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BASIC FIRST AID

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What is First Aid? <ul><li>First Aid is the  Management  of a sudden illness or injury provided  before  the Emergency Ser...

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The 3 Principles of First Aid PRESERVE LIFE  – To maintain the safety and well being of all those involved in the emergenc...

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Basic First Aid

  1. 1. BASIC FIRST AID
  2. 2. What is First Aid? <ul><li>First Aid is the Management of a sudden illness or injury provided before the Emergency Services arrive to provide Professional Medical Care . </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid is called “Training for Life”. </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid is not a treatment, it is to manage a situation till the professionals come. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The 3 Principles of First Aid PRESERVE LIFE – To maintain the safety and well being of all those involved in the emergency. PREVENT DETERIORATION – Carry out a patient assessment and treatment with care. PROMOTE RECOVERY – Arrange for medical care and provide first aid in accordance with the training and skill.
  4. 4. Emergency Management Procedure <ul><li>EARLY RECOGNITION AND CALLING FOR HELP </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY DEFIBRILLATION ( When Electrical energy stops coming from the brain to heart – Ventricular Fibrillation ) </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY ADVANCE CARE </li></ul>
  5. 5. The CARE Cycle! <ul><li>SCENE SURVEY – Avoiding the Danger from Fire, Gas, Electric, Water, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESS RESPONSE – Monitor and Note </li></ul><ul><li>AIRWAY – Maintain Open Airway </li></ul><ul><li>BREATHING – Check for patient’s normal breathing </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE THREATNING CONDITIONS – Prevent deteriorating, check for severe Bleeding, Shock, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>ONGOING ASSESSMENTS – Continue the cycle again & again as required </li></ul>The Cyclic Management for Care
  6. 6. SCENE ? <ul><li>S – Stop (Look, Listen and Think) </li></ul><ul><li>C – Check for Danger </li></ul><ul><li>(Environment – Consider your Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Hazards – Gas, Chemical, Fire, Electrical, Confined spaces, Unstable surroundings) </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Equipments – Vehicles, Plants, Machineries) </li></ul><ul><li>E – Exposure Protection (Gloves & Face shields) Gloves should be checked blowing air first! </li></ul><ul><li>N – No Obvious Risk </li></ul><ul><li>E – Establish Priorities (Patient’s making the most noise, MAY NOT be the most seriously injured) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Life Threatening Conditions <ul><li>Cardiac Arrests </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Shocking </li></ul>
  8. 8. CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) <ul><li>SCENE Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Response </li></ul><ul><li>Open Airway </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Summon Help </li></ul><ul><li>Compressions </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Breaths </li></ul><ul><li>Continue CPR </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Process of CPR <ul><li>Position should be vertically above the patient’s chest with arms locked straight </li></ul><ul><li>30 Chest Compressions @ 100/min </li></ul><ul><li>2 Rescue Breaths at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the process and continue as required </li></ul>
  10. 10. Interesting Question <ul><li>We Inhale O2 and Exhale CO2 …so Why do we give CO2 in rescue breath when patient requires O2 to survive? </li></ul>There are 21% Oxygen in the atmosphere. Our body uses only 5% for biological activities. We exhale 16% of oxygen during respiration from which patient requires only 5% to use from each rescue breath.
  11. 11. Alternative Ventilation Procedure <ul><li>Mouth to Nose </li></ul><ul><li>(It is recommended when it is impossible to ventilate through the patient’s mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to Stoma </li></ul><ul><li>(Stoma is a surgical opening at the front of the neck that extends from the surface of the skin into the trachea) </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to Pocket Musk </li></ul><ul><li>(It allows for combined oral nasal ventilations – One way valve is fitted with it) </li></ul>
  12. 12. CHOKING <ul><li>SCENE Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Chocking Recognition – “Are you choking?” </li></ul><ul><li>Mild Obstruction – Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Obstruction – Not Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE BACK BLOWS – 5 Sharp Blows </li></ul><ul><li>ABDOMINAL THRUSTS – 5 Thrusts </li></ul>
  13. 13. Severe Bleeding <ul><li>SCENE SURVEY </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY SURVEY </li></ul><ul><li>POSITION OF PATIENT </li></ul><ul><li>ELEVATE </li></ul><ul><li>INSPECT THE INJURY </li></ul><ul><li>APPLY DIRECT / INDIRECT PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>BANDAGE WOUND </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMON HELP </li></ul><ul><li>TREAT FOR SHOCK </li></ul>
  14. 14. SHOCK Treatment <ul><li>How do you understand??? </li></ul><ul><li>Patient will feel cold </li></ul><ul><li>The carotid pulse rate will be abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature will be reduced </li></ul><ul><li>No Capillary Refill </li></ul>How do you manage??? Help the patient into a lying position Maintain normal body temperature Summon Help Monitor the patient
  15. 15. <ul><li>Thank You First-Aiders </li></ul>

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