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DISAGGREGATION
IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
‘Being parties in the work’

A view of the changing digitally-mediated
teaching an...
A University is, according to the
usual designation, an Alma
Mater, knowing her children one
by one, not a foundry, or a m...
THIS TALK
o About technology
• The characteristics of new technologies
• How technology is changing the possible shape of
...
HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER
PRESSURE
o Financial crisis
• Government cuts in many countries
• Under funded and resource constra...
TECHNOLOGY
o Pervasive
• A cause of change in the higher education
environment
• Seen as solution for higher education
pro...
TECHNOLOGY
Principles of new media
Affordances of the digital
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NEW
MEDIA
o Numerical representation
• new media objects exist as data

o Modularity
• the different...
SOME KEY DIGITAL
AFFORDANCES
o Granular
o Dynamic
o Communication visible
• a form of content

o Sharing - free & easy
• S...
MODULARITY: DISAGGREGATION IN
TEACHING & LEARNING
Disaggregation of
Content
Teaching & learning
interaction
Certification
TRADITIONAL FORM OF TEACHING &
LEARNING
SINGLE PACKAGE
Time

Space
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT
Analogue
Textbooks
Some
photocopying

Photocopying

Legal

Illegal
ETextbooks
Open
Education
Re...
DIGITAL CONTENT
o From products to services
• From tangible to intangible
• Control no longer with customer when
purchased...
OPEN CONTENT
o Free to user
• To download (gratis)
• To re-use & remix (libre)

o Available under an open license
or publi...
http://www2.macleans.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/music_piracy_small.jpg

http://jmgregoirebooks.com/2013/03/31/show-your...
CHANGES IN TEACHING &
LEARNING
Place

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Assessment & certification
MOOCs

Forms of provision

Fully online
Onlineintensive

Blended
(mixed
mode):
Internet
combines dependent
F2F and
online
...
http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/

…has legitimised online education & dis...
DISAGGREGATION
Place

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
Free
content

Pay to
access
platform
DISAGGREGATION
Platform

Time
Content

Teaching & learning interaction
Certification
CERTIFICATION
BADGES
o Micro, granular certification
o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition
• for informal learning processes
• for chu...
PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
IN SUMMARY
Numerical
representation Learning analytics
New media objects exist as data

Modularity Disaggregation of teach...
IN SUMMARY
A modularised, variable, transcoded
teaching and learning landscape
TECHNOLOGICAL
DETERMINISM?
TECHNOLOGY AND THE
GLOBAL
HIGHER EDUCATION
Increased private sector investment
LANDSCAPE

New opportunities for the privat...
THE INTERNET
The network society
Promises and perils
Dominant functions and processes
in the information age are
increasingly organized around
networks.
Networks constitute th...
In the past, social networks
were more limited in different
spheres. Networks were more
exclusive.
The Internet changed th...
Conventional core– periphery relationships
http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541

…can be replaced with networked relationsh...
AT THE SAME TIME
GLOBAL MARKETISATION
DISCOURSE
http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/

INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR
INVOLVEMENT
THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE
o Online education is in the hand of
the private sector
• “In the US the for-profit sector has a m...
Source: Kris Olds (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Susan L. Robertson (University of Bristol)
http://www.aca-secretar...
http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/

VARIETY
OF
INTERESTS
PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE
o New players
• For profit educational / service providers
• Eg Coursera

• Non-profit educational...
http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/10/google-expands-role-in-digital-education-teams-up-with-edx-to-build-a-youtube-for-free-on...
If you are not paying for the product
you are the product
Access via the
platform
THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE
o The developing
world as the new
market to solve
crises at northern
universities
GLOBAL REACH

http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
https://www.edx.org/press/queen-rania-foundation-partners-edx
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

Content

May be...
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

Content

May be...
MODELS- MONETISATION
Traditional

New model
(MOOC)

Fees to
enter

Pay

No

Entrance
requirement

Yes

No

May be free/inc...
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
(A South African example)
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM
MODEL”
TRADITIONAL MODEL: COSTS OF
SUPPORT
o Student support
Relative costs over 8 year
lifecycle of a Distance Education
course
...
From: Tim Gore Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October 2013
https://chronicle.com/article/Providers-of-Free-MOOCs-Now/136117/

EXAMPLE: ANALYTICS
TENSIONS IN THE ECO SYSTEM
o Values
• Private sector imperatives
• Higher education role - as a public good, for
sake of k...
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Access
YES, BUT: A PAUSE FOR BOURDIEU
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
S...
WHERE DOES THE POWER LIE?
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
Social...
ELECTRICITY

http://www.masterresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/earth_night.jpg
UNDERSEA CABLES

http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
CONNECTIVITY IS INCREASING
but unevenly
CONNECTIVITY DIVIDES
o Households with/ without Internet
• Developed countries 78%,
• Developing countries 28%

o Speed
• ...
MORE LEVEL PLAYING FIELD
o Mobiles: eg South Africa

LSM
Living
Standards
Measure
MOBILE BROADBAND
o % cost
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Access
o In a network society, forms of capital are
forms of power
•
•
•
•
•
•

Economic capital
Social capital- (networks across...
ACCESS
To promote

equity of access and fair chances of success
to all who are seeking to realise their potential
through ...
http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_educ

GLOBAL SCARCITY
http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html
EQUITY: STUDENTS ONLINE
o Surveyed 40 000 students in
nearly 500 000 courses
o Findings
• …While all types of students in ...
Access without support is not
opportunity.
Effective student support does not
arise by chance. It requires
intentional, st...
We were on the front pages of
newspapers and magazines, and at
the same time, I was realizing, we
don't educate people as ...
Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013)
http://theory.cribchronicles.com/2013/01/04/the-mooc-is-dead-long-live-the-mooc/
http://clarissasblog.com/2013/11/24/moocs...
https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-Are-Usefully-Middlebrow/143183/

25 NOVEMBER 2013
BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK
Participation
…Power, money, and information are primarily

organized around flows which link up distant
locales, and unite them in a sh...
MEANING MAKING
& the geo politics of content
African universities are
essentially consumers of
knowledge produced in
developed countries.

Minister of Higher Education...
Flick 2011

FLICKR CONTENT
o Flick 2011

USER-GENERATED CONTENT GOOGLE
o Flick 2011

WIKIPEDIA CONTENT
o Flick 2011

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE/POPULATION
BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
A MORE DEMOCRATIC CASE?
SEE: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829122.200-free-for-all-lifting-the-lid-on-a-wikipediacrisis.html#.UphtIcQW0r...
BUT: MOOC PROVIDERS

Mediation?
Recontextualisation?
http://openuct.uct.ac.za/blog/mooc-less-africa
In order for education to be most
effective, content must be
presented in a way that allows the
student to relate the info...
MOOC LICENSES
o Review of 8 providers
o Almost entirely full copyright
• Udacity- some content CC-NC-ND (not
whole course)...
POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION
o The Read-Write web
• Who reads and who writes
• Replicating global power relations
CONCLUSION
The ecosystem includes a great deal of
existing knowledge about good learning
GOOD LEARNING
o Good learning requires mediation
o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we
want when the curric...
IN SHORT
Asserting the interests of good
learning is essential
The realignment of interests
in the networked society
enabled by new technologies is
not necessarily serving
the requireme...
Let’s ensure that those networked relationships don’t
only serve the interests of the educated & advantaged
W must be
e
parties in the
work!
 
Image: Stacey Stent

THANK YOU
REFERENCES
o

o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o

ACA Seminar ‘Making Sense of MOOCs’ Brussels 10 th October 2013, talks by Tim Gore and
Kr...
REFERENCES
o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o

 Flick, C, (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge , Convoco Foundation, Oxford
in...
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013
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A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013

Keynote presentation at HELTASA 2013 Pretoria, November 27-29 November, UNISA

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A view of the changing digitally mediated teaching and learning landscape czerniewicz heltasa keynote 2013

  1. 1. DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ‘Being parties in the work’ A view of the changing digitally-mediated teaching and learning landscape Laura Czerniewicz 28 November 2013
  2. 2. A University is, according to the usual designation, an Alma Mater, knowing her children one by one, not a foundry, or a mint, or a treadmill. The best telescope does not dispense with eyes; the printing press or the lecture room will assist us greatly, but we must be true to ourselves, we must be parties in the work.   John Henry Newman, The Idea of the University, 1824 Photo- http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/newman/jhnbio2.html
  3. 3. THIS TALK o About technology • The characteristics of new technologies • How technology is changing the possible shape of teaching and learning, and of course provision o The global role players in the teaching and learning landscape • Values and interests o What this means for access, participation & learning • with a particular view from South Africa
  4. 4. HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER PRESSURE o Financial crisis • Government cuts in many countries • Under funded and resource constrained o Massification globally • SA: Gross enrolment rate (no of students at particular level) • 16%. Low internationally, Low considering 700 000 matriculants officially qualifying for HE o SA: Low participation high attrition system • In SA, 40% students leave HE in 1st year
  5. 5. TECHNOLOGY o Pervasive • A cause of change in the higher education environment • Seen as solution for higher education problems • Mediating all higher education practices • Assumed to be increasingly ubiquitious
  6. 6. TECHNOLOGY Principles of new media Affordances of the digital
  7. 7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NEW MEDIA o Numerical representation • new media objects exist as data o Modularity • the different elements of new media exist independently o Automation • new media objects can be created & modified automatically o Variability • new media objects exist in multiple versions o Transcoding • the logic of the computer influences how we understand and represent ourselves Manovich , L 2002, The Language of New Media
  8. 8. SOME KEY DIGITAL AFFORDANCES o Granular o Dynamic o Communication visible • a form of content o Sharing - free & easy • Sharing means multiplying not dividing o Affords more closed/ lock down as well as more open & accessible
  9. 9. MODULARITY: DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING & LEARNING Disaggregation of Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL FORM OF TEACHING & LEARNING
  11. 11. SINGLE PACKAGE Time Space Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
  12. 12. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
  13. 13. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
  14. 14. ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT Analogue Textbooks Some photocopying Photocopying Legal Illegal ETextbooks Open Education Resources Pirate sites File sharing Digital
  15. 15. DIGITAL CONTENT o From products to services • From tangible to intangible • Control no longer with customer when purchased o From ownership to access/license o Intermediary - platforms • Services via an intermediary • May need to buy the platform, or access to the platform, not the content
  16. 16. OPEN CONTENT o Free to user • To download (gratis) • To re-use & remix (libre) o Available under an open license or public domain o Grants permissions not copyright
  17. 17. http://www2.macleans.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/music_piracy_small.jpg http://jmgregoirebooks.com/2013/03/31/show-your-support-and-take-a-stand-against-ebook-piracy/ http://betanews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Piracy-crime-scene-PC-300x200.jpg http://www.gambling911.com/poker/new-harry-reid-cyber-security-bill-lik http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/piracy DISCOURSES OF PIRACY
  18. 18. CHANGES IN TEACHING & LEARNING Place Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification
  19. 19. MOOCs Forms of provision Fully online Onlineintensive Blended (mixed mode): Internet combines dependent F2F and online Internet supported F2F only On campus Location of students Remote
  20. 20. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/ …has legitimised online education & distance education at elite residential universities ..introduced new possibilities for business models
  21. 21. DISAGGREGATION Place Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
  22. 22. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
  23. 23. Free content Pay to access platform
  24. 24. DISAGGREGATION Platform Time Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification
  25. 25. CERTIFICATION
  26. 26. BADGES o Micro, granular certification o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition • for informal learning processes • for chunks of content • for competencies
  27. 27. PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
  28. 28. IN SUMMARY Numerical representation Learning analytics New media objects exist as data Modularity Disaggregation of teaching & the different elements of new media exist independently Automation new media objects can be created & modified automatically Variability new media objects exist in multiple versions learning Automated assessment Versions of content Transcoding Culture of technology shapes the logic of the computer influences how we understand and represent ourselves social /pedagogical culture
  29. 29. IN SUMMARY A modularised, variable, transcoded teaching and learning landscape
  30. 30. TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM?
  31. 31. TECHNOLOGY AND THE GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION Increased private sector investment LANDSCAPE New opportunities for the private sector New players Globalisation: extended reach
  32. 32. THE INTERNET
  33. 33. The network society Promises and perils
  34. 34. Dominant functions and processes in the information age are increasingly organized around networks. Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies and the diffusion of networking logic substantially modifies ….processes of production, experiences of power and culture Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
  35. 35. In the past, social networks were more limited in different spheres. Networks were more exclusive. The Internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate in. Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
  36. 36. Conventional core– periphery relationships
  37. 37. http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4370250237/in/set-72157623343013541 …can be replaced with networked relationships
  38. 38. AT THE SAME TIME
  39. 39. GLOBAL MARKETISATION DISCOURSE
  40. 40. http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/ INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT
  41. 41. THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE o Online education is in the hand of the private sector • “In the US the for-profit sector has a much higher proportion of the total online market (32%) than its share of the overall higher education market (7%). • Seven of the 10 US institutions with the highest online enrolments are for-profits. • For-profits seem better placed to expand online because they do not have to worry about resistance from academic staff, nor about exploiting their earlier investment in campus facilities.” Daniels, J 2012
  42. 42. Source: Kris Olds (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Susan L. Robertson (University of Bristol) http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf
  43. 43. http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/ VARIETY OF INTERESTS
  44. 44. PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE o New players • For profit educational / service providers • Eg Coursera • Non-profit educational providers • eg Ed-X o New roles for old players • E.g. Educational publishers as providers of services o Old players with new value • Eg distance education providers
  45. 45. http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/10/google-expands-role-in-digital-education-teams-up-with-edx-to-build-a-youtube-for-free-online-cours If you are not paying for the product you are the product
  46. 46. If you are not paying for the product you are the product
  47. 47. Access via the platform
  48. 48. THE GLOBAL MARKET PLACE o The developing world as the new market to solve crises at northern universities
  49. 49. GLOBAL REACH http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/globalhighered/mapping-courseras-global-footprint
  50. 50. https://www.edx.org/press/queen-rania-foundation-partners-edx
  51. 51. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No Content May be free/included in fees May be paid Support Free/included in fees May be paid Certification Free/included in fees Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
  52. 52. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No Content May be free/included in fees May be paid Support Free/included in fees May be paid Certification Free/included in fees Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
  53. 53. MODELS- MONETISATION Traditional New model (MOOC) Fees to enter Pay No Entrance requirement Yes No May be free/included in fees May be paid Content Support Certification What does this mean for the coherencefees Free/included in of teaching and learning Free/included in fees processes? May be paid Paid User generated content Private, owned by student Owned by provider Ownership of course Not traditionally shared Proprietary, paid for re-use adaptation May be licensed or open May be licensed or open Platform
  54. 54. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL” (A South African example)
  55. 55. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
  56. 56. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
  57. 57. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
  58. 58. EXAMPLE OF “FREEMIUM MODEL”
  59. 59. TRADITIONAL MODEL: COSTS OF SUPPORT o Student support Relative costs over 8 year lifecycle of a Distance Education course From: Weller, M some MOOC thoughts, presentation to UCT, November xx. 2013
  60. 60. From: Tim Gore Making Sense of MOOCs Brussels 10th October 2013
  61. 61. https://chronicle.com/article/Providers-of-Free-MOOCs-Now/136117/ EXAMPLE: ANALYTICS
  62. 62. TENSIONS IN THE ECO SYSTEM o Values • Private sector imperatives • Higher education role - as a public good, for sake of knowledge, workplace etc • Learning & pedagogy needs o Control & participation • Who has control, of what, at which point? • Role and control of technology? o Geopolitics • How do these tensions play out locally? • Whose global interests are served?
  63. 63. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Access
  64. 64. YES, BUT: A PAUSE FOR BOURDIEU o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object, technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
  65. 65. WHERE DOES THE POWER LIE? o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object/technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
  66. 66. ELECTRICITY http://www.masterresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/earth_night.jpg
  67. 67. UNDERSEA CABLES http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
  68. 68. CONNECTIVITY IS INCREASING but unevenly
  69. 69. CONNECTIVITY DIVIDES o Households with/ without Internet • Developed countries 78%, • Developing countries 28% o Speed • Dramatic differences, Asian countries fastest, African countries slowest o Education levels o Rural/urban o Income
  70. 70. MORE LEVEL PLAYING FIELD o Mobiles: eg South Africa LSM Living Standards Measure
  71. 71. MOBILE BROADBAND o % cost
  72. 72. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Access
  73. 73. o In a network society, forms of capital are forms of power • • • • • • Economic capital Social capital- (networks across/within) Embodied cultural capital (expertise, competence) Objectified cultural capital (the object, technology) Institutional cultural capital (qualifications) Symbolic cultural capital (recognition, status, legitimacy)
  74. 74. ACCESS To promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education Department of Education ( 1997) Education White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education,
  75. 75. http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_educ GLOBAL SCARCITY
  76. 76. http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html
  77. 77. EQUITY: STUDENTS ONLINE o Surveyed 40 000 students in nearly 500 000 courses o Findings • …While all types of students in the study suffered decrements in performance in online courses, some struggled more than others to adapt: males, younger students, Black students, and students with lower grade point averages Xu & Jaggar 2013 Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences Across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas
  78. 78. Access without support is not opportunity. Effective student support does not arise by chance. It requires intentional, structured, and proactive action that is systematic in nature and coordinated in application. Prof. Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Regional Symposia on Student Success 19 - 23 August 2013, South Africa
  79. 79. We were on the front pages of newspapers and magazines, and at the same time, I was realizing, we don't educate people as others wished, or as I wished. We have a lousy product. It was a painful moment. These were students from difficult neighbourhoods, without good access to computers, and with all kinds of challenges in their lives …. It's a group for which this medium is not a good fit. http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb Sebastian Thrun founder of Udacity, November 2013
  80. 80. Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013)
  81. 81. http://theory.cribchronicles.com/2013/01/04/the-mooc-is-dead-long-live-the-mooc/ http://clarissasblog.com/2013/11/24/moocs-are-dead-lets-move-on/ https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-May-Not-Be-So-Disruptive/140965/
  82. 82. https://chronicle.com/article/MOOCs-Are-Usefully-Middlebrow/143183/ 25 NOVEMBER 2013
  83. 83. BEING PARTIES TO THE WORK Participation
  84. 84. …Power, money, and information are primarily organized around flows which link up distant locales, and unite them in a shared logic. The variable geometry of networked integration and switched off exclusion of the network society translates into the juxtaposition between two spatial forms/processes: the space of flows, on the one hand, the space of places, on the other hand. People still live in places, and construct their . experience, their meaning, and their political representation around these places. Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society.
  85. 85. MEANING MAKING & the geo politics of content
  86. 86. African universities are essentially consumers of knowledge produced in developed countries. Minister of Higher Education, Blade Nzimande UNESCO Conference on Higher Education, 2009
  87. 87. Flick 2011 FLICKR CONTENT
  88. 88. o Flick 2011 USER-GENERATED CONTENT GOOGLE
  89. 89. o Flick 2011 WIKIPEDIA CONTENT
  90. 90. o Flick 2011 WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE/POPULATION
  91. 91. BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
  92. 92. A MORE DEMOCRATIC CASE?
  93. 93. SEE: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829122.200-free-for-all-lifting-the-lid-on-a-wikipediacrisis.html#.UphtIcQW0rU o Insert the example
  94. 94. BUT: MOOC PROVIDERS Mediation? Recontextualisation? http://openuct.uct.ac.za/blog/mooc-less-africa
  95. 95. In order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences. John Dewey Paulo Freire …….situated educational activity …. of education The programme content must be the present, existential, concrete situations reflecting the aspirations of the people.
  96. 96. MOOC LICENSES o Review of 8 providers o Almost entirely full copyright • Udacity- some content CC-NC-ND (not whole course) o All keep user-generated content rights • Some specify including for commercial use o Users as consumers not adaptors or creators
  97. 97. POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION o The Read-Write web • Who reads and who writes • Replicating global power relations
  98. 98. CONCLUSION The ecosystem includes a great deal of existing knowledge about good learning
  99. 99. GOOD LEARNING o Good learning requires mediation o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we want when the curriculum is aligned o Learning is more likely to happen when students are actively engaged o Learning is more likely to be successful where the teaching is cognizant of what students bring with them: prior knowledge, language, experience o Learning involves some degree of transformation of self Shay, S 2013 Shay, S Good Learning: What we Know. Presentation at Heads of Department Workshop, University of Cape Town, April 2013
  100. 100. IN SHORT Asserting the interests of good learning is essential
  101. 101. The realignment of interests in the networked society enabled by new technologies is not necessarily serving the requirements of learning the needs of disadvantaged learners concepts of education that serve democracy and social good the needs of the “global south”
  102. 102. Let’s ensure that those networked relationships don’t only serve the interests of the educated & advantaged
  103. 103. W must be e parties in the work!  
  104. 104. Image: Stacey Stent THANK YOU
  105. 105. REFERENCES o o o o o o o o o ACA Seminar ‘Making Sense of MOOCs’ Brussels 10 th October 2013, talks by Tim Gore and Kris Olds, at http://www.aca-secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Tim_Gore.pdf and http://www.aca- secretariat.be/fileadmin/aca_docs/images/members/Kris_Olds.pdf Altbach, P (2011) The past, present, and future of the research university in Altbach, P and Salmi, J (Eds) 2011 The Making of World-Class Research Universities- The Road to Academic Excellence, The World Bank British Council 2012 The shape of things to come: higher education global trends and emerging opportunities to 2020, British Council  Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (New York, ... Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell Daniel J (20120 Higher Education in a Decade of Disruption , speech to Council  of College and Military Educators (CCME)  Annual Conference, 14-16 February 2012, Orlando, Florida, Commonwealth of Learning Department of Education, South Africa ( 1997) Education White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education Emanuel, E (2013) Online education: MOOCs taken by educated few , Nature 503, 342 (21 Nov 2013) Fisher G and Scott (2011) ‘The Role of Higher Education in Closing the Skills Gap in South Africa’ The World Bank, Human Development Group, Africa Region, October 2011, Background paper for the World Bank project 'Closing the Skills and Technology Gap in South Africa'
  106. 106. REFERENCES o o o o o o o o o o o  Flick, C, (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge , Convoco Foundation, Oxford internet Institute Oxford internet Institute, www.oii.ox.ac.uk/publications/convoco_geographies_en.pdf ITU (2013) The World in 2013: ICT Facts and Figures, www.itu.int/en/ITUD/Statistics/.../facts/ICTFactsFigures2013.pdf Internet World Stats. 2012. http://www.internetworldstats.com/ ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database- www.itu.int/en/ITUD/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx Jegede, O (2012), The Status of Higher Education in Africa, paper for Panel Discussion in the Launch of Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education- A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) held at the Institute of International Education, New York, , February 1, 2012 Jim, G (2013) Wiki-opoly, New Scientist, Vol. 218, Issue 2912 Letseka, M. and Maile, S. 2008. High University drop-out rates: a threat to South Africa’s future. HSRC Policy Brief. www.hsrc.ac.za. Manovich, L The Language of New Media, MIT Press SAARF South African Audience Research Foundation (SAARF) Available at: http://saarf.co.za/LSM/lsm-diy.asp UK Department of Business Innovation and Skills (2013) The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review BIS Research Paper Number 30, September 2013 US Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Economic Council, Four Years of Broadband Growth, June 2013 Also, see URLs on examples on individual slides

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