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Gender Portrayal on Comedy Cinema in Indonesia Lala Palupi Santyaputri Lecturer in University of Pelita Harapan PhD Candidate at the Bandung Institute of Technology Asian Cinema Studies Society Conference 2012 University of Hong Kong, 16-‐20 March 2012
Introduction ¤ A media culture in which images, sounds, and spectacles help produce the fabric of everyday life, dominating leisure time, shaping political views and social behavior and providing the materials out of which people forge their very identities. A :ilm can help us to understand what is going on in contemporary societies and cultures…(Kellner, D., 1995)
¤ It is at once read the discourses and cultural developments that occurred in Indonesia. Discourse and culture, and read between the lines in the Qilm through its visual language. Therefore the visual language is very important on Qilm. Each element of the Qilm to support the visual language, these elements consist of: Script / Screenplay, Cast, Director, Actor/Actress, Property, Planning and the Spectator. Important aspect of this arrangement consists of makeup, fashion, lighting, and sound.
Gender Differences as Visual Objects ¤ Masculinities and Femininities as objects of visual in the cinema, is often become an object of interest in a movie. As objects, they are receiving treatment visits, value, and appreciation in a variety of media discourse context. ¤ Visualization of gender in media characterized by stereotyping and as commodiQication in a media. This discourse exists in various forms of mass media, ranging from fairy tales and folklore, to the magazine, advertising and feature Qilms.
Table 1. Development of the Qilm in Indonesia, (2006) Gayus Siagian 1999-1926-1942! 1950! 1955-1969! present! 1942! 1942-1945! 1945-1949! 1969-1998! Birth & Birth of Civil War ReformatioDevelopme Verbal Japanese Transition National and New New Order n & Young Movies ! Era! Era! Era! nt Era! Production! Order! Director Era!
¤ Comedy genre on cinema production parallel with the national cinema development according to Eric Sasono (2007). ¤ In the era of 1979-‐1994 comedy genre in cinema production is 23,4 % out from national production in every genre. (JB Kristanto, Katalog Film Indonesia, 194)
¤ In Indonesia comedian world is dominated by a group comedy. And many of that group member is male. ¤ Warkop Qilm comedian Indonesia is considered to represent an exists representation because of its presence in the period for 15 years. And when the Qilm fell fallen in Indonesia 1990-‐2000 Warkop still has its own place in the Indonesian moviegoers. ¤ Warkop DKI movie has been chooses as a subject of research because this comedian group is produced 33 Qilm since 1979-‐1994 (15yrs) and 29 Qilms is considering as blockbusters by PerQini (Indonesian National Film Asociation)
Warkop Dono Kasino Indro Warkop or before Warkop Geronimo, is a comedy group formed by Nanu (Nanu Mulyono real name), Rudy (Rudi Badil), Dono (Wahjoe Sardono), Kasino (Kasino Hadiwibowo) and Indro (Indrodjojo Kusumonegoro). Warkop considered to represent the people of Indonesia with a different cultural background of the tribe. Warkop DKI is a comedy group that has the prime time of the NewOrder era the years1979-‐1994. Group originally started as a radio comedy and develops into the cinema. Badil, Rudy & Indro Warkop. (2010). Main-‐Main Jadi Bukan Main.
Gender Stereotypes on Comedy Cinema ¤ Gender is selected as the artists companion has a certain stereotype. There are several techniques used in the shooting that took the charge that it is sexist. A technique often used is cutting -‐ showing separate parts of the gender differences -‐ for example, his legs, on his own. This suggests that the difference is entirely separate to the mind, and if he looks better and its just a foot is the most important.
¤ In the table Tudor 1973, 135 in the book An introduction of Film Studies by Jill Nemmes, Comedy genre comparable in horror and thriller genre is in the process enter the criteria Intended effect or effects of the element of intent is expected to produce humor in general. In Indonesia comedy Qilm starring men, women never missed his presence as a movie player. ¤ In Indonesia, most of theme the comedy Qilm is musical comedy and satire comedy that can be distinguished as sarcastic.
Humor of linguistic terms1. The theory of liberation, that is nothing but a joke emotional trickery that seems threatening but it was not nothing 2. The theory of con3lict, which speciQies the pressure on the implications of treatment between the two conQlicting impulse, and 3. Lack of harmony theory, namely the existence of two meanings or interpretations are not the same and combined in a complex combination of meaning.
Male Gaze ¤ Women do not just see themselves as men see them, but are encouraged to enjoy their sexuality through the eyes of men. (Janice Winship, Sexuality for Sale, 1980). This applies also to the roles of women in Indonesia’s Comedy Cinema. A dominant masculine image that appears on the actor portrayed women should always look stunning, especially when she only appeared as an supporting actress. ¤ Men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves. The surveyor of women in herself is male: the surveyed female. Thus she turns herself into an object and most particularly an object of vision: a sight. (John Berger’s. Ways of Seeing, 1972)
¤ Laura Mulvey took this concept further in what’s become a well-‐known work of psychoanalytic Qilm theory in her essay, “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” In talking about the way narrative Qilm reinforces the gender of the Qilm’s viewer using a sequence of looks. ¤ In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female :igure that is styled accordingly. In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-‐be-‐looked-‐ at-‐ness. Woman displayed, as sexual object is the lit-‐motif of erotic spectacle: from pin-‐ups to strip tease, from Ziegfeld to Busby Berkeley she holds the look, plays to and signi:ies male desire.
Table. 3. Gendered Spectatorial Positioning (Tseelon and Kaiser 1992) from Tseelon (1995). P 68 • Male Gaze • Female Gaze • Undimensional • Complex • Posing for male audience; aware of • Self absorbed; not self-‐conscious; audience oblivious to audience • Glamorized, idealized, timeless • Variable; both beautiful and plain, changing and aging, contextualized • Accessible • Unavailable • Primarily an object of desired • A range of role • DeQined by, through, for men • Independent existence beyond and outside male discourse • Pleasure in being a sexual object • Pleasure in sexuality and autoeroticism
Modes of Pleasure Male Gaze Female Gaze Objectifying, fetishing Narcissistic identiQication Voyeuristic pleasure at a distance Pleasure in closeness
Masculine Representation in Film Comedy Cornell (1995) provided a useful breakdown of three different types of masculinities that are present in modern Western Culture. They are hegemonic masculinity, conservative masculinity, and subordinated masculinity. ¤ Hegemonic masculinity is based on the political idea of hegemony (Gramsci, 1985), which contends that the dominant culture in any society is based on the values of the ruling class. Because in most societies across time and space, man have tended to have a unequally large share of political and economic power, their values are likely to have been more culturally inQluential than have those of woman. This category refers to masculinity that is intended to dominate (either men dominating women, or men dominating other men). ¤ Conservative masculinity, Cornell used the stereotypes of the “New man” as an example of conservative masculinity. The “New man” was a 1980s cultural icon that represented notions of changing masculinities, moving from the hegemonic virtues of toughness and strength to a sensitive, nurturing ideal, embodied by images of men engaged in child care or overt displays of emotion. ¤ Subordinated masculinity is a kind of alternative or outcast masculinity that is generally seen as negative. Trans images or homosexual or drag queen have been the subjects of derision or presented as a problem for straight men to solve. This is represent underclass or trailer class stereotype.
¤ Laraine Porter accused a question of humor that uses gender stereotypes. If femininity is a perverse deviation from a masculinity understood to be the norm, is the breast an inherently humor object? Are overweight bosomy ladies intrinsically funny as a parody of heterosexual desire? Porter, Laraine, ‘Tarts, Tampons and Tyrants: Women and representation in British comedy’, Because I Tell a Joke or Two: Comedy, Politics and Social Difference, ed. Stephen Wagg (London: Routledge, 1998)
Type of Femininity in Comedy Cinema ¤ The Slender Woman when the accessories of female attractiveness and femininity, mini skirt and the large breasts are denuded of both their appeal and their functionality, “they become obsolete, parody and repulsive to the male”. ¤ The Impersonated Menopausal Woman is funny because her increased sexual appetite and decreasing sexual appeal, concurrent with the failing virility of her male opposite, poses a threat to male authority and violates the principle that female sexuality is a function of male desire. ¤ The Overweight Ladies. According to Sue Thorman called Dysfunctional Bodies. This become parody and funny because they tended to be slapstick victim.
¤ The impersonated menopausal woman is funny because her increased sexual appetite and decreasing sexual appeal, concurrent with the failing virility of her male opposite, poses a threat to male authority and violates the principle that female sexuality is a function of male desire. ¤ In consequence, when the accessories of female attractiveness and femininity, mini skirt and the large breasts are denuded of both their appeal and their functionality, they become obsolete, parody and repulsive to the male.
Conclusions ¤ The portrayal of humor in Indonesia, especially cinema comedy that the image is often created and in the comedy genre, portrayal of gender has different symbols. ¤ The world will still sexist even without the mass media, but media opens new doors for people to perceive and believe what they see. Cinema comedy opens another discourse about the representation of gender and body image
Reference Boggs, Joseph. M. (1991) The Art of Watching Films, MayQield Publishing, California. 29-‐53 Bourdieu, Pierre. (2010) Dominasi Maskulin, Jalasutra, Yogyakarta. 90-‐113 Davies, Christie, (1996) Ethnic Humor Around the World: A Comparative Analysis Bloomington: Indiana University Press.261 Fulton, Helen Elizabeth, Huisman, Rosemary Elizabeth Anne, Murphet, Julian and Dunn, Anne Kathleen Mary (2005): Narrative and Media, Cambridge University Press, UK. Gilbert, Joanne R., (2004), Performing Marginality: Humor, Gender, and Cultural Critique. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 69-‐70 Mulvey, Laura. (1989) Visual and Other Pleasure, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Nurrachmi, Syafrida dan Aulia, Rahmawati. Penerimaan Perempuan terhadap Eksploitasi Perempuan dalam Film Indonesia bertema komedi Seksual. 10 Desember 2009. Seminar Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran. Surabaya. Kellner, D. (1995), Media Culture, Routledge, London, 1-‐49.
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Film Source Makin Lama Makin Asyik (1987) PT Soraya Intercine Films Malu Malu Mau (1988), PT Soraya Intercine Films Bisa Naik Bisa Turun (1991), PT Soraya Intercine Films