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Education and British Rule

Education and British Rule . Prepared with Class 8 Social Science book as source. It is prepared by Karanveer Singh Sandhu ( kvssandhu@live.in ).

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Education and British Rule

  1. 1. Indigenous Education System  Before the British Rule, Education was imparted through a chain of elementary schools – Pathshalas, Maktabs and Madrasas for higher education.  The education provided in such institutions were based on old texts like Vedas and their commentaries.  Such education was not considered to be up to date because Vedas, the basis of such education did not kept pace with the world. 2
  2. 2. Effects on Education under East India Company Due to colonization of India, Education system suffered because the company had stopped giving institutions grants which were earlier given to the institutions by Indian Rulers. 3
  3. 3. Introduction of Western Education Introduction of Western Education in India was led by following causes :  East India Company  Christian Missionaries 4
  4. 4. Introduction of Western Education – East India Company  English East India Company showed a very little interest in promotion of education in India  The Only purpose of setting up some educational institutions in India was to ensure a steady supply of Indians to law courts set up by the Company. Indian’s knowledge of classical languages was used to establish correspondence with the native states by East India Company officials. 5
  5. 5. First Educational Institutes East India Company  The Calcutta Madrasa  Sanskrit College  Fort William College 6
  6. 6. The Calcutta Madrasa  Set up in/at: 1781 / Calcutta  Set up by : Warren Hastings  Purpose : For the study of Muslim law and related subjects 7
  7. 7. Sanskrit College  Set up in/at : 1791 / Benaras  Set up by : Jonathan Duncan  Purpose : For the study of Hindu Law and philosophy 8
  8. 8. Fort William College  Set up in/at : 1800 / Calcutta  Set up by : Lord Wellesley  Purpose : For the training of the civil servants of the company in languages and customs of Indians. 9
  9. 9. Introduction of Western Education – Christian Missionaries  Activities of Christian Missionaries compelled British to promote Western Education in India.  Main English Missionaries :  Charles Grant  William Wilberforce  Christian Missionaries wanted to promote Western Education in India because they thought that modern education would destroy the faith of the Indians for the own religions and they would follow Christianity. 10
  10. 10. Charles Grant  Charles Grant is considered as the father of modern education in India  He is known so because of his efforts that the Charter Act of 1813 came into existence. This acts promotes the modern education in India as it sanctions about one lakh rupees for education. 11
  11. 11. Charter Act of 1813  This act was the first step taken by British rulers for the purpose of educational development in India.  Under this act, one lakh rupees were sanctioned to promote education in India.  However, this act had failed. 12
  12. 12. Failure of Charter Act of 1813 The Charter Act had failed because of following reasons:  It failed to state the language for medium of instruction for educational institutes.  It was also ambiguous about the means of expanding English education in India.  It was not stated that education should be given to all or a selected few. 13
  13. 13. Orientalists and Anglicists Debate Orientalists and Anglicist Debate was a debate between Orientalists and Anglicists due to the issue of language for the medium of instructions in India  Orientalists : People who wanted to promote education in India through the medium of classical languages such as Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic.  Anglicists : People who wanted to promote Western Education in India which supported English as a medium of instruction. 14
  14. 14. Preferences of Educated Indians Enlightened Indians such as Raja Rammohan Roy exerted pressure on Western Education because they thought that western education was the only remedy for the social, economic and political ills of the country. 15
  15. 15. Macaulay’s system of education  This system of education was introduced by Lord Macaulay in 1835.  This system put Anglicists Orientalists Debate to an end.  This system is also known as Lord Macaulay’s Minute. 16
  16. 16. Macaulay’s system of education – Main Provisions  This system clearly stated that Western Education has to be promoted in India through the medium of English language alone.  Under this system, Persian was abolished as the court language. On its place, English language was made the court language.  Under this system, the printing of English books was made free and these were widely available in markets at very low prices. This increased use of English in India 17
  17. 17. Macaulay’s system of education – Implementation For the implementation of this system in India following steps were taken by the government:  Forty two schools were set up by 1842.  The presidencies were divided into educational zones. Each educational zone had one government school.  For example: Bengal was divided into nine educational zones under Lord Auckland. 18
  18. 18. Wood’s Despatch  This was a written document for the propose of promoting education in India.  This was introduced by Charles Wood in 1854.  It was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.  It was considered as the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India’ 19
  19. 19. Wood’s Despatch – Main Provisions  It asked the government of India to provide education to all Indians not to the selected few.  Graded schools were established in hierarchy as Universities Colleges High Schools Middle Schools Primary Schools 20
  20. 20. Wood’s Despatch – Main Provisions  English was recommended as the medium of instruction for higher studies and Indian local languages at school level.  Emphasis was given on female and vocational education and on teachers’ training.  Education imparted in the government institutions was to be secular. 21
  21. 21. Wood’s Despatch – Main Provisions  A system of grants-in-aid was recommended for the institutions that satisfied certain conditions to encourage private enterprise.  Universities were to be set up at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. 22
  22. 22. Wood’s Despatch – Implementation  Graded schools were set up as written in the document.  The educational institutes were run by European Headmasters and Principals.  Missionary enterprises played their own role.  In 1857, Universities in all the three presidencies were set up. 23
  23. 23. Education after 1858 After the revolt of 1857, many changes took place in the whole country. As a result of the revolt, education system was also adversely affected. 24
  24. 24. Hunter Commission  Hunter Commission was a commission appointed by the British Government to review the progress of education in the country since the Wood’s Despatch of 1854.  Hunter Commission was set up in 1882 under the chairmanship of W W Hunter.  This commission emphasized its recommendations on primary and secondary education 25
  25. 25. Raleigh Commission  It was a commission appointed by the British government to suggest measures to improve the conditions of Indian Universities.  It was set up in 1902. 26
  26. 26. Indian Universities Act  This act was passed in 1904 under Lord Curzon.  This act was based on the recommendations of the Raleigh Commission.  People of India condemned for this act because  It increased the government’s control over the universities.  They saw it as an attempt to restrict education and to discipline the educated to show loyalty to the government 27
  27. 27. Mahatma Gandhi’s & INC’s views about western education  Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress thought that western education had created a gulf between the educated few and the masses of uneducated. 28
  28. 28. Wardha scheme of education  This was a scheme of basic education introduced by Zakir Husain Committee in October 1937 in Wardha (Maharashtra).  The main principle behind this scheme was learning through activity.  It was based on Gandhian ideas published in a series of articles in the weekly magazine Harijan. 29
  29. 29. British’s Education Policies – Limitations  Englishmen educated Indians just for the supply of Indians in their offices. Their main aim was not to educate Indians. This led to a wide linguistic and cultural gulf between educated few and masses of uneducated Indians.  British Policies of Education declined the traditional system of Indian Education.  Women Education was neglected under the British Educational policies. 30
  30. 30. British’s Education Policies – Limitations  British followed the Downward Filtration Theory which was never practical.  There was no sort of scientific or technological education for the Indian under British Rule. 31
  31. 31. National Education – Growth During the first quarter of the twentieth century, Indian nationalist leaders formed a National Council of Education to make out a strategy for imparting education to all sections of the country. Under this strategy, a number of national schools, colleges and universities were set up. We will discuss here a few of them : 32
  32. 32. National Muslim University  Set up in/at : 1875/ Aligarh (UP) (earlier known as Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College)  Set up by : Sir Syed Ahmed Khan  This University was patterned after Oxford and Cambridge Universities.  This university tuned with the British Educational system without compromising with Islamic values 33
  33. 33. National Muslim University  Sir Syed visualized this national university as he felt the need of Muslims to get modern education and become involved with the public life and governmental services of India  In 1907, a school for girls was established in it.  In 1920, It was changed from Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College ( MAO ) to National Muslim University. 34
  34. 34. National Muslim University  In 1927, a school for blinds was established in this university.  By 1930s , this university had developed engineering faculty also.  The first chancellor of the university was a lady, Sultan Shah Jahan Begum. 35
  35. 35. National Muslim University 36
  36. 36. Baroda University  Set up in/at : 1908 / Baroda (Gujarat)  Set up by: Dr. Jackson  It was earlier Baroda College.  Dr Jackson wanted establishment of a science institute at Baroda on an improved and independent basis.  Dr Jackson was principal of Baroda College in 1908. 37
  37. 37. Baroda University  In 1916 and later in 1919 again, review committees recommended setting up a university at Baroda  In 1926, Baroda University Commission was appointed which submitted its report in 1929.  Baroda University was finally approved by the legislature assembly in 1949. 38
  38. 38. Baroda University 39
  39. 39. Central Hindu School  Set up in/at : 1898/ Benaras  Set up by: Dr Annie Besant 40
  40. 40. New English School  Set up in/at : 1880s / Benaras  Set up by : Sri Bal Gangadhar Tilak 41
  41. 41. National Council of Education  Set up in/at : 1906 / Calcutta  Set up by : Aurobindo Ghosh 42
  42. 42. Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women's University (SNDT)  It was the first women university of India.  Set up in/at : 1916 / Poona  Set up by : D K Karve 43
  43. 43. Pandita Ramabai  She had an important contribution towards encouraging women education in the country.  She set up Arya Mahila Samaj in Poona.  She set up Sharda Sadan, a school for widows in Bombay. 44
  44. 44. Rokeya Sakhawat Husain  She was an important lady socio-religious reformers of India.  She began her work with setting up a school for girls in Kolkata in 1910 45
  45. 45. FAQs  List reasons why British neglected education for Indians. Ans. –   According to the British, by getting the education Indians could stand against the British Rule. They thought that if Indians would become educated they could get equal rights and positions as them in the society 46
  46. 46.  List merits and demerits of introduction of western education in India. Ans. –  Merits - Western Education was the remedy for the social, economical and political ills of the nation.  Western Education gave people of the nation the right to avail governmental services.  Demerits –  Introduction of Western Education in India neglected mass education in the country.  Western Education could destroy the faith of Indians in their own religions.  47
  47. 47. Glossary  Gurukul – A place where Indians imparted education before the British rule over India.  Maktabs – A place where a large number of Muslims imparted education before the arrival of British in India.  Madrasa – School  Vedas – Old text books which were the basis of Indigenous Education System before the arrival of British. 48
  48. 48. Glossary  Classical Languages – The languages which were traditionally in use in India such as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian.  Christian Missionaries – They were those Englishmen came from Europe to promote Christianity in India. Charles Grant and William Wilberforce were two important Christian Missionaries.  Harijan – A weekly magazine which was responsible for promoting Gandhian principles in masses. It was published under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi.  Vernacular languages – Indian classical languages. 49
  49. 49. 50