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Instructional design – edfn201 b sequencing

This presentation discusses the use of sequencing in instruction. It also identifies the different types of sequencing methods.

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Instructional design – edfn201 b sequencing

  1. 1. Designing the Instruction: Sequencing (source: Morrison, Gary R. Designing Effective Instruction, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons)<br />Prepared by: Leesha Roberts, Instructor II, Valsayn Campus, Center for Education Programmes, UTT<br />
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  3. 3. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER<br />‘‘Can sequencing the content improve the learner’s understanding?’’ <br />‘‘What strategies are available to help me sequence a unit?’’ <br />‘‘When do I determine the sequencing of the content?’’ <br />‘‘What are the benefits of using a sequencing scheme?’’<br />
  4. 4. What is Sequencing?<br />Once you have developed the objectives, you are ready to determine the optimum sequence for the instruction. <br />How to determine the most appropriate sequence for presenting the content related to each objective.<br />
  5. 5. What is Sequencing?<br />Sequencing is the efficient ordering of content in such a way as to help the learner achieve the objectives. <br />
  6. 6. What is Sequencing?<br />For some objectives, the sequence is suggested by the procedure. For example, when teaching someone how to change a tire, it would seem more appropriate to teach where the tools are located before teaching how to remove the lug nuts. <br />
  7. 7. What is Sequencing?<br />Other topics, however, have a less obvious sequence. <br />A course on how to write a research paper has several possible sequences, all of which are equally effective. <br />For example, one instructor might start with how to read a research paper, whereas another might first teach how to use the library. There are several general methods of sequencing content.<br />
  8. 8. Sequencing Methods<br />One well-known method is the prerequisite method (Gagne ́, 1985), which is based on a learning hierarchy that identifies skills that are dependent on other skills. <br />Prerequisite skills are taught first (e.g., how to sort checks before marking them as cleared). <br />
  9. 9. Sequencing Methods<br />A second approach, described by Posner and Strike (1976), is a set of strategies for sequencing the instruction based on learning-related, world-related, and concept-related content. <br />A more recent approach is one described by English and Reigeluth (1996) as part of Reigeluth’s elaboration theory. <br />For this course, two sequencing strategies: those prescribed by Posner and Strike and those prescribed by Reigeluth.<br />
  10. 10. THE POSNER AND STRIKE SEQUENCING SCHEMES<br />The three sequencing schemes proposed by Posner and Strike (1976) are as follows:. <br />The first scheme, which is learning related, suggests ways of sequencing the content based on learner characteristics identified in the learner analysis. <br />
  11. 11. THE POSNER AND STRIKE SEQUENCING SCHEMES<br />This scheme considers the difficulty of the material, its appeal or interest to the learner, prerequisite information, and the learner’s cognitive development. <br />This scheme is based on the needs of the learner, it seems appropriate that the initial sequencing of the unit of instruction follows these guidelines. <br />
  12. 12. THE POSNER AND STRIKE SEQUENCING SCHEMES<br />The next two schemes, world- related and concept-related, recommend sequencing schemes based on the type of content treated in the unit. <br />For example, the world-related scheme suggests sequencing based on spatial, temporal, and physical relationships identified in the content. <br />
  13. 13. THE POSNER AND STRIKE SEQUENCING SCHEMES<br />Similarly, the concept-related scheme suggests sequencing based on the relationships between the concepts.<br />
  14. 14. THE POSNER AND STRIKE SEQUENCING SCHEMES<br />After the initial sequencing based on learner characteristics, you must select a best-fit scheme for the content from either the world-related or concept-related schemes. <br />Thus, if you are trying to sequence a series of related concepts (e.g., herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and examples of each), the concept-related guidelines would be most appropriate for determining which concept to present first, second, third, and so forth.<br />
  15. 15. Learning-Related Sequencing<br />This strategy for sequencing content is based on five student-learning concepts:<br />
  16. 16. Identifiable Prerequisites<br />First, there are identifiable prerequisites a learner must master before demonstrating a more complex task. <br />For example, one needs to learn the alphabet before using a dictionary or encyclopedia or before arranging data alphabetically. <br />The prerequisite skills and knowledge are identified in the task analysis.<br />
  17. 17. Familiarity<br />Second is teaching about the familiar or known before teaching about the unknown. <br />When teaching a math unit on measurement you might begin with inch, foot, and yard-measurement problems before teaching problems involving calculations with centimeters and meters.<br />
  18. 18. Difficulty<br />A third learning-related scheme is difficulty. <br />Posner and Strike (1976) stated that difficulty is determined by the fineness of the discrimination the learner must make, how quickly the procedure is executed, and the amount of cognitive processing required. <br />Guidelines prescribe teaching the easier tasks first, such as spelling short words before longer words and replacing a button before sewing a seam. <br />Similarly, a French horn tutor would first teach a student about intervals and then move to complex chords.<br />
  19. 19. Interest<br />Fourth is the sequencing of content based on interest. <br />An introductory course on programming a robot might start with how to make the robot move (i.e., high-interest content) before introducing structured programming techniques (i.e., content of less interest).<br />
  20. 20. Development<br />Fifth, the content is sequenced according to a development theory, such as that of Bruner, Piaget, or Kohlberg. <br />For example, following Bruner’s (1964, 1966) theory, words (i.e., symbols) would be introduced only after the learner had learned the appropriate visual images (i.e., icons) related to the words. <br />For example: <br />Suppose a professor asks for help in redesigning a course in photography. <br />The objectives might cover learning the basic operation of the camera, the concepts of exposure control and depth of field, and how to produce prints. <br />We might first sequence the content using learner interest by allowing the learners to shoot several pictures using the camera’s automatic exposure. <br />Learners can enjoy immediate satisfaction with the hands-on experience.<br />
  21. 21. YOU SHOULD ALSO NOTE!<br />A procedural analysis typically reveals a temporal sequence, whereas a topic analysis usually reveals a logical sequence. <br />Although the sequence identified by the procedural analysis is usable in a unit of instruction, a more effective unit might result from a different sequence or combination of sequences.<br />
  22. 22. World-Related Sequencing<br />Content that represents objects, people, and events is presented in a sequence that is consistent with the real world.<br />
  23. 23. World-Related Sequencing<br />
  24. 24. World-Related Sequencing<br />Instructional Designers strive to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between the sequence of the instruction and the sequence of the objects and events in the real world.<br /> Sequencing is typically done according to spatial relations, temporal relations, or physical attributes that occur in the real world.<br />A unit for salespeople on the introduction of a new electric car might group the new features in sequence as they are found while walking around the car. Basing the organization on the physical layout of the car is referred to as spatial organization.<br />
  25. 25. World-Related Sequencing<br />A mechanic might be more interested in the individual components of each system (electrical, power, etc.). This grouping by related features is referred to as grouping by physical phenomena, which is the presentation of similar items together. <br />Finally, a unit organized on an orderly sequence of steps, such as what the driver sees when approaching the car, entering the car, and then starting it, is based on a temporal sequence. Temporal sequences use a timeline to sequence the content.<br />Once a sequence is selected, the content is presented in an orderly fashion according to the scheme. <br />
  26. 26. Concept-Related Sequencing<br />Content can also be sequenced in a manner consistent with how we organize the world conceptually or logically. <br />Posner and Strike (1976) present four schemes for sequencing conceptual content. <br />
  27. 27. Concept-Related Sequencing<br />
  28. 28. Class Relations<br />The first is class relations, grouping things or events (i.e., concepts) that are similar. <br />The recommended sequence is to teach the concept of the ‘‘class’’ first (i.e., personal computers) and then the concepts of the individual ‘‘class’’ members. <br />
  29. 29. Class Relations<br />For example, a unit on computers might start with a description of the general concept of a computer (e.g., input, output, central processor) before moving on to specific types of computers (e.g., desktop, laptop, netbook). <br />In a course on database programming, an instructor would begin by teaching the concept ‘‘database’’ before discussing specific types of databases, such as hierarchical, relational, and multidimensional databases.<br />
  30. 30. Propositional Relations<br />A second concept-sequencing scheme, propositional relations, prescribes teaching the relationship between propositions before teaching the proposition. <br />An application of this principle is the sequence for teaching the relationship among volume, temperature, and pressure of an ideal gas (i.e., Boyle’s law). <br />
  31. 31. Propositional Relations<br />A prescribed sequence might be to present a variety of different volume, temperature, and pressure conditions to illustrate relationships between the three variables before teaching Boyle’s law.<br />
  32. 32. Sophistication<br />The third concept-sequencing scheme is to organize the content by sophistication. <br />Examples of concept sophistication are the continuums of concrete to abstract and simple to complex. <br />The prescription is to start with concrete, simple, or precise concepts and then proceed to abstract, complex, and imprecise concepts. <br />For example, a chemistry instructor might start a unit with an explanation of a simple compound such as salt before discussing ionic bonding (concrete to abstract). <br />
  33. 33. Logical Prerequisite<br />The fourth concept-sequencing scheme is the logical prerequisite, which prescribes that concepts necessary to understand another concept be taught first. <br />In chemistry, an instructor would need to teach the concept of a chemical reaction before introducing the concept of an enzyme that hastens a chemical reaction.<br />
  34. 34. How Do You Make a Sequencing Decision?<br />The sequence of a unit of instruction may use strategies from each of the three sequencing schemes—learning related, world related, and concept related—identified by Posner and Strike (1976). <br />The actual decision is based first on the characteristics of the learner and then on the nature of the content.<br />
  35. 35. ELABORATION THEORY SEQUENCING<br />To determine the sequence of the instruction, elaboration theory makes distinctions between the types of expertise the learner will develop (English & Reigeluth, 1996).<br />Content expertise describes instruction that will help the learner master a body of knowledge such as chemistry or management. <br />Task expertise describes a unit that will help the learner become an expert at a task such as using a bow and arrow, completing a tax form, or solving a mathematical story problem. <br />
  36. 36. Content Expertise Sequencing<br />A conceptual or theoretical elaboration sequence is used for developing content expertise. <br />The conceptual sequence arranges concepts according to their superordinate, coordinate, and subordinate relationships. <br />For example, in a statistics course, a superordinate concept would be measures of central tendency. The coordinate concepts would be mean, mode, and median. Subordinate concepts would include scores and sum.<br />
  37. 37. Content Expertise Sequencing<br />A theoretical elaboration sequence organizes the content in much the same way a researcher might have followed to discover an idea. <br />For example, when teaching Boyle’s law, we might start with several observations of gases expanding when heated. Then, we might introduce learners to a computer-based animation that allows them to observe the pressure in a vessel as they increase and decrease the temperature. <br />This sequence follows the recommendation by Reigeluth (1987) for starting with the readily observable and then proceeding to the more detailed and complex aspects of the theory or discovery.<br />
  38. 38. Task Expertise Sequencing<br />The elaboration theory sequence for teaching tasks uses the simplifying conditions method. <br />Sequencing for a task should start with the simplest task and proceed to the more complex task. <br />
  39. 39. Task Expertise Sequencing<br />For example, when training bank tellers, we might start with a simple task such as how to accept a deposit of cash into a savings account. Next, we might show the tellers how to check the balance of a checking account. After they know how to check the balance of an account, we could show them how to check the balance and then cash a check if there are adequate funds. <br />Teaching these naive learners how to assess a loan application or how to react in a robbery are more complex tasks and would come near the end of the training.<br />
  40. 40. FROM OBJECTIVES TO SEQUENCING<br />Your task analysis will provide a general outline, whereas the classification of your objectives in the expanded performance-content matrix will identify the types of content in your task analysis. <br />Based on your content and performance, you can select a sequencing strategy for each objective. <br />If your unit is primarily concerned with teaching a procedure (e.g., how to tie knots for fly fishing), you might use the same sequencing strategy for the total unit, such as arranging the notes from simple to most difficult and then presenting the steps in a temporal sequence.<br />
  41. 41. Your Task<br />After you have created your objectives and classified them in your content performance matrix. Select the sequencing Method(s) for your instruction. You must state why you have selected your sequencing method (s)<br />