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Heat and cold

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Heat and cold

  1. 1. Manila Central University COLLEGE OF NURSING Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION Prepared by: Arthur Cruz Fetalvero, r.n.
  2. 2. PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECT OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION
  3. 3. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF HEAT <ul><li>VASODILATION: Increase blood flow to an area </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Cellular Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes muscle relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>Relieves pain by increased blood flow to an area and by muscle relaxation. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Hastens suppuration by increased supply of phagocytes to an area; promotes healing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides sedative effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces joint stiffness by decreasing synovial fluid viscosity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF COLD <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cold lowers the temperature of underlying tissues and causes VASOCONSTRICTION. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreases Cellular Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases pain by numbing the area, slowing the area, slowing the pain impulses, and by increasing the pain threshold. </li></ul>4. Relaxes muscle by decreasing muscle contractility. 5. Slows bacterial growth and decreases inflammation.
  5. 5. METHODS OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION
  6. 6. <ul><li>Cold application, in general is safer than heat </li></ul><ul><li>application </li></ul>Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION PRINCIPLES IN HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION <ul><li>Heat application usually requires doctor’s order. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold application is done during the first 72 </li></ul><ul><li>hours; heat application follows after 72 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and cold application is done at a maximum of 30 minutes; an average of 15 – 20 minutes. Beyond 30 minutes, rebound effects occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>During heat and cold application, check the area every 15 to 20 minutes. Increased pain and swelling, numbness, extreme redness and mottling may indicate the need to discontinue the treatment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION METHODS OF HEAT APPLICATION DRY HEAT APPLICATION <ul><li>HOT WATER BAGS/ BOTTLES </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature of water: Normal adult & children over 2 yrs old 46- 52 C (115-125 F); Unconscious adult or children below 2 40.5 – 46 C (105 – 115 F) </li></ul><ul><li>Expel air covering the bag/ bottle </li></ul><ul><li>Dry the bag/bottle and hold it upside down to check for leakage. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the bag or bottle with cloth before application to an area (CAUTION: Prevent Burns) </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSABLE HOT PACKS </li></ul><ul><li>Strike, shake, or knead the package with the hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid puncture or damage of the outer covering. </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT CRADLE </li></ul><ul><li>The bulb should be no larger than 25 watts. </li></ul><ul><li>The bulb should be positioned at least 18 inches away from the site to be treated to prevent irritations or burns. </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT LAMP OR GOOSENECK LAMP/ PORTABLE FLOOR LAMP </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION METHODS OF HEAT APPLICATION MOIST HEAT APPLICATION <ul><li>WARM MOIST COMPRESS </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile warm moist compress is indicated for eye condition and open wound and lesions. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean warm moist compress is indicated for other parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>WARM SOAK </li></ul><ul><li>If a wound is present, the basin and solution should be sterile. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the basin half fill water, saline or the medicated solution prescribed. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of water or solution should be 105 – 115 F </li></ul><ul><li>Pat dry the area after the procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>SITZ BATH OR HIP BATH </li></ul><ul><li>Soak up to the pelvic area </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of the water should be 105 – 115 F </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for patient’s privacy and warmth. </li></ul><ul><li>Check BP and PR before the procedure and after five minutes for hypotension which could result to dizziness and/ or fainting. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the patient comfortable, warm and dry after the procedure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION METHODS OF COLD APPLICATION DRY COLD APPLICATION <ul><li>ICE COLLAR </li></ul><ul><li>ICE CAP </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSABLE COLD PACK </li></ul><ul><li>Placed over the neck </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the bag one-half to two-thirds full with crushed ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the bag one-third full for application over the chest and one-half-full for application over the abdomen and other body areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Strike, shake, or knead the package to create a chemical reaction that releases the cold. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nursing Care Management 100: RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION METHODS OF HEAT AND COLD APPLICATION TEMPERATURE FOR HOT AND COLD APPLICATIONS <ul><li>DESCRIPTION TEMPERATURE APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Very Cold Below 15 C (59 F) Ice bags </li></ul><ul><li>Cold 15 – 18 C (59 – 65 F) Cold Pack </li></ul><ul><li>Cool 18 – 27 C (65 – 87 F) Cold Compress </li></ul><ul><li>Tepid 27 – 37 C (80 – 98 F) Alcohol Sponge Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Warm 37 – 40 C (98 – 105 F) Warm Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Hot 40 – 46 C (105 – 115 F) Heat soak, irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>Very Hot Above 46 C (above 115F) Hot water bags for </li></ul><ul><li> adults </li></ul>

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