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Metodologia Galli 2008 Parte2

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Metodologia Galli 2008 Parte2

  1. 1. Metodologia Progettuale / Filosofia del progetto Prof. Luca Galli lgalli@pobox.com Presentazione per il corso NABA Media Design a.a. 2007-2008 Parte II: Progetto, metodi e processo
  2. 2. Design Research Project Management Design Management Design theories Design Methodology Philosophy of Design Metodologia progettuale Filosofia del progetto Scienze dell’organizzazione Filosofia Scienze umane Scienze della comunicazione Filosofia teoretica Storia della filosofia Psicologia Psicosocioanalisi Filosofia della Scienza Estetica Etica Filosofia della Tecnica Filosofia morale
  3. 3. “Methodology should not be a fixed track to a fixed destination but a conversation about everything that could be made of happen” John Chris Jones: Design Methods (1970-1992)
  4. 4. Old idea of design as the drawing of objects that are then to be built or manufactured Design as the drawing of objects Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  5. 5. Designing systems & environments Designing as the process of devising not individual products but whole systems or environments such as airports, transportation, hypermarkets, educational curricola, broadcasting schedules, welfare schemes, banking systems, computer networks Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  6. 6. Design as participation Design as participation, the involvement of the public in the decision-making process Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  7. 7. Design as creativity, which is supposed to be potentially present in everyone Design as creativity Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  8. 8. Design as an educational discipline that unites arts and science and perhaps can go further than either Design as an educational discipline that unites arts & science Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  9. 9. The idea of designing WITHOUT A PRODUCT, as a process or way of living in itself Design without a product Source: Jones, J.C., Designing Designing
  10. 10. John Chris Jones (1/2) In senso orario: 1, J.C. Jones, da “J.C. Jones Selected Bibliography 1950-2000 Prepared by Tom + Claire Mitchell” (http://www.indiana.edu/~iucdp/jonesbib.html) 2, The Metropolitan-Vickers MV950, thought to be the first transistor computer to become commercially available (1956) 3, Walt Whitman
  11. 11. John Chris Jones (2/2) • Nato nel 1927 in un piccolo centro del Galles • Formazione accademica in ingegneria; apprendimento formale anche nella scultura • Esordio e sviluppo professionale nell’ambito del design industriale (Olivetti, AEI) • Ergonomia • Conferenza del 1962 su “Design Methods” • Incarichi accademici: Manchester, Open University • Design Methods (prima edizione 1970; poi 1980 e 1992) • Abbandono dell’università: autore e lecturer indipendente • Saggistica, letteratura, time arts • The Internet and everyone, 2000
  12. 12. Design Methods (1970-1992) • Testo classico sulla metodologia del design – Tradotto in diverse lingue ma non in italiano • Saggio storico-critico sulla trasformazione del design seguito da un “ricettario” composto da 35 metodi • Design Methods Movement • Anticipazioni e costanti della discussione e della prassi contemporanea e successiva del design: orientamento a processi e sistemi, natura collettiva e pubblica del progetto, implicazioni etico- politiche, ...
  13. 13. Metodi tradizionali
  14. 14. Prodotto e processo artigianale (Craft evolution) (1/2) • The skilled craftman (not the maker-of drawings but the maker-of things) alle origini del moderno designer • Carro, scure, violino.... • Aspetto “organico”, semplicità apparente • Conoscenza incarnata nel “saper fare”, priva di teoria – blend of know-how and ignorance • Trasmissione delle informazioni – Usanze (e pregiudizi) locali – Tradizioni familiari – Conversazioni informali (con gli acquirenti, nei mercati, nelle piazze) Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  15. 15. Prodotto e processo artigianale (Craft evolution) (2/2) 1. L’artigiano non disegna e non giustifica esplicitamente le proprie decisioni 2. La forma del prodotto artigianale è l’esito di una serie infinita di successi e fallimenti, di tentativi per prova ed errore; l’esito “finale” appare sorprendentemente ben bilanciato e vicino alle esigenze dell’utilizzatore 3. La ricerca di soluzioni a esigenze particolari può condurre a modifiche contradditorie (un cambiamento solo alla volta, mantenimento del pregresso) 4. Informazione “cumulativa” fissata nella forma del prodotto 5. La forma e le sue ragioni non sono registrate in alcun “media simbolico” Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  16. 16. Il disegno di progetto (design-by-drawing)
  17. 17. Il disegno di progetto (design-by-drawing) • Il disegno in scala come medium per la sperimentazione e il cambiamento – Separazione tra pensiero, progetto (thinking) e produzione (making) + Separazione della produzione in sotto-produzioni, fasi + Possibilità di affrontare sistematicamente artefatti troppo grandi per un singolo + Possibilità di incrementare l’efficienza della produzione - Minore difficoltà e divertimento nella produzione - Minore confronto diretto con gli utilizzatori - Modelli e prototipi – Nascita della progettazione come professione • designing, as a profession, comes into being – Processo ingegneristico e progetto architetturale Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  18. 18. Dai prodotti alle esperienze
  19. 19. Design levels City 1. Community Other systems Housing Traffic 2. Systems eg Industry 3. Product/service Vehicles Travellers Roads 4. Components Body Engine Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  20. 20. Cosa vuol dire progettare (designing)? Products Institutions Buildings Markets Processes Capital goods Urban areas Opinions Initiate change in man-made things Laws Communications systems Public Transportation Festivities services Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  21. 21. Cosa vuol dire progettare (designing)? • Prodotto/servizio (“sistema”) • Protagonisti / fruitori attivi o passivi del cambiamento – Sponsor (cliente) – Designer – Fornitore – Produttore – Distributore – Acquirente (del prodotto/servizio) – Utente – Gestore sistema – Società nel suo complesso • Stato presente / stato futuro (as is / to be) – Instabilità del processo • Definizione specifiche, iterazioni, negoziazioni, ... Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  22. 22. Domande sul prodotto, fonti delle risposte (1/2) • Verrà apprezzato dallo sponsor? • Sponsor e finanziatori E’ nel suo interesse investire in esso? Verrà effettivamente realizzato? • Utilizza nel modo migliore i materiali e • Fornitori componenti disponibili? • Può essere realizzato • Produttore economicamente con le risorse disponibili? • Può essere distribuito attraverso i • Distributori canali disponibili? Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  23. 23. Domande sul prodotto, fonti delle risposte (2/2) • Quali sono i requisiti di forma, • Consumatori e organizzazioni di performance, affidabilità, etc.? vendita • In che misura sarà compatibile o in • Altri sponsor concorrenza con altri prodotti? • In che misura darà luogo a una • Gestori di sistemi complessi (Large diversa configurazione della situazione scale system operators) esistente, creando domande, opportunità e problemi inediti? • In che misura i suoi effetti, e i suoi • Istituzioni politiche e gruppi di effetti collaterali, verranno accettati da pressione tutti coloro che ne saranno affetti? Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  24. 24. Collaborazione • Gruppi formali, comitati • Confini organizzativi – Conoscenza diretta e reciproca vs. estraneità, novità del rapporto • Diversità disciplinari • Sovrastime, sottostime – Possibilità di rispettare consegne, definire costi a fronte di requisiti non ancora dettagliati • Difetti di informazione Alternative C Design team Alternative B Alternative A Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  25. 25. Design process (fasi): Divergence / Transformation / Convergence Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  26. 26. Divergence • Estendere lo spazio della ricerca, destrutturare – Obiettivi variabili e ipotetici – Limiti del problema instabili e indefiniti – Nessun elemento potenzialmente rilevante è da scartare, per quanto contradditorio con le assunzioni iniziali; valutazione rinviata – Brief inteso come punto di partenza della ricerca, potenzialmente oggetto di revisione e/o evoluzione (con l’accordo dello sponsor) – Deliberata ricerca di maggiore incertezza, necessità di liberarsi da soluzioni preconcette e di ricaricare la capacità inventiva del team attraverso la raccolta di informazioni – Carattere operativo dei metodi tipici di questa fase (many of them require leg-work than arm-chair speculation) – Difficoltà di contenere i costi – Errore tipico: porre le domande sbagliate Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  27. 27. Transformation • Inventare, identificare l’impianto, la forma generale della soluzione (the stage of pattern-making, fun, high-level creativity, changes of set, inspired guesswork) – Può accadere in qualunque momento ma dovrebbe essere applicata solo dopo aver compiuto almeno per un tratto la fase “divergente” – Impone una struttura al risultato della ricerca, in modo che la soluzione finale possa essere successivamente decisa e fissata nei dettagli – Suddivisione del problema in elementi risolvibili, in serie o in parellelo – Libertà di modificare i sotto-obiettivi e capacità di determinare fattibilità e conseguenze delle scelte relative • Necessità di test scientifici al livello della progettazione di sistema – Influenza degli orientamenti e delle capacità personali Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  28. 28. Convergence • Ridurre le incertezze fino alla determinazione di una soluzione tra le diverse alternative trovate – Persistenza e rigidità vs flessibilità e vaghezza • Costi crescenti della progettazione all’approssimarsi del “punto di convergenza” – Problemi imprevisti al livello dei sottosistemi obbligano a una nuova iterazione della fase iniziale – I modelli utilizzati dovrebbero essere il più possibile precisi e determinati – Due principali strategie di convergenza • Out-In • In-Out Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  29. 29. Design strategies: linear, cyclic Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Linear strategy Proceed Proceed Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 or return? or return? Brief Outcome Cyclic strategy Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  30. 30. Branching strategy Stage 2a Stage 4 Select Stage 1 Stage 2b Stage 3 Stage 6 4 or 5 Stage 2c Stage 5 Parallel Alternative Selection stages stages stages Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  31. 31. Adaptive strategy Brief Decide what Decide what Decide what stage 1 is to be stage 2 is to be stage 3 is to be Carry out Carry out Carry out stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 Outcome Outcome etc. of stage 1 of stage 2 Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  32. 32. Incremental strategy Outcome Brief Adjust existing Re-assess solution to accomodate an existing solution modifications Explore a few minor modifications Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  33. 33. Methods of exploring design situations (divergence) • Stating objectives – To identify external conditions with which the design must be compatible • Literature searching – To find published information that can favourably influence the designser’s output and that can be obtained without unacceptable cost and delay • Searching for visual inconsistencies – To find directions in which to search for design improvements • Interviewing users – To elicit information that is known only to users of the product or system in question • Questionnaires – To collect usable information from the members of a large population • Investigating user behaviour – To explore the behaviour patterns, and to predict the performance limits, of potential users of a new design • ... Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  34. 34. Methods of searching for ideas (divergence and transformation) • Brainstorming – To stimulate a group of people to produce many ideas quickly • Removing mental blocks – To find new directions of search when the apparent search space has yelded no wholly acceptable solution • [literature on creativity] • Morphological charts – To widen the area of search of solutions to a design problem • Mapping functions to sub-solutions and identify a minimun set of them • ... Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  35. 35. Methods of evaluation (convergence) • Checklists – To enable designers to use knowledge of requirements that have been found to be relevant in similar situations • Selecting criteria – To decide how an acceptable design is to be recognized • Ranking and weighting – To compare a set of alternative designs using a common scale of measurement • Specification writing – To describe an acceptable outcome for designing that has yet to be done • ... Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  36. 36. Fasi Metodi Analysis • Divergence Metodo – Esplorazione, scomposizione del xyz problema (breaking the problem into Metodo Metodo pieces) xyz xyz Synthesis • Transformation – Definizione di un nuovo assetto (putting the pieces together in a new way) Convergence Evaluation • Metodo – Test, esecuzione pratica di quanto xyz Metodo previsto a scopo di verifica (testing to xyz discover the consequences of putting the new arrangement into practice) Metodo xyz Cicli (o iterazioni) Progressivamente più dettagliati
  37. 37. Interviste agli utenti (1/3) • Obiettivo – Raccogliere informazioni che sono note solo agli utenti del prodotto/servizio o del sistema in questione • Processo – Identificare le situazioni d’uso (user situation) rilevanti per il progetto – Cercare il consenso di tutte le persone rilevanti rispetto alla situazione d’uso – Incoraggiare gli utenti a descrivere e rappresentare qualunque aspetto della loro attività che giudichino importante – Indirizzare la conversazione verso gli aspetti dell’attività dell’utente che appaiono rilevanti rispetto alla situazione d’uso che è oggetto di design • Modelli normali e anormali di attività • Motivi delle azioni • Fonti delle informazioni utilizzate Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  38. 38. Interviste agli utenti (2/3) • Processo (segue) – Registrare i fatti notevoli (e le circostanze) durante l’intervista o subito dopo la sua conclusione • Intuizioni (insight) collegate all’intervista – Ottenere se appropriato i commenti degli utenti sulle conclusioni tratte dall’intervista • Punti di attenzione – Interviste non strutturate – Interviste strutturate (questionari) – Osservazioni non strutturate – Osservazioni strutturate (checklist) – Capacità relazionale (social skill) – Conoscenza iniziale Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  39. 39. Interviste agli utenti (3/3) Registrazione non strutturata Registrazione strutturata Motivazioni delle azioni più significative Informazioni Attitudini degli ottenibili utenti Modelli normali e anormali di attività principalmente Giudizi sul livello di Fonti delle informazioni critiche e incertezze attraverso domande comfort Rimedi adottati dagli utenti per i difetti del sistema e Lamentele delle regole Disagi significativi ai quali gli utenti non riescono ad adattarsi Domande e aspetti da includere in un questionario Informazioni Identificazione delle azioni esatte in cui si Frequenza delle ottenibili scompone un compito azioni principalmente Adattamenti compiuti durante l’apprendimento Tempi delle azioni attraverso osservazioni (entrambi divenuti inconsapevoli per gli utenti Frequenza degli esperti) errori Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  40. 40. Brainstorming • Obiettivo – Stimolare un gruppo a produrre rapidamente molte idee • Processo – Definizione del gruppo dei partecipanti – Un leader coordina l’azione e registra le proposte • Applicazione rigida della regola secondo la quale nessuna idea deve essere criticata e apertura anche alle proposte più insolite • La numerosità dei suggerimenti è esplicitamente ricercata • Ogni partecipante dovrebbe anche tentare di sviluppare le idee avanzate dagli altri • Punti di attenzione – Contributi scritti in parte per corregggere le dinamiche della relazione – Qualità intrinseche delle proposte rispetto alla loro identificazione e varietà – Possibilità di applicarlo senza esperienza specifica del metodo • Unico requisito, esperienza rilevante rispetto alla situazione Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  41. 41. Interaction matrix (1/2) • Obiettivo – Consentire la ricerca sistematica dei collegamenti tra gli elementi di un problema • Processo – Definire a cosa corrispondono “elementi” e “collegamenti” (in modo che sia condivisibile con altri, ripetibile) – Disegnare una matrice nella quale ogni elemento può essere collegato con qualunque altro – Determinare, sulla base di ragioni il più possibile oggettive, l’esistenza di collegamenti o meno tra i diversi elementi • Punti di attenzione – Supporto a verifiche non eseguibili in modo destrutturato • Ma non applicabile se i termini del problema sono eccessivamente instabili, confusi – Livelli gerarchici eterogeneei tra gli elementi Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  42. 42. Interaction matrix (2/2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 lobby _ 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 waiting space _ _ 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 treatment room _ _ 2 2 2 0 0 2 0 4 side ward _ _ _ _ 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 consulting room _ _ _ _ _ 1 0 1 0 0 6 office _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 0 1 0 7 nurses' wc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 0 0 8 patients' wc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 0 9 medical store _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 10 cleaners' store _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Esempio relativo ai collegamenti tra le stanze di un centro medico. Legenda: 2=essenziale; 1=desiderabile; 0=non necessario Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992
  43. 43. Specification writing • Obiettivo – Descrivere un risultato adeguato per un progetto da realizzare • Processo – Identificare provvisoriamente una serie di possibili risultati, a diversi livelli di generalità – Selezionare il minor livello di generalità compatibile con il maggior grado di libertà progettuale – Definire il risultato atteso senza fare riferimento alle caratteristiche che i progettisti dovranno essere liberi di cambiare ma esplicitando le metriche di performance che permettano di formulare previsioni • Punti di attenzione – Definizione obiettivi – Selezione dei criteri Source: Jones, J.C., Design Methods,1970-1992

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