<ul><li>Mark Inglis said his was the only group to stop  </li></ul><ul><li>it is not clear whether New Zealander Mark Ingl...
 
In my Country, there is problem… <ul><li>Prejudice towards (i) Jews (ii) Women (iii) Homosexuals (iv) Blacks (v) Everythin...
 
 
Yerzhan Ashykbayev,  Kazakh Foreign Ministry Spokesman   <ul><li>&quot;We do not rule out that Mr. Cohen is serving someon...
 
<ul><li>Reuters quoted an unnamed Western diplomat as saying &quot;They (the  Kazakh Government ) are damned if they do (r...
<ul><li>Today’s topic: social psychology </li></ul>
<ul><li>But before, let us review what we have done so far… </li></ul>
Where is this course heading anyway?
Economics Artificial  Intelligence Management Science Pillars of rationality Search Symbols Enumeration Logic Expected Uti...
Rationality: artificial intelligence <ul><li>AI </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul>
A science of artificial intelligence <ul><li>AI </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Information Proce...
Rationality: Game theory <ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Mathematics </li></ul>
Rationality: Game theory <ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cog / Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Information proce...
Rationality: management science <ul><li>MS </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical programming </li></ul>The never-ending complaint...
Rationality: management science <ul><li>MS </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical programming </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox of choice?...
What Google doesn ’t know
<ul><li>“The hottest business, media and technology success of our time” </li></ul><ul><li>THE ECONOMIST:  “a religion dis...
<ul><li>GOOG:  max over $470;  </li></ul><ul><li>today (30 May 2006) around $370 (143B) </li></ul><ul><li>Market Cap Today...
“ Intent drives search ”  The chasm between computer processing & human information processing.
<ul><li>There is immense value in organizing the internet in a meaningful manner. </li></ul>
<ul><li>“the Billion-Dollar Start-up that took on Microsoft” </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons so valuable that they’re going for ...
<ul><li>What does Lycos do? </li></ul><ul><li>Hardcover: $0.39 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Have you ever Altavista-ed? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The search revolution!” </li></ul><ul><li>$0.01 </li></ul>
Who has heard of these? <ul><li>WWW Wanderer </li></ul><ul><li>WWW Worm </li></ul><ul><li>Webcrawler </li></ul><ul><li>Lyc...
You shall know a word… <ul><li>…  by the company it keeps.   </li></ul><ul><li>(J.R. Firth 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Word co...
Finding names for fathers and mothers
Naming plausible heads of state
israeli first minister name  (googled on 30 May 2006) <ul><li>AMONG TOP 10 RESULTS… </li></ul><ul><li>DEBKAfile  - Arafat ...
israeli prime minister name  (googled on 30 May 2006) <ul><li>AMONG TOP 10 RESULTS… </li></ul><ul><li>BBC NEWS | Middle Ea...
Rate on a scale of 1 (terrible) to 10 (excellent) <ul><li>“ rate  lawyers  as: horses, fish, telephones, stones, sharks, c...
Rating lawyers as…
You shall know a word… <ul><li>…  by the company it keeps.   </li></ul><ul><li>(J.R. Firth 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Word co...
<ul><li>How about the changing landscape of the internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Images, video, podcasts, radios, etc. </li></u...
 
 
 
Google Sets <ul><li>imagine a sensationalist reporter wants to prey on a celebrity plagued by a sex scandal, and types “ M...
Thesis #1 <ul><li>History & Strategy of “the Googles”; future changes in the internet landscape & associated challenges </...
Thesis #2 <ul><li>Cognitive psychology (intent / abs roles / analogies & semantics) to computer-based info processing </li...
<ul><li>More on our review of the course so far… </li></ul>
What have we accomplished so far? <ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><li>2. (Self-)deception </li></ul><ul><li>3. What happens ...
Jedi Conclusion A concept will prime related concepts,  and these primed, active, concepts,  will guide subsequent thought...
<ul><li>Don’t think about Polar Bears! </li></ul>Interplay of automatic and controlled processes: Mental control (Wegner, ...
Priming & Activation spreading <ul><li>Hofstadter (1979, p.677-678) especulates that a computer program to model human cal...
Priming #3 <ul><li>Subjects are told that their job is to drink a vodka and tonic, then wait 20 minutes, then impress a be...
<ul><li>1. Scrambled sentences task including either: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elderly stereotype words (e.g., Florid...
seconds Priming #4 Automatic effects on Behavior (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) 3. Time how long it takes subject t...
Priming #4 <ul><li>1. Solve test with words such as… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressively, bold, rude, bother, disturb, intr...
Jedi conclusion Humans will easily, automatically,  unconsciously discard inconsistencies,  lack of information, and contr...
Split brain experiment, (ii) The LEFT hemisphere has language capabilities. In subjects with lesions separating the hemisp...
Priming & Self-deception   What happens when we join these ideas? <ul><li>People rarely make fixed plans.  </li></ul><ul><...
Expectations drive perception: BP#91
Expectations drive perception <ul><li>Can a white man pass as a black man? </li></ul>
Expectations drive perception: Ali G <ul><li>Actor Baron Cohen is a middle-class,  Cambridge University -educated Jewish a...
People interviewed by Ali G <ul><li>Former  Secretary General of the United Nations   Boutros Boutros-Ghali   </li></ul><u...
 
Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you award sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Pa...
Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you award sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Pa...
Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you DENY sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Par...
Primed by either ‘award’ or ‘deny’… <ul><li>… people tend to find justifications and from there decide.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Memory and justification #2: smashed, contacted? <ul><li>“ How fast were the cars going when they…” </li></ul><ul><li>… sm...
Memory and justification 2: smashed, contacted? <ul><li>“ How fast were the cars going when they…” </li></ul><ul><li>… sma...
Memory and justification #2: smashed, hit? Broken glass? <ul><li>“ Did you see any broken glass?” </li></ul><ul><li>smashe...
Hurrying for the tale of the good Samaritan <ul><li>Seminary students going to give a speech </li></ul><ul><li>4 Scenarios...
But, on the way to the building, … <ul><li>…there was a man in the ground, in obvious need of help. </li></ul><ul><li>Does...
Bystander intervention <ul><li>You are invited for an interview, and there are some others there for the same interview.  ...
Bystander intervention <ul><li>You are invited for an interview, and there are some others there for the same interview.  ...
<ul><li>Mark Inglis said his was the only group to stop  </li></ul><ul><li>it is not clear whether New Zealander Mark Ingl...
Regret & psychological knapsack?
<ul><li>Knapsack Problem </li></ul><ul><li>decision :  for any item  i , if i is taken, then  Selection i  =1 </li></ul><u...
Knapsack problem of a truck driver ? Capacity: 10 meters 9 meters, $111/m 3 meters, $100/m 5 meters, $100/m 2 meters, $100/m
The psychological knapsack problem <ul><li>You shall know a  product … by the company it keeps.  </li></ul><ul><li>( J.R. ...
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  1. 1. <ul><li>Mark Inglis said his was the only group to stop </li></ul><ul><li>it is not clear whether New Zealander Mark Inglis, a double amputee, and the 39 other climbers who passed him committed a moral wrong by abandoning the expiring David Sharp on Everest. </li></ul>The Ethics of Climbing Everest
  2. 3. In my Country, there is problem… <ul><li>Prejudice towards (i) Jews (ii) Women (iii) Homosexuals (iv) Blacks (v) Everything else you can imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Sacha Baron Cohen is, himself, Jewish and uses the Borat character to expose anti-Semitism and racism. By having Borat make anti-Semitic and racist statements, Baron Cohen is able to show people's favorable reaction and thereby expose anti-Semitic/racist sentiment in society. </li></ul>
  3. 6. Yerzhan Ashykbayev, Kazakh Foreign Ministry Spokesman <ul><li>&quot;We do not rule out that Mr. Cohen is serving someone's political order designed to present Kazakhstan and its people in a derogatory way. We reserve the right to any legal action to prevent new pranks of the kind. We view Mr. Cohen's behaviour at the MTV Europe Music Awards as utterly unacceptable, being a concoction of bad taste and ill manners which is completely incompatible with ethics and civilized behaviour.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 8. <ul><li>Reuters quoted an unnamed Western diplomat as saying &quot;They (the Kazakh Government ) are damned if they do (respond) and damned if they don't,&quot; he said. &quot;It's sort of unfortunate that he hit upon Kazakhstan.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The next week, the government hired two Western public relations firms to counter Borat's claims, and ran a four-page advertisement in The New York Times . The ad carries testimonials about the nation’s democracy, education system and the power and influence enjoyed by women. On a previous occasion, Borat responded to official Kazakh complaints by issuing his own &quot;press release&quot;, which consisted of random Cyrillic characters. </li></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>Today’s topic: social psychology </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>But before, let us review what we have done so far… </li></ul>
  7. 11. Where is this course heading anyway?
  8. 12. Economics Artificial Intelligence Management Science Pillars of rationality Search Symbols Enumeration Logic Expected Utility Transitive ordering of alternatives Invariance Continuity Maximizing & satisficing Game theory Mathematical programming Equilibrium Inference reasoning
  9. 13. Rationality: artificial intelligence <ul><li>AI </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul>
  10. 14. A science of artificial intelligence <ul><li>AI </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory explanations </li></ul>
  11. 15. Rationality: Game theory <ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Mathematics </li></ul>
  12. 16. Rationality: Game theory <ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cog / Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory explanations </li></ul>
  13. 17. Rationality: management science <ul><li>MS </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical programming </li></ul>The never-ending complaints on the adoption of MS models…
  14. 18. Rationality: management science <ul><li>MS </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical programming </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox of choice? </li></ul><ul><li>The changing landscape of “problems”? </li></ul>
  15. 19. What Google doesn ’t know
  16. 20. <ul><li>“The hottest business, media and technology success of our time” </li></ul><ul><li>THE ECONOMIST: “a religion disguised as a company” </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>GOOG: max over $470; </li></ul><ul><li>today (30 May 2006) around $370 (143B) </li></ul><ul><li>Market Cap Today? Over 113 Billion US$ </li></ul><ul><li>(Petrobras ~99B) </li></ul>
  18. 22. “ Intent drives search ” The chasm between computer processing & human information processing.
  19. 23. <ul><li>There is immense value in organizing the internet in a meaningful manner. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>“the Billion-Dollar Start-up that took on Microsoft” </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons so valuable that they’re going for $0.42 Hardcover </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>What does Lycos do? </li></ul><ul><li>Hardcover: $0.39 </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Have you ever Altavista-ed? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The search revolution!” </li></ul><ul><li>$0.01 </li></ul>
  23. 27. Who has heard of these? <ul><li>WWW Wanderer </li></ul><ul><li>WWW Worm </li></ul><ul><li>Webcrawler </li></ul><ul><li>Lycos </li></ul><ul><li>Infoseek </li></ul><ul><li>Excite </li></ul><ul><li>Altavista </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Ask (formerly Ask Jeeves) </li></ul><ul><li>MSN Search </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Search </li></ul>
  24. 28. You shall know a word… <ul><li>… by the company it keeps. </li></ul><ul><li>(J.R. Firth 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Word co-occurrence programs have 4 big problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not take into account the intrinsic deformability of semantic space due to context-dependence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cannot detect co-occurrences of abstract structures, especially when they are highly distal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they lack of essential world knowledge, which humans acquire through learning or direct experience with the world; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they assume that words are “atomic” entities. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Finding names for fathers and mothers
  26. 30. Naming plausible heads of state
  27. 31. israeli first minister name (googled on 30 May 2006) <ul><li>AMONG TOP 10 RESULTS… </li></ul><ul><li>DEBKAfile - Arafat Names Prime Minister , Will Continue Terror - [ Traduzir esta página ]Arafat Names Prime Minister , Will Continue Terror ... For this operation Arafat fielded for the first time in the 30 months of his Intifada, an elite terror ... www.debka.com/article.php?aid=374 - 36k - Em  cache - Páginas   Semelhantes </li></ul><ul><li>BBC NEWS | Middle East | Hamas ' names its prime minister ' - [ Traduzir esta página ]Hamas ' names its prime minister ' ... Israel says it will not deal with a Hamas government unless it renounces violence and recognises Israel . ... news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4721456.stm - 41k - Em  cache - Páginas   Semelhantes </li></ul>
  28. 32. israeli prime minister name (googled on 30 May 2006) <ul><li>AMONG TOP 10 RESULTS… </li></ul><ul><li>BBC NEWS | Middle East | Hamas 'names its prime minister' - [ Traduzir esta página ]Israel says it will not deal with a Hamas government unless it renounces violence ... We have decided to nominate brother Ismail Haniya as prime minister ... news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4721456.stm - 41k - Em  cache - Páginas   Semelhantes </li></ul>
  29. 33. Rate on a scale of 1 (terrible) to 10 (excellent) <ul><li>“ rate lawyers as: horses, fish, telephones, stones, sharks, cats, flies, birds, slimeballs, kangaroos, robins, dogs, and bastards.” </li></ul>
  30. 34. Rating lawyers as…
  31. 35. You shall know a word… <ul><li>… by the company it keeps. </li></ul><ul><li>(J.R. Firth 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Word co-occurrence programs have 4 big problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not take into account the intrinsic deformability of semantic space due to context-dependence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cannot detect co-occurrences of abstract structures, especially when they are highly distal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they lack of essential world knowledge, which humans acquire through learning or direct experience with the world; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they assume that words are “atomic” entities. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>How about the changing landscape of the internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Images, video, podcasts, radios, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the quality of the relevance of google search results? </li></ul>
  33. 40. Google Sets <ul><li>imagine a sensationalist reporter wants to prey on a celebrity plagued by a sex scandal, and types “ Michael Jackson, Bill Clinton, and Hugh Grant ” as keywords for Google Sets. Would the following list be of much use for our cherished member of the free press: “ Zapiro, Monica Lewinsky, Thabo Mbeki, Robert Mugabe, Hansie Cronje, Nelson Mandela, Nkhosasama Zuma, Whitney Houston, Barney Pityana, Phillipe Troussier ”? Because it is highly unlikely that many webpages will have lists of ‘sex-scandal celebrities’, Google Sets response becomes way off mark. </li></ul>
  34. 41. Thesis #1 <ul><li>History & Strategy of “the Googles”; future changes in the internet landscape & associated challenges </li></ul>
  35. 42. Thesis #2 <ul><li>Cognitive psychology (intent / abs roles / analogies & semantics) to computer-based info processing </li></ul>
  36. 43. <ul><li>More on our review of the course so far… </li></ul>
  37. 44. What have we accomplished so far? <ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><li>2. (Self-)deception </li></ul><ul><li>3. What happens when we join these ideas? </li></ul>
  38. 45. Jedi Conclusion A concept will prime related concepts, and these primed, active, concepts, will guide subsequent thought & behavior
  39. 46. <ul><li>Don’t think about Polar Bears! </li></ul>Interplay of automatic and controlled processes: Mental control (Wegner, 1994)
  40. 47. Priming & Activation spreading <ul><li>Hofstadter (1979, p.677-678) especulates that a computer program to model human calculation processes in a psichologically plausible way would be as slow as humans: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [The program] will represent the number 2 not just by the two bits “10”, but as the full-fledged concept the way we do, replete with associations such as homonyms “too” and “to”, the words “couple” and “deuce”, a host of mental images such as dots on dominos, the shape of the numeral “2”, the notions of alternation, evenness, oddness, and on and on…” </li></ul>2 two too couple pair even prime “ , also” very
  41. 48. Priming #3 <ul><li>Subjects are told that their job is to drink a vodka and tonic, then wait 20 minutes, then impress a beautiful female assistant of the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, heart rates peaked in front of the pretty girl, but there were differences between groups. Some groups had not had alcohol at all; they just did not know that. </li></ul><ul><li>The conclusion was that if someone believed he had had alcohol, the tendency was for the heart rate to go down, regardless of whether subjects had drank alcohol . </li></ul><ul><li>(Plous, p.17) </li></ul>
  42. 49. <ul><li>1. Scrambled sentences task including either: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elderly stereotype words (e.g., Florida, wrinkle, old, knits) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neutral words (e.g., thirsty, clean, private) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Told that experiment is over </li></ul>Priming #4 Automatic effects on Behavior (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) SCRAMBLED SENTENCES shoes give replace old the be will sweat lonely they us bingo sing play let
  43. 50. seconds Priming #4 Automatic effects on Behavior (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) 3. Time how long it takes subject to walk to elevator (9.75 m)?
  44. 51. Priming #4 <ul><li>1. Solve test with words such as… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressively, bold, rude, bother, disturb, intrude, infringe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect, considerate, appreciate, patiently, yield, polite, courteous. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Go to corridor and ask for another task </li></ul><ul><li>3. (person is busy. How long until interrupted?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primed to be rude, eventually interrupted in 5 min (avg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primed to be polite, 82% never interrupted at all (10 min max) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 52. Jedi conclusion Humans will easily, automatically, unconsciously discard inconsistencies, lack of information, and contradictions, so as not to feel bad about themselves
  46. 53. Split brain experiment, (ii) The LEFT hemisphere has language capabilities. In subjects with lesions separating the hemispheres, it is possible to present them requests to the RIGHT hemisphere, which the left hemisphere has no way of obtaining the information. After the subjects executed the requests, they were asked why they were doing what they were doing. What was their response?
  47. 54. Priming & Self-deception What happens when we join these ideas? <ul><li>People rarely make fixed plans. </li></ul><ul><li>But when they do… they will rather fool themselves with some phony justification and ‘wash away' all inconsistencies in their reasoning. </li></ul>
  48. 55. Expectations drive perception: BP#91
  49. 56. Expectations drive perception <ul><li>Can a white man pass as a black man? </li></ul>
  50. 57. Expectations drive perception: Ali G <ul><li>Actor Baron Cohen is a middle-class, Cambridge University -educated Jewish actor </li></ul><ul><li>Ali G's popular catchphrase &quot;Is it 'cos I is black?&quot; was used as the title of an Oxford University thesis on black underachievement, with research published by BBC News and The Guardian . </li></ul>Ali G, delivering the Class Day speech to the Harvard class of 2004.
  51. 58. People interviewed by Ali G <ul><li>Former Secretary General of the United Nations Boutros Boutros-Ghali </li></ul><ul><li>Political commentator Pat Buchanan </li></ul><ul><li>Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop </li></ul><ul><li>Andy Rooney of the CBS program 60 Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Former FBI Director Thomas J. Pickard </li></ul><ul><li>MIT Professor Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>Former National Security Adviser Admiral Brent Scowcroft </li></ul><ul><li>Former Labour politician Tony Benn </li></ul><ul><li>Real estate developer Donald Trump who shrugged him off after a few minutes because of Baron Cohen's apparent stupidity. Trump showed no interest in investing in Ali G's &quot;ice cream glove&quot; idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz Aldrin , astronaut (whom Ali G referred to as Buzz Lightyear towards the end of the interview) </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Nader , former U.S. presidential candidate for the Green Party </li></ul><ul><li>Former U.S. Attorney General Dick Thornburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Newt Gingrich , former Speaker of the House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Kent Hovind , a controversial Creationist. </li></ul><ul><li>David Beckham and Posh Spice </li></ul><ul><li>James Lipton , host of Bravo 's Inside the Actor's Studio </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Jones, chairman of the Oklahoma Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>Former LAPD Chief Daryl Gates </li></ul><ul><li>Author and Essayist Gore Vidal (whom he confused with noted hairstylist Vidal Sassoon ). </li></ul><ul><li>DUP politician Sammy Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp Singer Jarvis Cocker </li></ul><ul><li>NBA MVP Steve Nash </li></ul><ul><li>Magician Paul Daniels </li></ul>
  52. 60. Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you award sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Parent B </li></ul><ul><li>Average income Above average income </li></ul><ul><li>Average health Minor health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Average working hours Lots of work-related travel </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable rapport with child Very close relationship with child </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively stable social life Extremely active social life </li></ul>
  53. 61. Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you award sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Parent B </li></ul><ul><li>Average income Above average income </li></ul><ul><li>Average health Minor health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Average working hours Lots of work-related travel </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable rapport with child Very close relationship with child </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively stable social life Extremely active social life </li></ul><ul><li>64%  B (2 very positive features; 3 negative ones) </li></ul><ul><li>(Schwartz, 2004, p.129) </li></ul>
  54. 62. Memory and justification #1: <ul><li>To which parent do you DENY sole custody of the child? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent A Parent B </li></ul><ul><li>Average income Above average income </li></ul><ul><li>Average health Minor health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Average working hours Lots of work-related travel </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable rapport with child Very close relationship with child </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively stable social life Extremely active social life </li></ul><ul><li>B  Drops from 64% to 55% </li></ul>
  55. 63. Primed by either ‘award’ or ‘deny’… <ul><li>… people tend to find justifications and from there decide. </li></ul><ul><li>The form of the question primes the search for the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>So decisions are inconsistent, and so are their justifications. </li></ul>
  56. 64. Memory and justification #2: smashed, contacted? <ul><li>“ How fast were the cars going when they…” </li></ul><ul><li>… smashed? </li></ul><ul><li>… collided? </li></ul><ul><li>… bumped? </li></ul><ul><li>… hit? </li></ul><ul><li>… contacted? </li></ul><ul><li>(Plous, p.32) </li></ul>
  57. 65. Memory and justification 2: smashed, contacted? <ul><li>“ How fast were the cars going when they…” </li></ul><ul><li>… smashed? 40.8 miles/hr </li></ul><ul><li>… collided? 39.3 miles/hr </li></ul><ul><li>… bumped? 38.1 miles/hr </li></ul><ul><li>… hit? 34.0 miles/hr </li></ul><ul><li>… contacted? 31.8 miles/hr </li></ul><ul><li>(Plous, p.32) </li></ul>
  58. 66. Memory and justification #2: smashed, hit? Broken glass? <ul><li>“ Did you see any broken glass?” </li></ul><ul><li>smashed hit </li></ul><ul><li>YES 16 7 </li></ul><ul><li>NO 34 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Ps. There was no broken glass in the 60 sec video </li></ul>
  59. 67. Hurrying for the tale of the good Samaritan <ul><li>Seminary students going to give a speech </li></ul><ul><li>4 Scenarios: </li></ul><ul><li>Speech about jobs for seminary students </li></ul><ul><li>Speech about the parable of the Good Samaritan </li></ul><ul><li>High-hurry scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Low-hurry scenario </li></ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>(Plous, p.60) </li></ul>
  60. 68. But, on the way to the building, … <ul><li>…there was a man in the ground, in obvious need of help. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the “low-hurry” scenario make people stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the “Good Samaritan” scenario make people stop? </li></ul>
  61. 69. Bystander intervention <ul><li>You are invited for an interview, and there are some others there for the same interview. Suddenly there appears traces of smoke in the waiting room, which get worse and worse with time. Nobody seems to care. So do you act on the smoke or do you wait for someone responsible? </li></ul>
  62. 70. Bystander intervention <ul><li>You are invited for an interview, and there are some others there for the same interview. Suddenly there appears traces of smoke in the waiting room, which get worse and worse with time. Nobody seems to care. So do you act on the smoke or do you wait for someone responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>When alone  75% of subjects report smoke / help others </li></ul><ul><li>When in groups  people feel inclined to stay with the group and not intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of studies have consistently shown this, which helps to explain the fate of David Sharp. </li></ul>
  63. 71. <ul><li>Mark Inglis said his was the only group to stop </li></ul><ul><li>it is not clear whether New Zealander Mark Inglis, a double amputee, and the 39 other climbers who passed him committed a moral wrong by abandoning the expiring David Sharp on Everest. </li></ul>The Ethics of Climbing Everest
  64. 72. Regret & psychological knapsack?
  65. 73. <ul><li>Knapsack Problem </li></ul><ul><li>decision : for any item i , if i is taken, then Selection i =1 </li></ul><ul><li> but if i is abandoned, then Selection i =0 </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to the constraint that total weight does not exceed capacity </li></ul>
  66. 74. Knapsack problem of a truck driver ? Capacity: 10 meters 9 meters, $111/m 3 meters, $100/m 5 meters, $100/m 2 meters, $100/m
  67. 75. The psychological knapsack problem <ul><li>You shall know a product … by the company it keeps. </li></ul><ul><li>( J.R. Firth??? ) </li></ul><ul><li>Product sales co-occurrence studies have 4 big problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not take into account the intrinsic deformability of semantic space due to context-dependence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cannot detect co-occurrences of abstract structures, especially when they are highly distal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they lack of essential world knowledge, which humans acquire through learning or direct experience with the world; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they assume that words are “atomic” entities. </li></ul></ul>

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