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INTRODUCTION TO
DRINKING WATER QUALITY
A Layperson’s Guide to
Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases
and Water Quality Monitor...
CONTENTS
Introduction
Why Water Quality
“Improved” Water vs. “Safe” Water
Global Health Crisis
Waterborne Diseases
How Wat...
INTRODUCTION
Poor water quality is a global health
crisis with many layers of complexity.
Not everyone who must help remed...
4
This booklet provides basic
information to help people make
intelligent decisions about safe
drinking water.
It’s also a...
WHY WATER QUALITY
5
Source: Save the Water
“The quality of drinking-water is a powerful
environmental determinant of health.
Assurance of drinking-water safety is a
...
Safe and sufficient water supplies are
mandatory for the health and well-being
of humans and ecosystems, and for
social an...
Throughout much of the 20th
century, water scarcity in
developing countries – insufficient
water quantity – was the focus ...
9
Water quantity is still an
enormous problem in much of
the developing world.
However, water quality is just
as important...
All the investment in the world to improve
water access is wasteful if the water
quality in those sources is contaminated,...
11
Despite the growing
concern, water is rarely
monitored for quality
in the developing world.
Source: ChildFund Internati...
Due to the achievements of
the UN Millennium
Development Goals and the
work of NGOs, governments
and other entities, there...
13
91% of the global population now
uses an improved drinking water
source
2.6 billion people have gained access
to an imp...
These promising statistics
are somewhat deceiving…
14
Source: boredpanda
15
In 2015, 663 million people still lack access to
improved water sources (Joint Monitoring
Program Update)
“IMPROVED” WATER ≠
“SAFE” WATER
16
The UN Joint Monitoring Program’s
definition of “improved” water
refers to the construction of a
source – if the source is...
Billions of dollars have been spent
on improving water sources, but
there is recognition that an
improved water source doe...
WATER QUALITY IS A
GLOBAL HEALTH CRISIS
19
Source: Top News Health
World Health Organization and
UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program
 663 million people - 1 in 10 - lack
access to safe water
20
World Health Organization
 1 billion people lack access to an
improved supply
 2 million annual deaths
attributable to u...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 780 million people do not have access to an
improved water source
 Estimated...
United Nations
 About 3.5 million deaths related to
inadequate water supply, sanitation and
hygiene occur each year, pred...
In 2015, the World Economic
Forum said the water crisis is
the #1 global risk based on
impact to society as a measure of
d...
Unsafe drinking water is especially tragic because
the crisis is preventable.
25
Source: Rochester Institute of Technology
WATERBORNE DISEASES
26
What is lurking in water that
causes such tragedy?
Four types of organisms transmit
waterborne diseases…
27
Source: MAD Wa...
28
o Protozoa
o Parasites
o Viruses
o Bacteria
The greatest waterborne risk
to health comes from the
transmission of fecal pathogens.
Fecal coliforms are a group of tota...
In any given sample of drinking
water, the concentration of
pathogens might be small, but the
number of different pathogen...
E. coli is a bacteria that is
the most reliable indicator
of fecal contamination and
pathogens in water.
Why is that?
31
32
E. coli is generally not found growing and
reproducing in the environment.
It has to be introduced into the environment...
HOW WATER BECOMES
CONTAMINATED WITH
FECAL PATHOGENS
33
Source: citifmonline.com
At the Source
34
o Leaking septic tanks and latrines
o Contaminated surface water run-off entering
wells, springs, other s...
At the Household Level
35
o Transporting water from the source to house
in dirty containers
o Storing water in open and/or...
Natural Disasters and Emergencies
36
o Via disaster itself such as flood waters
o Poor sanitation and hygiene amongst
disp...
Ensuring safe water supplies after
a disaster is one of most
important public health
requirements to prevent the
spread of...
38
Water sources that were once clean
can become recontaminated.
Most waters are more vulnerable to
E. coli contamination ...
CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TO
IMPROVE WATER QUALITY
39
Source: Virtual Medical Centre
40
When contaminated water is found, it is best to take actions to identify the
reasons for the contamination by doing a s...
41
Another recommended action is to
take steps to correct any water point
deficiencies, based on findings from
the sanitar...
42
For unimproved waters that are
typically of higher risks, treating
the water is probably the best
immediate interventio...
UN SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT GOAL 6
43
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals pick up
where the Millennium Development Goals left off in 2015.
Sustaina...
45
Target 6.1: “By 2030, achieve universal and equitable
access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.”
Target 6.3...
46
In addition, SDG Goal 11 for safe cities references water
and natural disasters…
Target 11.5 “By 2030, significantly re...
47
SDG 6 is more ambitious
than the Millennium
Development Goals.
The new water targets are
specific, measurable and
actio...
48
SDG 6 recognizes there is a need to
test water at the household level
to both understand where water is
unsafe and then...
49
Measuring water quality with
quantifiable data is crucial to
ensure water sources and
supplies remain safe to drink
ove...
WATER QUALITY MONITORING
50
One of the most important ways
to eliminate the global water crisis
of unsafe drinking water is to
conduct ongoing water q...
Ongoing water quality monitoring must
be done in a health risk-based
framework.
We have to measure the presence of
fecal o...
Water quality should be monitored for
safety over time, from the source or
point of production, to the point of use
and ev...
Water quality monitoring has
been extremely difficult to do
in low resource, rural and
disaster areas.
Part of the problem...
Laboratories are often inaccessible or
unavailable in remote locations and
disaster areas.
Lab testing is expensive. You h...
56
Water quality testing methods such as
membrane filtration present roadblocks
in low resource settings.
57
 Complicated systems that are
difficult for anyone to use
 Require electricity, other
resources, trained technicians
...
58
In order to easily monitor water quality no
matter who is doing the testing and no
matter where they are, simple, porta...
AQUAGENX
COMPARTMENT BAG TEST
59
60
The Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test (CBT)
overcomes many of the roadblocks to
on-site water quality testing.
It does exac...
61
The CBT is optimized for on-site water quality testing in-the-field.
 Lab–free
 Electricity-free
 Cold chain-free
 ...
62
It is the ideal water quality test
for E. coli in low resource
settings…
o Rural, remote locations
o Developing countri...
63
1. Collect 100 mL water sample
2. Dissolve E. coli growth medium in sample for about 15 minutes
3. Pour sample into com...
64
In addition to its portability
and simplicity, the CBT has
two great features for
testing in remote,
rural areas…
65
1
The CBT works at variable temperatures.
That’s because the enzymatic hydrolysis of our
E. coli medium’s substrate, ca...
66
2
The CBT enables ambient temperature
incubation at 25° Celsius and above, with
test results in 24 hours.
If you’re tes...
67
In colder climates, you can maintain CBT samples between 25° - 44.5°
Celsius in several ways…
With the Aquagenx portabl...
68
Color changes in the CBT are easy to see.
Blue/blue-green color indicates presence
of E. coli in a compartment.
Yellow/...
69
To score your test results, line up your compartment bag to the
Most Probable Number (MPN) Table in the CBT Instruction...
70
Then, match the color sequence
of your five compartments to
one of the 32 color-coded rows
on the MPN Table.
Each row g...
71
Health Risk Category E. coli CFU per 100 mL
Safe <1
Intermediate Risk/Probably Safe 1-10
High Risk/Probably Unsafe >10-...
72
Using the CBT Kit is that easy.
73
The combined data of MPN value
and upper 95% Confidence Interval
provides excellent information in
order to make inform...
74
The CBT’s visual, color-change
test results are also a
powerful educational tool to
help communities adopt better
behav...
75
If you only used a Presence/Absence test for
E. coli and scored a positive test result, you
wouldn’t know if only one E...
76
The CBT has been tested extensively by independent parties and
compared to other testing methods such as membrane filtr...
77
“The CBT should be adopted for
standard water quality testing practices
and disaster response within the Red
Cross/Red ...
78
“We will absolutely continue using the
CBT in our projects to test for E. coli.
It’s very easy to use, and even the
vil...
79
Tens of thousands of CBTs are used by hundreds of customers
around the world in dozens of countries.
Customers include:...
80
Would you like more information on the Aquagenx CBT Kit?
Contact Us
Click button above to: www.aquagenx.com/contact-us
...
AQUAGENX PROCUREMENT
PROGRAMS FOR SDG 6
81
82
Aquagenx is committed to helping all
countries attain SDG 6 water quality
targets.
We work with governments, NGOs
and s...
83
Contact us so we can work with you to develop a
CBT Procurement Program that meets your needs for SDG 6.
Contact Us
CBT...
CONCLUSION
Many of us have heard the phrase,
“What isn’t measured isn’t managed.”
For safe water quality throughout the
wo...
85
www.aquagenx.com
info@aquagenx.com
1+919-590-0343
@Aquagenx
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
86
UN Water: http://www.unwater.org/
WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality:
http://www.who.int/wa...
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Introduction to Drinking Water Quality: A Layperson’s Guide to Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases and Water Quality Monitoring

Poor water quality is a global health crisis. Not everyone who must help remedy this monumental problem is a scientist, or policy maker, or water, sanitation and hygiene expert, or public health professional. However, everyone at every level must have some understanding of the subject and science behind it.

Our booklet provides basic information to help people make intelligent decisions about safe drinking water.

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Introduction to Drinking Water Quality: A Layperson’s Guide to Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases and Water Quality Monitoring

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY A Layperson’s Guide to Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases and Water Quality Monitoring A Publication by
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Why Water Quality “Improved” Water vs. “Safe” Water Global Health Crisis Waterborne Diseases How Water Becomes Contaminated Corrective Actions to Improve Water Quality UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) Water Quality Monitoring Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test (CBT) Aquagenx Procurement Programs for SDG 6 Conclusion 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Poor water quality is a global health crisis with many layers of complexity. Not everyone who must help remedy this monumental problem is a scientist, or policy maker, or water, sanitation and hygiene expert, or public health professional. However, everyone involved with this challenge at every level must have some understanding of the subject and science behind it. 3 Source: justgiving.com
  4. 4. 4 This booklet provides basic information to help people make intelligent decisions about safe drinking water. It’s also an introductory resource for United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6. All stakeholders for targets in this goal, including people who aren’t scientists or water professionals, need an elementary understanding of water quality. Aquagenx February 2016 “More people die from unsafe water than from all forms of violence, including war…These deaths are an affront to our common humanity, and undermine the efforts of many countries to achieve their development potential.” Ban Ki-moon United Nations 2012
  5. 5. WHY WATER QUALITY 5 Source: Save the Water
  6. 6. “The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. Assurance of drinking-water safety is a foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases.” “Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical for thriving people, planet and prosperity.” 6
  7. 7. Safe and sufficient water supplies are mandatory for the health and well-being of humans and ecosystems, and for social and economic development. The United Nations says safe water is a fundamental human right. 7 Source: Intentional Living
  8. 8. Throughout much of the 20th century, water scarcity in developing countries – insufficient water quantity – was the focus of water challenges. Billions of dollars were spent on improving access to water supplies and services. 8 Source: Rajnikant V/s
  9. 9. 9 Water quantity is still an enormous problem in much of the developing world. However, water quality is just as important as water quantity. Source: preserveourwaters.weebly.com
  10. 10. All the investment in the world to improve water access is wasteful if the water quality in those sources is contaminated, causing death and disease. Water quality has rightfully become a global concern. 10 Source: Sri Lanka Sunday Observer
  11. 11. 11 Despite the growing concern, water is rarely monitored for quality in the developing world. Source: ChildFund International
  12. 12. Due to the achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals and the work of NGOs, governments and other entities, there has been good progress toward safe drinking water in developing countries. 12
  13. 13. 13 91% of the global population now uses an improved drinking water source 2.6 billion people have gained access to an improved drinking water source since 1990
  14. 14. These promising statistics are somewhat deceiving… 14 Source: boredpanda
  15. 15. 15 In 2015, 663 million people still lack access to improved water sources (Joint Monitoring Program Update)
  16. 16. “IMPROVED” WATER ≠ “SAFE” WATER 16
  17. 17. The UN Joint Monitoring Program’s definition of “improved” water refers to the construction of a source – if the source is protected in some way.¹ It does not refer to the quality of the water. ¹ http://www.wssinfo.org/definitions- methods/ 17
  18. 18. Billions of dollars have been spent on improving water sources, but there is recognition that an improved water source does not always equal safe water. Water quality testing studies on improved water sources reveal those sources contain a high level of fecal contamination. 18 Source: MaaMatiManush.tv
  19. 19. WATER QUALITY IS A GLOBAL HEALTH CRISIS 19 Source: Top News Health
  20. 20. World Health Organization and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program  663 million people - 1 in 10 - lack access to safe water 20
  21. 21. World Health Organization  1 billion people lack access to an improved supply  2 million annual deaths attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene 21
  22. 22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  780 million people do not have access to an improved water source  Estimated 800,000 children younger than 5 years of age die from diarrhea each year 22
  23. 23. United Nations  About 3.5 million deaths related to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene occur each year, predominantly in developing countries 23
  24. 24. In 2015, the World Economic Forum said the water crisis is the #1 global risk based on impact to society as a measure of devastation. In 2016, the World Economic Forum ranked the water crisis as the top global risk to industry and society over the next decade. 24
  25. 25. Unsafe drinking water is especially tragic because the crisis is preventable. 25 Source: Rochester Institute of Technology
  26. 26. WATERBORNE DISEASES 26
  27. 27. What is lurking in water that causes such tragedy? Four types of organisms transmit waterborne diseases… 27 Source: MAD Water
  28. 28. 28 o Protozoa o Parasites o Viruses o Bacteria
  29. 29. The greatest waterborne risk to health comes from the transmission of fecal pathogens. Fecal coliforms are a group of total coliforms found in the intestines and feces of humans and warm- blooded animals. 29
  30. 30. In any given sample of drinking water, the concentration of pathogens might be small, but the number of different pathogens is very large. It’s impossible and too expensive to test for all pathogens in drinking water. Instead, we look for indirect evidence of pathogens by testing for indicator organisms. 30 Source: Sisters of Notre Dame
  31. 31. E. coli is a bacteria that is the most reliable indicator of fecal contamination and pathogens in water. Why is that? 31
  32. 32. 32 E. coli is generally not found growing and reproducing in the environment. It has to be introduced into the environment via the feces of humans and warm-blooded animals.
  33. 33. HOW WATER BECOMES CONTAMINATED WITH FECAL PATHOGENS 33 Source: citifmonline.com
  34. 34. At the Source 34 o Leaking septic tanks and latrines o Contaminated surface water run-off entering wells, springs, other sources o Wells with defective casings, liners o Collecting water with unwashed hands and/or dirty containers o Objects falling into the well/source o Animals using the same source o Open defecation
  35. 35. At the Household Level 35 o Transporting water from the source to house in dirty containers o Storing water in open and/or dirty containers o Handling water with dirty hands or utensils
  36. 36. Natural Disasters and Emergencies 36 o Via disaster itself such as flood waters o Poor sanitation and hygiene amongst displaced populations, such as in refugee camps
  37. 37. Ensuring safe water supplies after a disaster is one of most important public health requirements to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases, along with adequate sanitation. Water quality testing for E. coli following a disaster is critical. 37
  38. 38. 38 Water sources that were once clean can become recontaminated. Most waters are more vulnerable to E. coli contamination during and shortly after precipitation events and especially when there is flooding. Water sources can also become recontaminated in the ways described on pages 34-36. Source: Reuters
  39. 39. CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY 39 Source: Virtual Medical Centre
  40. 40. 40 When contaminated water is found, it is best to take actions to identify the reasons for the contamination by doing a sanitary assessment or sanitary inspection. See the following examples: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/emergencies/fs2_1.pdf www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/wsp170805AppC.pdf iceh.uws.edu.au/pdf_files/water_SanitaryInspection_Annex.pdf www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/technical-briefs/50-sanitary-surveying.pdf http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/2edvol3c.pdf
  41. 41. 41 Another recommended action is to take steps to correct any water point deficiencies, based on findings from the sanitary inspection/assessment. The actions depend on the types of deficiencies. Some corrections or fixes are obvious, such as: restricting animals from accessing the water; adopting good sanitation and hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap; not allowing surface water sources for drinking water to be used for other purposes such as human or animal waste disposal or bathing.Source: pinterest.com
  42. 42. 42 For unimproved waters that are typically of higher risks, treating the water is probably the best immediate intervention. Treating water can be done at the water source point (where the water is collected) or at the point of use in the home (household water treatment). Source: Wikipedia.com
  43. 43. UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL 6 43
  44. 44. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals pick up where the Millennium Development Goals left off in 2015. Sustainable Development Goals are the 2030 Agenda. Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6) is a dedicated goal for water and sanitation. SDG 6 expands on the Millennium Development Goals focus on drinking water and sanitation and covers the entire water cycle, including water management, wastewater and ecosystems. 44
  45. 45. 45 Target 6.1: “By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.” Target 6.3: “By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.” www.unwater.org/sdgs/a-dedicated-water-goal/en/ SDG 6 champions water quality. Targets involving water quality include…
  46. 46. 46 In addition, SDG Goal 11 for safe cities references water and natural disasters… Target 11.5 “By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the economic losses relative to gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.”
  47. 47. 47 SDG 6 is more ambitious than the Millennium Development Goals. The new water targets are specific, measurable and action-oriented. Source: umweltverschmutzung.wordpress.com
  48. 48. 48 SDG 6 recognizes there is a need to test water at the household level to both understand where water is unsafe and then to validate and audit various efforts to improve household and community water quality. Accurate assessment of progress toward safe water targets includes measuring E. coli concentrations in drinking water with accessible, precise tests.Source: waterencyclopedia.com
  49. 49. 49 Measuring water quality with quantifiable data is crucial to ensure water sources and supplies remain safe to drink over time, and to understand how water quality changes over time. This requires ongoing water quality monitoring.
  50. 50. WATER QUALITY MONITORING 50
  51. 51. One of the most important ways to eliminate the global water crisis of unsafe drinking water is to conduct ongoing water quality monitoring. This should include routine bacteriological testing, and measuring water samples for the presence of fecal pathogens, especially E. coli. 51
  52. 52. Ongoing water quality monitoring must be done in a health risk-based framework. We have to measure the presence of fecal organisms to know the extent of the health risk. We have to obtain data to help make informed decisions about drinking water quality in order to take the most appropriate corrective actions. 52
  53. 53. Water quality should be monitored for safety over time, from the source or point of production, to the point of use and every point in between:  Source  Tap  Point of use  Stored water  Before treatment  After treatment  Households  Non-households (schools, healthcare facilities) 53 Source: Living Water International
  54. 54. Water quality monitoring has been extremely difficult to do in low resource, rural and disaster areas. Part of the problem has been various water quality testing methods that aren’t convenient and practical for use in these settings. 54 Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  55. 55. Laboratories are often inaccessible or unavailable in remote locations and disaster areas. Lab testing is expensive. You have to factor in sample transportation, sample analysis and processing and technicians’ fees. Labs can also take a long time to generate and provide test results. 55
  56. 56. 56 Water quality testing methods such as membrane filtration present roadblocks in low resource settings.
  57. 57. 57  Complicated systems that are difficult for anyone to use  Require electricity, other resources, trained technicians  Require constant temperature control in an incubator  Require extra, bulky equipment that’s difficult to transport and use in-the-field  Require removable pieces of equipment that must be sterilized before re-use  Require a cold chain  Do not analyze 100 mL sample  Do not provide quantitative test results Roadblocks to on-site water quality monitoring other testing methods present
  58. 58. 58 In order to easily monitor water quality no matter who is doing the testing and no matter where they are, simple, portable tests are needed. Water quality tests must measure the presence of E. coli in water samples and generate quantified test results that provide data to make informed decisions about water safety.
  59. 59. AQUAGENX COMPARTMENT BAG TEST 59
  60. 60. 60 The Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test (CBT) overcomes many of the roadblocks to on-site water quality testing. It does exactly what the World Health Organization recommends for water quality testing, namely to test for E. coli bacteria in a 100 mL water sample. The CBT does this in a remarkable way.
  61. 61. 61 The CBT is optimized for on-site water quality testing in-the-field.  Lab–free  Electricity-free  Cold chain-free  Small footprint - easy to pack and carry  Simple to use - don’t have to be a scientist  Easy color-change scoring method  Quantified test results – Most Probable Number E. coli per 100 mL  WHO recommended indicator organism and sample volume
  62. 62. 62 It is the ideal water quality test for E. coli in low resource settings… o Rural, remote locations o Developing countries o Disaster and emergency areas
  63. 63. 63 1. Collect 100 mL water sample 2. Dissolve E. coli growth medium in sample for about 15 minutes 3. Pour sample into compartment bag 4. Incubate 24-48 hours depending on ambient temperature 5. Score and record test results The CBT is an every-person’s water quality test that takes just a few simple steps to complete.
  64. 64. 64 In addition to its portability and simplicity, the CBT has two great features for testing in remote, rural areas…
  65. 65. 65 1 The CBT works at variable temperatures. That’s because the enzymatic hydrolysis of our E. coli medium’s substrate, called X-Gluc for short, can occur during E. coli growth at a range of temperatures. Other tests require precise, constant temperature control in an electricity-dependent incubator.
  66. 66. 66 2 The CBT enables ambient temperature incubation at 25° Celsius and above, with test results in 24 hours. If you’re testing in colder climates, you just need to maintain the sample anywhere between 25° - 44.5° Celsius and incubate for 48 hours. It takes longer for bacteria to grow in colder temperatures.
  67. 67. 67 In colder climates, you can maintain CBT samples between 25° - 44.5° Celsius in several ways… With the Aquagenx portable incubator, or by other methods and techniques such as: • Thermal coolers and bags • Poultry or reptile incubators • Keeping samples in warm rooms or near any type of heat source
  68. 68. 68 Color changes in the CBT are easy to see. Blue/blue-green color indicates presence of E. coli in a compartment. Yellow/yellow brown color indicates absence of E. coli in a compartment. The concentration of E. coli is estimated from the combination of positive and negative compartments in the bag.
  69. 69. 69 To score your test results, line up your compartment bag to the Most Probable Number (MPN) Table in the CBT Instructions sheet.
  70. 70. 70 Then, match the color sequence of your five compartments to one of the 32 color-coded rows on the MPN Table. Each row gives you the Most Probable Number (MPN) of E. coli in the 100 mL sample. Our table also gives the Upper 95% Confidence Interval, which is the worst possible concentration of E. coli you would find if the same sample was tested many times.
  71. 71. 71 Health Risk Category E. coli CFU per 100 mL Safe <1 Intermediate Risk/Probably Safe 1-10 High Risk/Probably Unsafe >10-100 Very High Risk/Unsafe >100 The health risk categories in our MPN Table match the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 4th Edition.
  72. 72. 72 Using the CBT Kit is that easy.
  73. 73. 73 The combined data of MPN value and upper 95% Confidence Interval provides excellent information in order to make informed decisions about the health risk of water. This is important in the WHO Intermediate health risk categories, because most decisions about water safety take place in these middle categories.
  74. 74. 74 The CBT’s visual, color-change test results are also a powerful educational tool to help communities adopt better behaviors for sanitation and hygiene.
  75. 75. 75 If you only used a Presence/Absence test for E. coli and scored a positive test result, you wouldn’t know if only one E. coli bacterium was in the sample or hundreds or more. Isn’t it better to accurately measure the health risk of drinking water and obtain data and better information so you know more precisely how dangerous the sample might be?
  76. 76. 76 The CBT has been tested extensively by independent parties and compared to other testing methods such as membrane filtration and IDEXX Colilert. Time and time again, results are reliable and on par with more complicated, expensive and less portable water quality tests. Visit this webpage to read papers, studies and articles on the CBT: www.aquagenx.com/comparative-studies-and-cbt-performance-data
  77. 77. 77 “The CBT should be adopted for standard water quality testing practices and disaster response within the Red Cross/Red Crescent movement and used by all member societies working in a water supply capacity. Its speed, convenience and quantitative test results add value to water quality investigations and validate projects and programs. It is simple to use on-site in remote locations, and its color-change test results are an excellent way of raising water quality awareness for local communities.” Stuart Bryan Australian Red Cross Source: www.redcross.org.au
  78. 78. 78 “We will absolutely continue using the CBT in our projects to test for E. coli. It’s very easy to use, and even the village children in Tanzania learned to use it! The CBT is cheap, reliable, easy to transport and easy to understand. I recommend the CBT to anyone who does water quality testing in developing countries and low resource areas without access to electricity, incubators or labs.” Pedro Piqueras Engineers Without Borders Los Angeles Professional Chapter
  79. 79. 79 Tens of thousands of CBTs are used by hundreds of customers around the world in dozens of countries. Customers include:  NGOs - small, medium and large  Humanitarian relief organizations  Governments  Private companies  Universities See more testimonials and customer stories on our website: www.aquagenx.com/testimonials
  80. 80. 80 Would you like more information on the Aquagenx CBT Kit? Contact Us Click button above to: www.aquagenx.com/contact-us Contact Us
  81. 81. AQUAGENX PROCUREMENT PROGRAMS FOR SDG 6 81
  82. 82. 82 Aquagenx is committed to helping all countries attain SDG 6 water quality targets. We work with governments, NGOs and service providers to develop tailored, affordable, sustainable CBT Kit procurement programs that ensure convenience and success in meeting SDGs, especially in rural and low resource areas.
  83. 83. 83 Contact us so we can work with you to develop a CBT Procurement Program that meets your needs for SDG 6. Contact Us CBT Procurement Program contact form: www.aquagenx.com/cbt-procurement-program-for-sdg-6/ Contact Us
  84. 84. CONCLUSION Many of us have heard the phrase, “What isn’t measured isn’t managed.” For safe water quality throughout the world, that phrase is absolutely true. We live in a data-driven world. Obtaining data to ensure safe water for everyone is a requirement, not a luxury. Simple, convenient and effective tools like the Aquagenx CBT are readily available to help prevent the devastating impact of contaminated water on human lives. 84
  85. 85. 85 www.aquagenx.com info@aquagenx.com 1+919-590-0343 @Aquagenx
  86. 86. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 86 UN Water: http://www.unwater.org/ WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/ U.S. EPA Water Quality Criteria: http://www.epa.gov/wqc

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