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Policyworkshop edu map_active citizenship

EduMap project policy workshop on active citizenship and adult education

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Policyworkshop edu map_active citizenship

  1. 1. Active citizenship and Adult education for young vulnerable adults Kai Pata Tallinn University The project is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Contract No. 693388
  2. 2. EduMap project • EduMAP http://blogs.uta.fi/edumap/ is a Horizon2020 research project (February 2016- February 2019) focusing on the educational needs of young people with low levels of basic and functional literacy, with deficient language and cultural skills (foreign newcomers, ethnic minorities), those who have dropped out of school and those not in education or training due to handicap. • The main research question is: What policies and practices are needed in the field of adult education to include young adults at risk of social exclusion in active participatory citizenship in Europe? • Final product: IDSS system that uses actual European case studies and data input for advising policymakers how to improve adult education for vulnerable youth
  3. 3. Adult education for active citizenship • The European discussion on active citizenship emerged to counteract deficits in the social cohesion and solidarity and, above all, the democratic deficit. • Lisbon European Council, 2000 - active citizenship concept has emerged: The key idea of active citizenship is that a person is engaged in participation in activities that support a community. • ‘Learning for active citizenship” was stated as one of three major pillars in lifelong learning (Commission of the European Communities, 2001). • The key competences: the ability to communicate in one's mother tongue and foreign languages, adopting civic competence based on knowledge of social and political concepts, and a commitment to active and democratic participation (European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, 2006). • Adult education has been seen as a key means for supporting active citizenship and social cohesion, and equal opportunities, and for reducing the democratic deficit across Europe (Mascherini et al., 2009: 5). • However there has been the neo-liberal shift in the field of adult education: While historically, adult education has been an important means for providing people with a broader, more humane education, recently in many European countries, adult education has become reduced to only one of its functions, namely that of employability or ‘learning for earning’ and only now the lifelong learning also for learning self-development and excercising active citizenship has been highlighted.
  4. 4. Active citizenship concept • Active citizenship is first and foremost about participation in civil society. • Active citizenship should be seen as a public identity and not as an individual one. (Biesta, 2009 ) • Active citizenship supported the strategic goal set for the European Community - to become ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion’ • Recent concern: young people, in particular, are often not strongly embedded within their communities, and may lack the knowledge and skills to act effectively as citizens.
  5. 5. Learning for active citizenship • Learning for active citizenship comprises two approaches to citizenship learning, namely learning about citizenship and learning through citizenship (cf. Johnston, 2003: 158, Kalekin-Fishman, Tsitselikis & Pitkänen, 2007: 28-32). • Learning about citizenship covers historical and cultural understanding as well as information on citizens’ rights and responsibilities. This learning is primarily about citizenship as status, and focuses mainly on the politico-juridical spheres of citizenship. It relates with the concept responsive citizenship (e.g. in Hungary) • Learning through active citizenship is seen as part of lifelong activity in which a person constructs the crucial links between learning and societal action - citizenship as practice (Concept active citizenship is becoming widespread across European countries agendas.) • The contexts where citizenship can be learnt occur not only in educational organisations but in various areas of social life: civil society, work, and what is usually designed as the private sphere. (Kalekin-Fishman, Tsitselikis and Pitkänen, 2007: 30.)
  6. 6. Learning for active citizenship: multicultural • Three different but overlapping dimensions can be explored from the learning for active citizenship: • learning for multicultural citizenship;
  7. 7. Socio-cultural dimension Benefits of being engaged as an active citizen • Being actively engaged in a community is considered to be more desirable than being outside of a community. • Active citizenship is not about participation in any community (such as extremist groups ) • New context supported by social media and migration: the increasing internationalisation - a person can be actively engaged with diverse national and international communities
  8. 8. Socio-cultural dimension: values • Ethical boundaries set limits for active participation, specifying the particular values that should be underpinned through the participation in the community life. • As a rule, people’s activities should support the community and should not contravene principles of human rights and the rule of law (Hoskins et al., 2006: 11). • However to be active in different communities with different value-sets, often personal values acceptable in one community may partially contradict with the values of other community that constrains being active citizen in that community. • In culturally diverse countries the notion of active citizenship is characterized by the values of tolerance and non-violence and by the acknowledgement of human rights and mutual respect. (Brooks and Holford, 2009: 17.)
  9. 9. Learning for active citizenship: inclusive • Three different but overlapping dimensions can be explored from the learning for active citizenship: • learning for inclusive citizenship; Image: http://amberanderson.co.uk/participatory-city/ Exercising tolerance and democracy in interaction between individual people’s voluntary activities and self-development, and the public sector activities.
  10. 10. Political-legal dimension Active citizenship incorporates adoption of democratic values • A citizen as a holder of rights has become more and more a bearer of duties (Eriksson, 2009: 194-198) • A person’s active participation in society and political life is incorporated with democratic values (Mascherini et al., 2009: 10). • Democratic practices are ‘owned’ by citizens. • The individual is expected to exercise citizenship by means of economic choices. Socio-political order specifies the kinds of activities and ‘investments’ that individuals need to make so that the specific socio- political order can be reproduced. • Active citizenship is not about any participation in community but the idea of active citizenship denotes a set of activities which are considered necessary for a stable democracy (Hoskins et al., 2008: 389). Not just voting (responsive citizenship) but becoming engaged in policy-making (active citizenship) To channel a persons’ political agency
  11. 11. Learning for active citizenship: participatory • Three different but overlapping dimensions can be explored from the learning for active citizenship: • learning for participatory citizenship Image: http://amberanderson.co.uk/participatory-city/ Thin government services + active citizens’ services (e.g. social enterprises) and entrepreneurship Making individuals less dependent upon the state, mobilizing them. Transforming learning into a desirable consumer commodity
  12. 12. Socio-economic dimension of active citizenship • In neo-liberal discussion on active citizenship, the importance of employment and effective economic and societal participation have been stressed, and citizens’ entrepreneurial attitudes are encouraged (Brooks and Holford, 2009: 11-12). • In this discourse, an active citizen is presented as the opposite to a passive citizen who is dependent of the support of the welfare state and constantly in danger of becoming marginalised (Eriksson, 2009: 194).
  13. 13. Socio-economic dimension ’Consumer citizenship’ • There is the constant shift of responsibilities from the state traditionally obliged to create civil, political and social rights to the individual consumer’s fundamental right – the ’consumer citizenship’. • The individual actions of active citizens are considered to be the main ‘solution’ for collective problems. • An active citizen is the person who, through active involvement in the local community, would provide those ‘services’ that are no longer available through welfare state provision. • With the the ’consumer citizenship’ one of the key principles of a democratic society: the goal of equal opportunities. • The goal of equal opportunities is difficult to fulfil for vulnerable people. Younger generations, the unemployed, workers at home, and so on, are being left behind in exercising active citizenship in the community and become passive receivers (Milana, 2008: 208.)
  14. 14. Active citizenship in Europe Politico-legal Socio-economic Socio-cultural In UK the ‘Big Society’ and ‘localism’ - community activities are in the focus of policies. In France, politico-legal values like liberty, equality, fraternity, human rights, tolerance, rule of law and citizen duties are explicitly stressed. The development of democratic competences and active socio-political participation of citizens are highlighted in Germany. Germany: people’s involvement in active participation concerns both citizens and denizens . In Germany: Individual people’s and NGOs societal activities are seen important contributions to society and complementary to the governmental measures Thin government services + active citizens’ services (e.g. social enterprises) and entrepreneurship In UK encouraging people to take an active role in their communities (including volunteering), ‘social action’, but the underlying idea of increasing community self-help and reducing state intervention In Spain, respecting others, showing tolerance, co- operation and solidarity among people and groups are seen as central values. In Scandinavian countries, there appears to be an obvious focus on democratic community values - human rights and freedom, diversity and equality. Exercising tolerance and democracy in interaction between individual people’s voluntary activities and self-development, and the public sector activities. In Denmark active citizen is connected both to citizens and foreigners who apply for a permanent residence in the country In Finland active citizenship it no less than as an ethical attitude to the world, global citizenship and includes social and civic activities, protection of human rights and non-discrimination, as well as a person’s self-development, responsible consumption and environmental responsibility Estonia: citizen’s capability and willingness to have a positive impact in the society Estonia: curricula highlight ‘civic initiative and entrepreneurship’ Not just voting (responsive citizenship) but becoming engaged in policy-making (active citizenship) Latvia: to feel safe and belonging to Latvia, everyone [here] will have the opportunity to achieve his or her goals Lithuania: Government must reduce areas of intervention, thus enabling citizens and communities to take responsibility into their hands to be proactive, enterprising, creative in their solutions and ready to take risks, trusting their fellow-citizens. Cohesion, inclusion and involvement Making individuals less dependent upon the state, mobilizing them. Transforming learning into a desirable consumer commodity To channel a persons’ political agency
  15. 15. An ideal active citizen… • has an awareness of the citizenship rights and citizenship duties • has intercultural understanding and understanding of the principles of democracy, equality and human rights • is able for intercultural communication and interaction and creating webs of network, underpinned by shared values, trust and reciprocity • possesses relevant professional and/or entrepreneurial skills, digital competence, innovativeness and creativeness • engages with the principles of human rights, equality, democracy and motivation to support the (local/national/European/international) community • does not contravene the rule of law • The transformation of the learner’s identification and engagement is important! affective cognitive operative
  16. 16. Active citizenship practices are changed by new interaction environments • Increasing availability of digital media and communication means, in particular, opens up many new and innovative avenues for people to practice their citizenship in diverse ways (cf. Brooks and Holford, 2009: 15). • In addition to schools, civil society and workplaces, the participatory forms of citizenship can be learned in through diverse actions in virtual communities, digital milieus and single-issue interest groups. • Many youth groups live in a hybrid space between the mainstream culture and peripheral ways of living. If no efforts are made to create real preconditions for their societal membership and participation, the members of these groups are at risk of being marginalized and defined as outsiders. (McCollum, 2011.) • In order to prevent social exclusion among vulnerable groups, educational institutions need to shape curriculum contents, educational initiatives and pedagogies in ways that are acceptable to a wider range of cultural codes and communicative practices to which the learners have been socialised.
  17. 17. Final words • This presentation relies on the effort of H2020 EDuMap project consortium and is based on the report: Conceptual Framework on Active Citizenship • Contact: http://blogs.uta.fi/edumap/ The project is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Contract No. 693388

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