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11 09 14_experiences, physical artefacts in communication_jyväskylä

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Presentation at CILC II – Institutions, Interactivity, Individuals 2nd International Conference on Interactivity, Language and Cognition, September 11-12, 2014, Jyväskylä. Finland

Presentation at CILC II – Institutions, Interactivity, Individuals 2nd International Conference on Interactivity, Language and Cognition, September 11-12, 2014, Jyväskylä. Finland

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11 09 14_experiences, physical artefacts in communication_jyväskylä

  1. 1. Experiences, physical artefacts in communication Bauters, Merja Aalto University, Finland CILC II – Institutions, Interactivity, Individuals 2nd International Conference on Interactivity, Language and Cognition, September 11-12, 2014, Jyväskylä
  2. 2. Content • Why this topic… • Pragmatism communicative approach • Learning and habits • The essence of experience • Meaning creation through common ground
  3. 3. Why this topic… • Experiences, physical artefacts are essential in informal learning • Technology enhanced social interaction to support knowledge sharing among peers. • Various training or learning programs and technologies to support the capture and sharing of tacit knowledge embedded in practice experience. by Cheng et all (2014) • In line with the claim of Welsh, Wanberg, Brown, and Simmering’s (2003): the integration of personnel training with on-demand job support and professional development might become a future direction of workplace e-learning
  4. 4. Why this topic… • Future focus: • Cheng et all (2014) stated: many studies are limited to the superficial use and analysis of the tools without taking into account the organizational contexts that may affect the essential attributes of social and collaborative behaviour, such as trust, voluntariness, and self-directness – where do these emerge?
  5. 5. During this period practitioners feel like novices, but without having the excuses or discounts on performance normally accorded to novices. The pain of change lies in the loss of control over one’s practice when one's tacit knowledge ceases to provide the necessary support; and the emotional dimension is also of considerable importance. The common assumption that change is partly a problem of `attitude' and partly a process of learning new explicit knowledge is deceptive and fallacious." Eraut 2004:261
  6. 6. Work context learning needs • The context, feelings of “uncertainty/disturbance” are needed for some kind of change to occur • The halted moment, should support moment to become conscious of our awareness • Awareness will be directed • Heightened/intensified perceiving of environment (context) • Support for reasoning – finding “help” using social networks • Potential for change is in the process
  7. 7. Pragmatism communicative approach "Thinking is shown in constant interaction with Doing and Communicating" (Eraut 2004 257)
  8. 8. Communicative perspective • According to Peirce, signs are interpreted within social, future-oriented processes. Peircean sign theory holds that all thinking is dialogical and has its basis on communication (Ransdell 2007, see also Cunningham 1998) and that human thinking does not merely happen in the brain, but involves use of external objects and tools - signs. • Thought, sense, thinking resides in the environment, in the tools we use etc., thought is a semiosis • In the knowledge-creation metaphor, knowledge is embedded in mediating artefacts and skills and practices. • People embody, objectify knowledge on these artefacts: scientific theories, plans, models, instruments, and so on (Paavola, Hakkarainen 2009) – object-orientedness of activity is the most fundamental aspect of such inquiry.
  9. 9. Learning and habits • Pragmatism gave habit a new meaning • Habit is not only mindless routines, rather, it is a process that is open for reflection and control (Kilpinen 2008:3 and 2009: 102, Bergman 2009: 10) • “ […] that multiple reiterated behavior of the same kind, under similar combinations of percepts and fancies, produces a tendency, - the habit, - actually to behave in a similar way under similar circumstances in the future” (EP 2:413, “Pragmatism” 1907)
  10. 10. Learning and habits • “Intelligent habit upon which we shall act when occasion presents itself” (EP 2:19 [1895]), might NOT be in the focus of our awareness but can be easily brought up into reflection to distinguish them from tacit knowledge • Requires agency and effort • When in doubt, seeing the environment with more “clarity”
  11. 11. Embodiment – towards experience • “I believe it comes decidedly nearer the truth (though not really true) that language resides in the tongue. In my opinion it is much more true that the thoughts of a living writer are in any printed copy of his book than that they are in his brain.” (Peirce CP 7.364). • Albert Einstein, pointed out ”my pen is smarter than I am” (Skagestad, 1999, p. 552) • Signs do not constitute a separate conceptual realm, but are connected, from the start, to the (material) world. • Conceptions are not only in dialogue with fellow inquirers (+ shared interpretations) or with the object of inquiry but always in relation to both of these poles. 11.9.2014 13
  12. 12. 11.9.2014 14
  13. 13. The essence of experience
  14. 14. The essence of experience • Based on Dewey’s views, experience is: • The experience stretches, it is not static nor stable, its the relations between all things in the environment and social environment/culture. These are scoped by the past experiences and directed by the anticipated future, so that existing habits, tools, institutions etc. have an affect on the current situation where the experience occurs "qualitative immediacy”. (Alhanen 2013) • The qualitative immediacy is close to Peirce firstness. The past and anticipated future makes a difference in attention – where the focus will be and how the experience forms the meaning. The felt experiences are not impressions, they are real even though these would be hallucinations - they are felt as real. (MW 9 [DE):16-21. MW 12 [RP]: 133. LW 12 [LTI]:52).
  15. 15. The essence of experience – process • The experience is not something that happens inside the subject, its not something where the subject forms a representations of the things in the environment. Rather it is a continuous interaction with environment, where the "inside and outside" are not really separate but forma unified whole. (LW 12 [LTI]: 73-74). • "It is that reconstruction or reorganisation of experience which adds to the meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience.” (MW 9 [DE]: 83).
  16. 16. The essence of experience – time • Experiences (their meaning / remembering) changes because of anticipated future • The present and anticipated future may transfer the perceived past “feeling states and bodily desires, inherited from the past but prevailing in the present, can rewrite the past in the service of the present” (Prager 1998: 83) • Reflected in Dewey's experience, building of continuos experiences for learning
  17. 17. Common ground grows “I have defined an index or indication as a sign by virtue of physical connection. Experiental connection would be more explicit; for I mean by physical connection that the signs occurs in our experience in relation to when and where of the object it represents. The phrase “our experience” is significant. Experience is the course of life, so far as we attend to it. “Our experience”, I say, because unless two persons had some experience in common, they could not communicate, at all. If their experience were identical, they could not furnish one another no information. But to the experience both have in common, the several experiences of the two connect other occurrences: and so we have shares in collective experience. An index connects a new experience with the former experiences. (MS 797:10 in Bergman 2004:427). 9/11/2014 20
  18. 18. Meaning creation through common ground
  19. 19. Common Ground • Peirce maintained that in order to understand symbolic (or conceptual) signs, the utterer and the interpreter have to refer (indexically) to some common ground. So, as an example; if someone shouts “There is a fire!”, it is not understandable if we do not know where this utterance points to (to the real world around us, to the fictional world, or to somewhere else) (see Peirce CP 2.305; Bergman 2004, 416-429).
  20. 20. Sharing meaning…? Common ground • “The universe must be well known and mutually known to be known and agreed to exist, in some sense, between speaker and hearer, between the mind as appealing to its own further consideration and the mind as so appealed to, or there can be no communication, or 'common ground,' at all.” (CP 3.621; CP 6.338; 8.179) In Bergman 2002: 10) 9/11/2014 24
  21. 21. Common ground (Collateral experience) • Common ground is needed to make communication, or sign-processes (semiosis) understandable (see Clark & Brennan 1991; Peirce 1931-1958, 3.621) • Collateral experience "serves a kind of double function, on the one hand showing us some limits of the semiotic domain, while on the other reminding us of the relevance of situational and contextual factors. In fact, the crucial recognition of reality is achieved through indexical and experiential means. See also Bergman 2002 (CP 2.337 [c. 1895]). Bergman 2002: 9). • Sharing experiences requires indices, signs which indicate, call, pinpoint, direct the attention to their objects through which experiences could be shared 9/11/2014 25
  22. 22. Indices, Artefacts & meaning 9/11/2014 26 • The meaning is NOT just symbolic but an indexical relationship to artefacts and experiences … • “The subject must be something which speaker and listener both know by experience; or else, the assertion must show the hearer by what process he can gain experience” (MS 805:19-20 In Bergman 2004: 420) • Indices play an important role in creating and maintaining and developing common ground and contextualising the communication • They indicate where to place attention (designations/subindicies), point to physical objects/artefacts (reagents) and connect to familiar experiences
  23. 23. 9/11/2014 27
  24. 24. Thank you! The Learning Layers project is supported by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme under Grant Agreement #318209, under the DG Information society and Media (E3), unit of Cultural heritage and technology-enhanced learning. http://learning-layers. Merja Bauters Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture Helsinki – Finland firstname.surname@aalto.fi eu
  25. 25. References Alhanen K (2013). John Deweyn kokemusfilosofia. Gaudeamus Bauters M. (2007). Changes in beer labels and their meaning: a holistic approach to semiosic process, Helsinki: Semiotic Society of Finland. Bergman, Mats. (1999). Meaning and Mediation: Critical Reflections on Peirce and Communication Theory. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto. Bergman, Mats. (2004) Fields of Signification, Explorations in Charles S. Peirce's Theory of Signs. Vantaa: Dark Oy. Bergman Mats (2002). C. S. Peirce on Interpretation and Collateral Experience. Forskarseminarium i filosofi 7.10.2002 Filosofiska institutionen Åbo Akademi Clark, H. H. & Brennan, S. E. (1991). Grounding in communication. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.). Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 127-149). Washington, DC: APA Books. Cunningham, Donald J. (1998), “Cognition as Semiosis: The Role of Inference”, Theory and Psychology 8: 827-840. LW Dewey John, The Later Works, 17 vols. (1981-1991). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. MW Dewey John, The Middle Works, 15 vols. (1976-1988). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Eraut M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, July 2004 9/11/2014 29
  26. 26. References Ford, J. K., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Kraiger, K., Salas, E., & Teachout, M. S. (1997). Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. García-Peñalvo, F. J., Colomo-Palacios, R., & Lytas, M. D. (2012). Informal learning in work environments: Training with the social web in the workplace. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(8), 753–755. Joswick, H. (1996). The Object of Semeiotic. In Colapietro, V. M. & Olshewsky, T. M. (Eds.). Peirce’s Doctrine of Signs: Theory, Applications, and Connections (pp. 93-102). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Kilpinen, Erkki (2002). “A Neglected Classic Vindicated: The Place of George Herbert Mead in the General Tradition of Semiotics”. Semiotica 142 (4): 1–30. Liszka, J. J. (1996). A General Introduction to the Semeiotic of Charles Sanders Peirce. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Liu, H., Macintyre, R., & Ferguson, R. (2012). Exploring qualitative analytics for e-mentoring relationships building in an online social learning environment. Proceedings of the second international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 179–183). Vancouver, Canada. EP1-2: The Essential Peirce. Selected Philosophical Writings. Vol. 1 (1867-1893), edited by Nathan Houser & Christian Kloesel, 1992, vol. 2 (1893-1913), edited by the Peirce Edition Project, 1998. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press CP1-8: Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, 8 volumes, vols. 1-6, eds. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss, vols. 7-8, ed. Arthur W. Burks. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931- 1958. 9/11/2014 30
  27. 27. References W1-6: The Writings of Charles S. Peirce. 6 vols. to date. Vol. 1, edited by Max Fisch et at., vol. 2, edited by Edward C. Moore et al., vols. 3-5, edited by Christian Kloesel et al., vol. 6, edited by the Peirce Edition Project. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980-2000. More sources: http://www.helsinki.fi/science/commens/sfcollections.html Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2009). From meaning making to joint construction of knowledge practices and artefacts – A trialogical approach to CSCL. In C. O'Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Practices: CSCL2009 Conference Proceedings. (pp. 83-92). Rhodes, Creek: International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS). Prager, Jeffrey (1998). Presenting the Past: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Misremembering. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ransdell, J. 2003. The relevance of Peircean semiotic to computational intelligence augmentation. S.E.E.D. Journal (Semiotics, Evolution, Energy, and Development), 3(3), 536. http://www.library.utoronto.ca/see/SEED/Vol33/ Ransdell.htm Salas, E., Kosarzycki, M. P., Burke, C. S., Fiore, S. M., & Stone, D. L. (2002). Emerging themes in distance learning research and practice: Some food for thought. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4, 135–153. Journal of Training and Development, 7, 245–258. 9/11/2014 31
  28. 28. References Seufert, S. (2012). Trust and reputation in eLearning at the workplace: The role of social media. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies (pp. 604– 607). Los Alamitos: IEEE. Skagestad, P. 1999. Peirce‘s inkstand as an external embodiment of mind. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 35(3), 551-561. Tynjälä, P. (2013). Towards a 3P-model of workplace learning: A literature review. Vocations and Learning, 6(1), 11–36. Wang, M., & Yang, S. J. H. (2009). Editorial: Knowledge management and e-learning. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 1(1), 1–5. Welsh, E. T., Wanberg, C. R., Brown, E. G., & Simmering, M. J. (2003). E-learning: Emerging uses, empirical results and future directions. International Journal of Training and Development, 7, 245–258. 9/11/2014 32

Notes de l'éditeur

  • All this needs to take into account the experiencing and physical artefacts
  • All this needs to take into account the experiencing and physical artefacts
  • All this needs to take into account the experiencing and physical artefacts
  • Distirbuted cognition (JAMES HOLLAN, EDWIN HUTCHINS, and DAVID KIRSH. (2000). “Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research”. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (2): 174–196.)
  • All this needs to take into account the experiencing and physical artefacts
  • All this needs to take into account the experiencing and physical artefacts

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