The process of encouraging and helping other to work
enthusiastically towards objective.”
“Interpersonal influence , exercised in a situation and directed,
through the communication process , towards the attainment of
“It’s a process and property of a relationship in which one
person (leader) influences other to work together willingly on
related tasks to attain goals desired by the leader or by the
5. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS
A sense of cooperativeness
Personality – height and weight
Tact and diplomacy
Moral courage and integrity
Will power and flexibility
Knowledge of human relations
6. TRAIT THEORY
Leadership Traits:Leadership Traits:
•Ambition and energyAmbition and energy
•The desire to leadThe desire to lead
•Honest and integrityHonest and integrity
•High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring
•Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledge
Henry Fayol, Charles Bird , Ralph Stogdill gave their ideas on this theory.
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to
differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
No universal traits found that predict leadershipNo universal traits found that predict leadership
in all situations.in all situations.
Traits predict behavior better in “weak” thanTraits predict behavior better in “weak” than
“strong” situations.“strong” situations.
Unclear evidence of the cause and effect ofUnclear evidence of the cause and effect of
relationship of leadership and traits.relationship of leadership and traits.
Better predictor of the appearance of leadershipBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership
than distinguishing effective and ineffectivethan distinguishing effective and ineffective
9. Initiating structure
degree to which leader structures followers’ roles
by setting goals, giving directions, setting
deadlines, and assigning tasks
extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable,
supportive, and shows concern for employees
Ohio State Studies
10. University of Michigan Studies
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal
interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual
differences among members.
One who emphasizes technical or task
aspects of the job.
12. The managerial grid diagram as shown above can be interpreted as
Coordinates (1,1): This represents an impoverished management and
the manager makes minimum efforts to get the work done. Minimum
standards of performance and minimum worker dedication.
Coordinates (9,1): Excellent work design. Well-established
procedures. Minimum worker interference. Orderly performance and
Coordinates (1,9): Personal and meaningful relationships with people.
Friendly atmosphere and high morale. Loosely structured work design.
Coordinates (9,9): Ultimate in managerial efficiency. Thoroughly
dedicated people. Trustworthy and respectable atmosphere. Highly
organized task performances. Known as team management style, it
relies upon interdependence of relationships based upon trust and
respect and work accomplishment base upon commitment of
Coordinates (5,5): Known as the middle-of –the-road management
style, it is concerned with balancing the necessity to get the work done
while maintaining worker morale at a satisfactory level. The goal is to
achieve adequate organizational performance.
13. Situational Theory of Leadership
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL
HERSEY-BLANCHARD SITUATIONAL MODEL
HOUSE’S PATH GOAL THEORY
VROOM-VETTEN AND JAGO’S CONTINGENCY
14. The Contingency Model
Developed by Fred Fiedler
According to him leaders are……
Task oriented leaders
Relationship oriented leaders
The three major determinants are…
15. HERSEY-BLANCHARD SITUATIONAL
Hersey-Blanchard situational model also advocates linking leadership
styles with various situation so as to ensure effective leadership ,but its
perspective of situation variable is different to Fiedler’s model.
this model is also known as life cycle theory of leadership and is based
on an interaction among three factors.
16. Telling : High Task- Low Relationship
Selling : High Task- High Relationship
Participating : Low Task- High
Delegating : Low Task- Low
17. House’s Path-Goal Theory
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist
followers in attaining their goals and to provide them
the necessary direction and support to ensure that
their goals are compatible with the overall objectives
of the group or organization.
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Leader provides assistance
on employee’s path toward goals.
Employees become satisfied and
motivated and accept the leader.
Both employees and
organization better reach
Supportive behavior Participative behavior
19. Leadership – Member Exchange Theory
A theory that supports leader’s creation of in-
groups and out-groups; subordinates with in-
group status will have higher performance
ratings, less turnover and greater job
Relationship formed is relatively stable over
Leaders differentiate among and in-groups &
out-groups are formed HIGHHIGHHIGH
20. Subordinates in the In-Group
Opportunities for leadership
21. Subordinates in the Out-Group
Lower quality relationship
22. DECISION THEORY: Vroom & Yetten’s
Developed by Victor Vroom & Phillip Yetten who were later
joined by Arther Jago.
It relates leadership behavior and participation in decision
It focuses on leader’s role as decision maker and considers
how leaders make decisions (such as whether to involve
followers in their decision making).
The three factors which are to be considered
for this purpose are:-
Decision quality- choosing of the best
Decision acceptance- implication of a
decision for subordinates.
Decision timing- time constraint on decision
25. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
Given by MAX WEBER
Charisma a Greek word which means ‘gift’
Acc to this the followers make attributions of
heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities
when they observe certain behaviours.
26. Key characteristics of charismatic leaders
27. Transformational Leadership
A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary
change in organizations through a commitment to
the organization's vision
Transformational leaders inspire followers to
transcend their own self interests for the good of the
They are capable of having profound and
extraordinary effect on their followers.
29. Transformational leadership works
When leaders:When leaders:
Commit people to actionCommit people to action
Convert followers into leadersConvert followers into leaders
Convert leaders into change agents, innovatorsConvert leaders into change agents, innovators
Are courageousAre courageous
Believe in peopleBelieve in people
Are value drivenAre value driven
Are lifelong learnersAre lifelong learners
Can deal with complexityCan deal with complexity