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Organizational Culture & Organizational Change
Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.
What Is Organizational Culture? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Organizational Culture A common perception held by the organization’s members; a system of shared meaning.
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. Subcultures Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? (cont’d) Core Values The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.
What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What Do Cultures Do? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What Do Cultures Do? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How Culture Begins ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Keeping Culture Alive ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stages in the Socialization Process Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
A Socialization Model E X H I B I T  17 –2
How Organization Cultures Form E X H I B I T  17 –4
How Employees Learn Culture ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Spirituality and Organizational Culture Workplace Spirituality The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of the community. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reasons for the Growing Interest in Spirituality ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact on Performance and Satisfaction E X H I B I T  17 –6
Forces for Change E X H I B I T  19 –1 Force  Examples Nature of the workforce  More cultural diversity Aging population Many new entrants with inadequate skills Technology  Faster, cheaper, and more mobile  computers On-line music sharing Deciphering of the human genetic code Economic shocks  Rise and fall of dot-com stocks  2000–02 stock market collapse Record low interest rates Competition  Global competitors Mergers and consolidations Growth of e-commerce
Forces for Change E X H I B I T  19 –1 (cont’d) Force  Examples Social trends  Internet chat rooms  Retirement of Baby Boomers Rise in discount and “big box” retailers World politics  Iraq–U.S. war Opening of markets in China  War on terrorism following 9/11/01
Managing Planned Change Goals of Planned Change: Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization. Change Making things different. Planned Change Activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Change Agents Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
Resistance to Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sources of Individual Resistance to Change E X H I B I T  19 –2
Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change E X H I B I T  19 –2 (cont’d)
Overcoming Resistance to Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Politics of Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model Unfreezing Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. Refreezing Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. Driving Forces Forces that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining Forces Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model E X H I B I T  19 –3
Unfreezing the Status Quo E X H I B I T  19 –4
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source:  Based on J. P. Kotter,  Leading Change  (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996).
Organizational Development ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Organizational Development (OD) A collection of planned interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
Organizational Development Techniques Sensitivity Training Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Provides increased awareness of others and self. Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openness, and increased tolerance for others.
Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Survey Feedback Approach The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested.
Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.
Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Team Building High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.
Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Intergroup Development OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.
Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Appreciative Inquiry Seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance.
Contemporary Change Issues For Today’s Managers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Technology in the Workplace ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Technology in the Workplace ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contemporary Change Issues for Today’s Managers: Stimulating Innovation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Innovation A new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service.
Contemporary Change Issues for Today’s Managers: Stimulating Innovation (cont’d) Idea Champions Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.
Creating a Learning Organization ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Learning Organization An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. Source:  Based on P. M. Senge,  The Fifth Discipline  (New York: Doubleday, 1990). E X H I B I T  19 –6
Creating a Learning Organization ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Managing a Learning Organization Managing Learning Establish a strategy Redesign the  organization’s structure Reshape the  organization’s culture
Mastering Change: It’s Culture-Bound ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Too Much Work, Too Little Time E X H I B I T  19 –7 With companies downsizing workers, those who remain find their jobs are demanding increasing amounts of time and energy. A national sample of U.S. employees finds that they: Feel overworked 54% Are overwhelmed by workload 55% Lack time for reflection 59% Don’t have time to complete tasks 56% Must multi-task too much 45% Source: Business Week , July 16, 2001, p. 12.
Work Stress and Its Management Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
Potential Sources of Stress  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Potential Sources of Stress  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d)  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Consequences of Stress High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms
Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance E X H I B I T  19 –10
Managing Stress ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Managing Stress ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
TIỂU LUẬN ,[object Object]
Yêu cầu nội dung ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yêu cầu nội dung ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yêu cầu nội dung ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yêu cầu ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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Organizational Behavior - Session9

  • 1. Organizational Culture & Organizational Change
  • 2. Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.
  • 3.
  • 4. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. Subcultures Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.
  • 5. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? (cont’d) Core Values The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Stages in the Socialization Process Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
  • 12. A Socialization Model E X H I B I T 17 –2
  • 13. How Organization Cultures Form E X H I B I T 17 –4
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  • 21. How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact on Performance and Satisfaction E X H I B I T 17 –6
  • 22. Forces for Change E X H I B I T 19 –1 Force Examples Nature of the workforce More cultural diversity Aging population Many new entrants with inadequate skills Technology Faster, cheaper, and more mobile computers On-line music sharing Deciphering of the human genetic code Economic shocks Rise and fall of dot-com stocks 2000–02 stock market collapse Record low interest rates Competition Global competitors Mergers and consolidations Growth of e-commerce
  • 23. Forces for Change E X H I B I T 19 –1 (cont’d) Force Examples Social trends Internet chat rooms Retirement of Baby Boomers Rise in discount and “big box” retailers World politics Iraq–U.S. war Opening of markets in China War on terrorism following 9/11/01
  • 24. Managing Planned Change Goals of Planned Change: Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization. Change Making things different. Planned Change Activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Change Agents Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
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  • 26. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change E X H I B I T 19 –2
  • 27. Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change E X H I B I T 19 –2 (cont’d)
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  • 30. Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model Unfreezing Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. Refreezing Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. Driving Forces Forces that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining Forces Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
  • 31. Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model E X H I B I T 19 –3
  • 32. Unfreezing the Status Quo E X H I B I T 19 –4
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  • 35. Organizational Development Techniques Sensitivity Training Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Provides increased awareness of others and self. Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openness, and increased tolerance for others.
  • 36. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Survey Feedback Approach The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested.
  • 37. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.
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  • 45. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’s Managers: Stimulating Innovation (cont’d) Idea Champions Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.
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  • 48. Managing a Learning Organization Managing Learning Establish a strategy Redesign the organization’s structure Reshape the organization’s culture
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  • 50. Too Much Work, Too Little Time E X H I B I T 19 –7 With companies downsizing workers, those who remain find their jobs are demanding increasing amounts of time and energy. A national sample of U.S. employees finds that they: Feel overworked 54% Are overwhelmed by workload 55% Lack time for reflection 59% Don’t have time to complete tasks 56% Must multi-task too much 45% Source: Business Week , July 16, 2001, p. 12.
  • 51. Work Stress and Its Management Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
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  • 55. Consequences of Stress High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms
  • 56. Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance E X H I B I T 19 –10
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  • 64. CHÚC CÁC EM THÀNH CÔNG