Marketing strategy • To seek out customers and clients by conducting surveys and preliminary investigations Communications • Making presentations to: internal/external stakeholders • Lucid explanations • Marketing Communications The Framework and the Flow of ConceptualVision Making Project Design Finding the ‘seeds’ of necessities in society
  11. 11. Prospective Students Business persons in charge of new projects Business successors Business persons aspiring regional development/revitalization Entrepreneurs
  12. 12. Research Department of Project Design Training for Project Design Specialist Basic Training Contents
  13. 13. The Graduate School of Project Design is aimed to train business persons aspiring to start a project that is creative, innovative, and ground breaking. 2 year Master Course Campus located in central Tokyo, Minami-Aoyamadistrict. 1 min from Omote-Sando Metro. Offers in small class sizes of 30 students per grade.
  14. 14. Graduate School of Project Design Publishing Department Media for Innovators
  15. 15. Research Institute of Project Design A Platform for Industry-Academia Collaboration
  16. 16. Project Research Industry-Academia Collaboration Platform Designing a Company’s New 研究員 研究員 研究員 研究員 研究員 研究員 研究員 Researcher Professor Guest Lecturers Research Topic Epiphany, Realization, co-creation • 10-15 Researchers • 1 Appointed Professor • Multiple Guest Lecturers • Twice per month Regular Meetings held • 4 hours per meeting • Duration 1 year 研究員という身分で、 自社の事業構想を構築 事業構想大学院大学事業構想研究 所の研究員という立場が付与され ます。大学院主催のセミナーへの 参加、図書室やサロンなどの施設 の活用をしながら、自社の事業構 想を考え抜き、研究員同士や教授、 ゲスト講師などさまざまな立場か らの意見や助言を交わしながら、 実現性が高く魅力的な構想を構築 していきます。また、担当教授と は緊密に個別相談など年間を通じ て連携を図ります。本気で考えて いく時間と環境が、次期幹部とし て真の資質を磨いていくことに繋 がります。 Students acquire skills to be innovative,and skills to raise the literacyon project design. The aim is to train studentswho can construct new business design. Researcher Researcher As a researcher, the student will construct a project design for his/her company
  17. 17. Idea Concept Strategy Action DegreeofFreedom
  18. 18. Idea Concept Strategy Action Freedom Resourceallocation Upper process is more important Focusing on upper process of business design
  19. 19. The Innovator’s DNA
  20. 20. Innovator’s DNA ①The skill to combine The four skill to discovery are: ②power of questioning (query power) ③power of observing ④power of networking ⑤power of Experimenting
  21. 21. The skill to combine • The Medici Effect • Einstein “Creative thinking is to play with combinations” • The more blocks of ideas you have, the more combinations you produce
  22. 22. Power of Question • ”Why does a computer need a fan?” • power to question; the query power • Q/A Ratio • Question storming, Question conference is good to define a problem and improving skills of questioning.
  23. 23. Power of Observation • Everything becomes the subject of observation • Customers, product, service, enterprises, technologies • Mackintosh –through the power of observation was born at Zerox PARC •
  24. 24. Power of Networking • Innovators come from diverse background and holds a wide range of networks • Collecting information on its idea, and spend a great deal of time in speculating and discussing its idea • Contacting external specialist
  25. 25. Power of Experimenting • Always challenge and try new things • Experiment under hypothetical settings • Challenge experimentally • Aim beyond material challenges • Acquire new skills • Decompose products
  26. 26. Model of Innovator’s DNA Object against the current situation Taking Risks Power of question Power of observation Power of networking Power of Experimenting Skill to combine
  27. 27. How to make Innovation • User-centered Approach • Technology centered Approach • Business model Innovation All are important, but don’t follow project development process.
  28. 28. Our approach Idea based innovation Inspirationbased Innovation Imaginationbased Innovation Strategic VisioningGo to fieldwork!
  29. 29. Whole Systemof Project Design Creating Future (Future Life Style) Vision (what you will create or provideto societ) Resources (Human, Organization, Material, Information) Technology (Innovation, Disruptive Innovation, Domain) Value (User, social, functional, sentimental) Business Mechanism (Business model, Management, Marketing) WHY? WHAT? HOW?
  30. 30. Ideation Innovation • Creating something new by strategic process • Using frameworks and patterns to create new by combination -Innovation Pattern -Contradiction and Integration
  31. 31. Area/Field of Novelty • Users (experience, new users, improved access) • Values (rational, emotional, social) • Resources (labor, information/intellectual property, material resource) • Mechanism (business model, IT, operation) • Technology (anew, combining the existing, destructive) • Environment (area, rules, countries)
  32. 32. Users • New user experience • Discover and develop new users • Finding neglected users • Improving user access
  33. 33. Values • Rational Values (profit, and enjoying the benefit of function) • Emotional Values (passion, aesthetics) • Social Values (solving social agendas, enhancing social systems and pursuing sustainability)
  34. 34. Resources • Labor (new labor force, utilizing diverse labor force, robots) • Information, intellectual property (knowledge, know-hows, patent) • Physical resources (material, processed goods) • Energy
  35. 35. Mechanism • Business model • Management style • IT • Operation • Logistics • Organization • Finance • Sales and marketing
  36. 36. Technology • New technology (development of new technology) • Shuffling of technologies (combinations of existing technology) • Unexpected utilization • Destructive technology (in affordable price)
  37. 37. Environment • Field (industry, category) • Rules (business practice, law regulations, rules) • Countries • Relationship between stakeholders
  38. 38. Innovation Pattern • Business Domain × Pattern • Pattern -SCAMPER -TRIZ -Innovators thinking
  39. 39. S Substitute 何を代用することができるか?誰を?他にないか? 他の能力に替えられないか? 他の場所はどうか?他のやり方はないか?代わりにどんなものがあるか? 他の手順はないか? C Combine どんなアイデアを結びつけられるか?目的を結びつけることができるか? この仕分け方はどうか?混ぜたり、化合したり、アンサンブルは? 部分同士を結びつけると?他にどんなものを一緒にできるか?使いみちを増やすため には何をくっつければいいか?魅力的なもの、正反対のものをくっつけたら? A Adapt 他に似たものはないか?これから他の考えが思いつかないか? 過去に似たものはなかったか?何か真似することができないか?誰かを見習うことはで きないか?他のアイデアは取り入れられないか?このコンセプトを違う状況に置くことが 出来ないか?この分野以外のもので何か取り入れられないか? M Modify Magnify 何を拡大できるだろうか?大きくしたり、引き伸ばしたりできるだろうか?誇張したり、大 袈裟に言ったりできるだろうか?何か付け加えられないか?時間や力、高さは?頻度 は?特徴は?何か付加価値を与えられるだろうか?複製できるところはないか?どこを 修正できるか?新しい工夫はあるか?意味、色、形、動き、音、香り、形態、形状を変え たら?名前を変えたら? P Put to other use 他にどんな使い道があるか?そのままで使える新しい用途はないか? 修正したら他の使い道がうまれないか?他にどんなものが出来るだろうか? 拡張したら?他の市場では? E Eliminate or minify もっと小さくなったらどうなるだろうか?何を省けるか?分割できないか?裂くことができ ないか?控えめに表現したら?簡素化できないか?縮小版は?濃縮版は?引き算でき ないか?削除できないか?そのルールはなくせないか?不必要なものはないか? R Reverse or Rearrange どんな再編をすればよいだろうか?構成要素を交換できないか?他の並べ方はない か?原因と結果を入れ替えたら?スピードを変えてみたら?スケジュールを変えてみた ら?肯定・否定をいれかえたら?反対にあるものは何か?否定的なものは何か?回転 させたら?後ろ向きに考えてみたら?役割を逆転させたら?予想と反対だと?
  40. 40. お題 ヒト 資源 仕組み 技術 価値 環境 S C A M P E R
  41. 41. Innovators Thinking • Analyzing Innovators thinking pattern Process プロセス Input 情報 知識 体験 Output アイデア 発明
  42. 42. 発想を因数分解する Personal Computer =
  43. 43. 発想を因数分解する Personal Computer = Main Frame × Individually Owned 思考のパターン
  44. 44. 発想を因数分解する Personal Computer = Main Frame × Transistor Radio (Analogy) 思考の刺激
  45. 45. • You can find similar patterns in many innovation • Try to analyze your success and your domain’s success • Innovator game - Thinking like innovators such as Airbnb, Uber, Amazon, Google, Oriental rand, Hoshino Resourt, Apple…
  46. 46. Finding the Contradiction Safety HighLow ProductivityLowHigh
  47. 47. Transcending the Contradiction Safety HighLow ProductivityLowHigh White space
  48. 48. イサドア・シャープ Cozy HighLow FunctionLowHigh Four Seasons First Motel
  49. 49. Imagination based Innovation • Starting from WHY • Making vision and imagine future life style you will be creating • Core approach: Backcasting
  50. 50. Backcasting: Thinking from the Future Backcasting Current Stage Forecasting Ideal Future Expected Future
  51. 51. The Words of Alan Kay The best way to predict the future is to invent it.
  52. 52. • The founding father of Personal Computers • The Diagram shows how he envisioned the future of PC in 1972
  53. 53. Ideal future Probable future A Personal Computer for Childrenof All Ages.
  54. 54. The case of Sony • Envisioned a future where radio becomes portable
  55. 55. Applied to One’s Career Plan… Predictive Thinking Currentskills and resources Currentskills +α CurrentResources+α What he/she is likely to become
  56. 56. Self-Career Examination through Backcasting Required Skills and Resources (necessarilyskills)-(currentskills) = skills that need to be acquiredor obtained When thinking about skills that is needed, it must not presupposeits current skills. Do not base your thinking on uncertain matters. Currentskills and resources
  57. 57. General Framework of Backcasting ② Current and the Past Finding its Identity Confirming its Mission ② Predictive Future PEST Analysis and Future Scenarios ① Ideal Future Constructing Vision and Concepts ③ Finding Gaps and Solutions Implementing Visions into Action Plans ④ Back Calculation Non-linear Program OrganizationalLearning Prototyping
  58. 58. Backcasting is the Creation of ‘Exit’ (Exit Strategy) • Backcasting has a policy implication on Japan’s Product and Research Development that contains no exit strategy • Optimal route is easily envisioned from the exit
  59. 59. Backcasting is Vision Making • Where there is vision, there is evolution • Vision attracts people
  60. 60. Backcasting is Idea Making • Different scenery lies at the top of the mountain • You can also find a new route that is left untouched • You can also discover new resources
  61. 61. Backcasting is Story Making • Offer experience by making a story • Make a story that differentiates from competitors
  62. 62. Kamiyama Town, Tokushima Prefecture
  63. 63. Backcasting case of Kamiyama Town ② Current Situation ① Ideal Future ④ Solution ③ Gap
  64. 64. Example: Establishing ‘Regional Cooperation System’ Existing discussion may include: ○Increase in the excess burden if the system is introduced ○Bad reputationprohibitsregionalcooperationbetween for example, hospitals ○Reluctanceto change the existing system ○The belief that the new system will not make a difference prohibitsthe new
  65. 65. Backcasting example for Regional Cooperation ② Current Situation ① Ideal Future ④ Solution ③ Gap
  66. 66. How Backcasting Flows 1. Envision your ideal future 2. Acknowledge your present situation and predict the future 3. Find the gap 4. Prioritize and find a solution
  67. 67. Why do we need to build future visions? • The foundation of futuristic thinking is to build on ‘future visions’ • Vision is a definition that answers the following question; ‘what are we going to create?’
  68. 68. Vision is Free!! • Good vision attracts - myself (motivation) - members (team building) - customers (marketing & branding) - idea (back casting) - stakeholders (alliance strategy) - investment (get money!)
  69. 69. One example of envisioning Future Homes
  70. 70. Future Homes
  71. 71. The Future of ‘Living’ • Living together with someone • Living in two places • Living in places outside of homes Thinking in terms of: ‘noun’ –makes us think about its function ‘verb’ –makes us think about its experience (or lifestyle)
  72. 72. Dialogue about the future with people at present: Thinking about the ‘verbs’ used to describe ‘living’ • living • working • playing • curing • buying • being cared • moving • raising • learning • healing • connecting • dying • sleeping • loving • supporting • helping • eating • making • earning • talking • listening • leaving • drinking • riding etc.
  73. 73. Thinking using ‘verbs’ • Helps to image the ‘subject’ It helps to envision the ideal future in detail It can help imagine the future persona, and think about the ideal lifestyle per persona. • It connects to envisioning the ‘lifestyle’ • Thinking in ‘verbs’ serves as the last frontier
  74. 74. Group Visioning
  75. 75. Creating Future Life Style Verb Common Practices Uncommon Practices Future Trend ( Society, Technology, Value) Future Life style
  76. 76. Creating Future Life Style Verb Common Practices -Agriculture is labor intensive -Agriculture is unfashionable Uncommon Practices Future Trend ( Society, Technology, Value) Future Life style
  77. 77. Creating Future Life Style Verb Common Practices -Agriculture is labor intensive -Agriculture is unfashionable Uncommon Practices -Agriculture is creative cluster -Agriculture is fashionable Future Trend ( Society, Technology, Value) -back to nature movement Future Life style
  78. 78. Creating Future Life Style Verb Growing Common Practices -Agriculture is labor intensive -Agriculture is unfashionable Uncommon Practices -Agriculture is creative cluster -Agriculture is fashionable Future Trend ( Society, Technology, Value) -back to nature movement Future Life style Farmer is Future creater, Fashionable… You can show your image graphically

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