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chemistry in modern life

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chemistry in modern life

  1. 1. Unit 4 CHEMISTRY IN MODERN LIFE
  2. 2. nội dung 1.What is chemistry 2.Chemistry in our daily life 3.chemistry and food 5.Chemistry in warfare 4.Chemistry and agriculture
  3. 3. What is chemistry
  4. 4. What is chemistry Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them : Its composition structure properties reactions
  5. 5. What is chemistry
  6. 6. WHAT IS CHEMISTRY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF ALL CARBON COMPOUND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF ALL NON-CARBON COMPOUND BIOCHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF PROCESSES THAT TAKE PLACE INSIDE OF LIVING ORGANISMS ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION OF MATTER PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF THE MECHANISM, THE RATE AND THE ENERGY TRANSFER IN MATTER CHANGES
  7. 7. Chemistry in our daily life
  8. 8. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen calcium phosphoru Chemistry in the Human Body Chemistry in our daily life
  9. 9. Chemistry in our daily life Chemistry and love
  10. 10. Chemistry and Love
  11. 11. Chemistry and food chemiscals
  12. 12. CHEMISTRY AND FOOD Chemiscal reactions: cook food Beka a cake store food in the fridge…
  13. 13. Chemistry and agriculture Chemiscals Analysis of soil Fertilizers Pesticides Veterinary medicine Food for farm animals
  14. 14. Chemistry in warfare Chemical weapons : Starting to be used common in the first war world. The german used clothane to attack Belgium Changed the first world war becoming the fear of humanity
  15. 15. Chemistry in warfare The nuclear weapon
  16. 16. 1. CHEMISTRY AND DRUGS Organic molecules (most drugs) Inorganic molecules Medicines or drugs
  17. 17. Organic molecules Widely used as analgesic drugs Easily to be synthesized
  18. 18. SO WE WANT TO HAVE A PROPER UNDERSTANDING AND KNOWLEDGE OF DRUGS. • FROM DISCOVERY TO DEVELOPMENT • FROM PRODUCTION AND STORAGE TO ADMINISTRATION • FROM DESIRED ACTIONS TO ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DRUGS WE NEED TO LEARN CHEMISTRY
  19. 19. CHEMISTRY AND SOURCES • IN THE DISCOVERY STAGE, SUITABLE SOURCES ARE EXPLORED. natural Morphine from papaver somniferum synthetic Paracetamol, a popular analgesic and antipyretic Semi- synthetic penicillin
  20. 20. • WHATEVER THE SOURCE IS, CHEMISTRY IS INVOLVED IN ALL PROCESSES IN THE DISCOVERY PHASE
  21. 21. • EXAMPLE Natural source Extraction and isolation Identificati on are used Chemistry
  22. 22. Which processes in the drug development phase is chemistry involved in?
  23. 23. Firstly, in the drug development steps, especially in the pre-formulation and formulation studies, structures and the physical properties, e.g. solubility and pH, of the drug molecules are exploited. Chemical Content Ascorbic acid 5.0 g Sodium bicarbonate 2.365 g Sodium metabisulfite 0.100 g Disodium edetate 0.020 g Distilled water 100 ml
  24. 24. Ascorbic acid  Freely soluble in water, soluble in alcohol  pH 5.0 to 6.5 makes it stable and increase solubility  Easily oxidize
  25. 25. Chemistry, particularly physical properties of drugs, is also important to determine storage conditions. Store at 2 degrees to 8 degrees. Protect from light. pH 5.0 to 6.5. (BP 2008) Ascorbic acid
  26. 26. aspirin
  27. 27. The chemistry of drug molecules dictates the choice of the appropriate route of administration.
  28. 28. • When administered, the action of a drug inside our body depends on its binding to appropriate receptor, and its subsequent metabolic processes, all of which involve complex enzyme-driven biochemical reactions.
  29. 29. When many drugs are used in combination, they can have harmful effects.
  30. 30. All drugs are chemicals, and pharmacy is a subject that deals with the study of various aspects of drugs. Therefore, it is needless to say that to become a good pharmacist the knowledge of the chemistry of drugs is essential.
  31. 31. Life – saving Sulfuric Acid
  32. 32. Which problems do farmers around the world face with ?
  33. 33. Result ??? 1100 people 50000 people
  34. 34. Man- made salts Roman empire Benjamin Franklin Animal fertilizer Chemiscal fertilizer
  35. 35. Chemical fertilizer Phosphatic fertilizer Nitrogenous fertilizer Potassium fertilizer
  36. 36. 1/3 FOODS FERTILIZERS
  37. 37. Increasing worldwide demand for fertilizers Many of the top dozen chemicals produced in the United States are used in the production of fertilizers
  38. 38. SULFURIC ACID
  39. 39. Phosphate rock Calcium phosphate Apatid
  40. 40. 2.2 Phosphate rock and H2SO4 Phosphat rock Ca5(PO4)3F Man-made fertilizers Florida sits on one of the richest deposits of phosphate rock.
  41. 41. Ca3(PO4 ) > Ca2+ + PO4 3- ??? PO43 - Photphate rock is not soluble in water. But Plant nutrients must be soluble  obtain nutriens through their roots.
  42. 42. Treating phosphate rock with sulfuric acid produces : 2Ca5(PO4)3F +7 H2SO4 + 17H2O 7Ca(SO4) +2H2O +3Ca(H2PO4)2+H2O + 2HF + soluble calcium dihydrogen phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 + phosphoric acid H3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 H2SO4 + 6 H2O 2 H3PO4 + 3 CaSO4 + 2 H2O
  43. 43. N P Phosphoric acid is used in a variety of ways to produce other fertilizer  Supply N and P for Plant
  44. 44. Conclusion • The chemical primary products are fertilizers or chemiscals (H2SO4, H3PO4),which are used to make fertilizes. • Thanks to the insight of Benjamin Frankin more than two hundered years ago, we have been able to nourish more people than would have been possible otherwise.

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