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  1. 1. Task-Based Learning
  2. 2. Four conditions for Language learning <ul><li>Desirable </li></ul>Essential Exposure Use Motivation Instruction
  3. 3. Varieties of tasks <ul><li>Teachers following a task-based cycle naturally foster combinations of skills depending upon the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Listing </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering and Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Creative task </li></ul>
  4. 4. Distintion between closed tasks and open tasks <ul><li>Closed tasks are highly structured and have very specific goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Open tasks are more loosely structured with less specific goals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Components of the TBL framework <ul><li>Pre-task </li></ul><ul><li>Task Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Language Focus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pre-Task <ul><li>Shortest stage in the framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Intruduces the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the topic language. </li></ul><ul><li>Language activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying words and phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Odd one out. </li></ul><ul><li>Matching phrases to pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming and mind-maps. </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking of questions to ask. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher recounting a similar experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives tasks instrucitons. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Task Cycle <ul><li>Task stage: students do the task in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors and encourages students. She/He stops the task when most pairs have finished and comments briefly on content. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning stage: students prepare to report to an audience (the whole class, other courses, parents). They have to report how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Teacher acts as linguistic adviser, giving feedback and helping students. </li></ul><ul><li>Report stage: Teacher selects some groups to present their reports to the class, orally or in writing. Teacher acts as chairperson, linking the contributions, summing up, giving feedback on content and form. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language Focus <ul><li>At the end of the cycle, there is a </li></ul><ul><li>language focus stage, where students </li></ul><ul><li>are given an opportunity: </li></ul><ul><li>to reflect and analyse the new language which has emerged through the task and, </li></ul><ul><li>to put it into practice. </li></ul>
  9. 9. TBL framework for beginners and young learners <ul><li>The TBL framework can be adapted to work with young learners in the following way: </li></ul><ul><li>There has to be much more exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>The cycle may consist of short tasks instead of one long one. </li></ul><ul><li>The planning and report stages are either omitted or very short. </li></ul><ul><li>The language focus concentrates initially on words and phrases progressing towards grammar. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tasks for beginners <ul><li>Memory games </li></ul><ul><li>What’s missing? </li></ul><ul><li>Bingo </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>General knowledge quizzes: true or not true? </li></ul><ul><li>Guessing games </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery objects </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks based on familiar songs. </li></ul>