SERIOUS GAMES FOR
COGNITIVE TRAINING IN AMBIENT
ASSISTED LIVING ENVIRONMENTS
TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE of
Jan Wittland
Philipp...
Agenda
 Motivation
– Demographic change
– Ambient Assisted Living
 Two Serious Games for AAL
 Technology Acceptance
 E...
INTRODUCTION
AND MOTIVATION
Chapter 1
Motivation – Demographic change
 Demographic change
– Developed societies are aging
– Dependency ratio will double by 205...
Future Care Lab at RWTH Aachen University
 Ambient Assisted Living Lab (originally for heart patients)
– House automation...
Future Care Lab Video
2015-09-16
Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittl...
Serious Games for Healthcare in
Ambient Assisted Living Environments
 Started with useful apps and service
Now: Add hedon...
How can Acceptance be measured?
 Technology Acceptance Models
 Goal: Predict use of technology or services (USE)
– Ident...
Technology Acceptance Research: Unified Theory
of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2)
 Intention To Use and Use g...
Iterative development process
 User-centered and iterative design
– Personas, storyboards
– Paper prototypes
– Functional...
EVALUATION:
STUDY DESIGN
Chapter 2
Evaluation
Research Questions
 Preferred Input Device
– Tablet
– Table
– Wall-Sized Display
 Determinants for Performanc...
Evaluation: Experimental Setup
 Depended Variables:
– Performance level 1…3
– Intention To Use
– UTAUT2 factors
– Device ...
Multiple Recipes with varying complexity
 Different recipes as XML trees
– (root ≙ completed meals)
 Increasing complexi...
Three interaction surfaces
 Tablet
– 18 × 28 cm2
– Wireless connection
 Table
– 47.5 × 29.9cm2
– Display embedded in tab...
Evaluation: Sample description
 64 participants
– 34 male, 30 female
– 32 younger, 32 older subjects (16-84 years)
 Age
...
RESULTS
Chapter 3
Results: Performance
 Decreases with level’s difficulty (Wow!)
 Complex slower than Middle
(just one additional element)...
Results: Determinants for Intention to Use
User factors
 User factors
– Age marginally related to Intention to Use
r=.222...
Results: Determinants for Intention to Use
UTAUT2 factors
 UTAUT2 factors
– Performance Expectancy (PE)
– Effort Expectan...
DISCUSSION
Chapter 4
Discussion and Takeaway
 Performance relates to
– Age, Gaming Experience
 Intention to Use independent of
– (Age)
– Gend...
Summary
Thank you for you attention. Questions?
 Evaluation of a
Cognitive training game in AAL environment
 Performance...
BACKUP SLIDES
Appendix
 Three Devices
– Tablet (18×28cm2, wireless connection, capacitive)
– Table (47×30cm2, HDMI, capacitive)
– Wall (4.8×2.4m...
Similarities and differences:
Technology and cooking domain
 Domain expertise
– (SE) Self-efficacy
– (EoU) Perceived Ease...
Cook it Right – Cognitive training in AAL
User factors, performance, and UTAUT2
2015-09-16
Serious Games for Cognitive Tra...
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Serious Games for Cognitive Training in Ambient Assisted Living Environments - A technology acceptance perspective

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Two technology trends address the rising costs of healthcare systems in aging societies: Serious Games for Healthcare and Ambient Assisted Living Environments.

Surprisingly, these concepts are rarely combined and the users’ perception and use of Serious Games in Ambient Assisted Living environments is insufficiently understood.

We present the evaluation of a serious game for stimulating cognitive abilities for elderly with regard to technology acceptance (based on the UTAUT2 model), performance and preference for an interaction device (tablet, table, wall).

The results suggest that acceptance of serious games is independent of gender, technical expertise, gaming habits, and only weakly influenced by age.

Determinants for acceptance are perceived fun and the feeling that the users can make playing the game a habit. Performance within the game is explained by age and previous gaming experience.

All investigated interaction devices were rated as useful and easy to learn, although the wall-sized display had lower approval levels.

The article concludes with guidelines for successfully introducing serious games for healthcare to residents in ambient assisted living environments.

Full Paper presentation at INTERACT 2015, 14.-18. September 2015, Bamberg, Germany.

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Serious Games for Cognitive Training in Ambient Assisted Living Environments - A technology acceptance perspective

  1. 1. SERIOUS GAMES FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING IN AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING ENVIRONMENTS TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE of Jan Wittland Philipp Brauner Martina Ziefle Human-Computer Interaction Center RWTH Aachen University, Germany philipp.brauner@rwth-aachen.de Full Paper presentation at INTERACT 2015, 14.-18. September 2015, Bamberg, Germany: J. Wittland, P. Brauner, M. Ziefle, Serious Games for Cognitive Training in Ambient Assisted Living Environments – A Technology Acceptance Perspective, in: J. Abascal, S. Barbosa, M. Fetter, T. Gross, P. Palanque, M. Winckler (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th INTERACT 2015 Conference, LNCS Volume 9296, Springer International Publishing, 2015: pp. 453–471. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-22701-6_34.
  2. 2. Agenda  Motivation – Demographic change – Ambient Assisted Living  Two Serious Games for AAL  Technology Acceptance  Evaluation – Research Questions – Design, Sample – Input Devices – Performance – Acceptance  Discussion and Outlook 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Chapter 1
  4. 4. Motivation – Demographic change  Demographic change – Developed societies are aging – Dependency ratio will double by 2050 – Number of people 75+ will triple until 2060  Demographic challenge – Reduce costs of social systems  Develop assistive technology – Support elderly and frail people – Systems that promote staying healthy and independent  Ensure acceptance of these systems 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 4 DESTATIS, 12th coordinated population projection (W1)
  5. 5. Future Care Lab at RWTH Aachen University  Ambient Assisted Living Lab (originally for heart patients) – House automation (lights, air conditioning, music, …) – Multi touch wall and table – Sensory Floor – Interactive gesture lamp – 3d Motion tracking and gesture detection – Infrared camera – Weight scale  Extensive studies on technology acceptance – Motives and barriers for usage – Privacy & trust, usability – Age, Gender, technology expertise, medical conditions 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 5 teaservideo: http://vimeo.com/31951636
  6. 6. Future Care Lab Video 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 6 http://vimeo.com/31951636 
  7. 7. Serious Games for Healthcare in Ambient Assisted Living Environments  Started with useful apps and service Now: Add hedonic components  “FitnessFarm” – Exercise Game – Kinect-based motion tracking – Elderly report lower pain levels and fun strengthens independence and happiness  “Cook It Right” – cognitive abilities – Train remembering and planning abilities – Early diagnosis MCI and dementia? – Prolong cognitive decline? 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 7 Goal: Understand user and system factors that influence acceptance and performance in SG4HC.
  8. 8. How can Acceptance be measured?  Technology Acceptance Models  Goal: Predict use of technology or services (USE) – Identify promoting or hindering factors – Design, trainings, marketing, different products, …  Predict (USE) in advance? – Measure usage intention (INTENT) – High correlation between (INTENTION) and (USE) USEINTENTF.. F1 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 8 Fi Months…years
  9. 9. Technology Acceptance Research: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2)  Intention To Use and Use governed by – Performance Expectancy (PE) – Effort Expectancy (EE) – Facilitating conditions (FC) – Social Influence (SI) – Hedonic Motivation (HM) – Habit (H) – Price-Value (PV)  Mediated by – Age – Gender – Experience 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 9 Venkatesh,Thong,Xu,ConsumerAcceptanceandUseof InformationTechnology:ExtendingtheUnifiedTheoryof AcceptanceandUseofTechnology,MISQuarterly.36(2012) 157–178.
  10. 10. Iterative development process  User-centered and iterative design – Personas, storyboards – Paper prototypes – Functional prototypes (graphics from paper prototype) – Participatory  Cooking environment – First: Remember a recipe – Second: Combine elements to cook meal  Turn-based  Touch-based interaction – Goal: Correctness and Performance 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 10
  11. 11. EVALUATION: STUDY DESIGN Chapter 2
  12. 12. Evaluation Research Questions  Preferred Input Device – Tablet – Table – Wall-Sized Display  Determinants for Performance and Usage – Influence of Age, Gender, technology experience, – Domain expertise, gaming frequency 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 12  see publication
  13. 13. Evaluation: Experimental Setup  Depended Variables: – Performance level 1…3 – Intention To Use – UTAUT2 factors – Device Rating  Independent Variables: – Gender, Age – Need for Achievement – Technical expertise (self-efficacy, PEU, UF) – Cooking expertise (self-efficacy, PEU, UF) Level 1 Level 2Pre Survey Level 3 Post Survey Increasing complexity  Sample: – Young & Elderly – Males/females 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 13
  14. 14. Multiple Recipes with varying complexity  Different recipes as XML trees – (root ≙ completed meals)  Increasing complexity – Simple (12 nodes / 11 transitions) – Medium (23 nodes / 22 transitions) – Hard (24 nodes / 23 transitions) 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 14 (simple – scrambled eggs) (medium - pancake) (hard – steak and roast potatoes)
  15. 15. Three interaction surfaces  Tablet – 18 × 28 cm2 – Wireless connection  Table – 47.5 × 29.9cm2 – Display embedded in table from Swedish furniture store  Wall – 4.8 × 2.4m2 – rear projection, infrared cameras 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 15
  16. 16. Evaluation: Sample description  64 participants – 34 male, 30 female – 32 younger, 32 older subjects (16-84 years)  Age – Lower technology expertise/self-efficacy (ρ=-.399, p<.01) – Less inclinde towards games (ρ=-.731, p<.01) – Higher health attitude (ρ=.323, p<.01) – Same Need for Achievement (ρ=.04, p<.01)  Gender1 – Influences technology expertise (ρ=-.376, p<.01) – game frequency (ρ=-.234 p=.063 <.1) – Same health attitude (ρ=-.079, p=.535) – Same Need for Achievement (ρ=-.14, p>.1) – Women higher domain expertise (ρ=.361, p>.1) 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 17 Genderdummycoded1=male,2=female
  17. 17. RESULTS Chapter 3
  18. 18. Results: Performance  Decreases with level’s difficulty (Wow!)  Complex slower than Middle (just one additional element)  Performance decreases with – Age (ρ=-.675, p<.01) – Lower technical self-efficacy (ρ=-.475, p<.01) – Lower gaming frequency (ρ=-.373, p<.01) – Low domain expertise (ρ=.388, p<.05)  Multiple linear regression reveals – AGE+GAMING FREQ. (r2=.366) 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 19
  19. 19. Results: Determinants for Intention to Use User factors  User factors – Age marginally related to Intention to Use r=.222 (p < .1) – Independent of  Gender  Gaming frequency (!)  Self-efficacy in interacting with technology  Cooking self-efficacy  Need for Achievement  Performance!  Usually: – Age, gender, technical self-efficacy, and gaming freq.  Intention To Use 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 20
  20. 20. Results: Determinants for Intention to Use UTAUT2 factors  UTAUT2 factors – Performance Expectancy (PE) – Effort Expectancy (EE) – Facilitating conditions (FC) – Social Influence (SI) – Hedonic Motivation (HM) – Habit (H) – Price-Value (PV)  Multiple linear regression reveals – Hedonic Motivation and Habit strongest predictors for Intention To Use (r2 = .63) 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 21 BI ρ-Correlation PE .499, p<.01 EE p>.1 FC p>.1 H .578, p<.01 SO .612, p<.01 PV .413, p<.01 HE .718, p<.01
  21. 21. DISCUSSION Chapter 4
  22. 22. Discussion and Takeaway  Performance relates to – Age, Gaming Experience  Intention to Use independent of – (Age) – Gender, Performance and domain expertise – Technical self-efficacy, gaming frequency (contrary to exercise game!)  Most crucial for adoption – Hedonic Motivation  make games fun – Habit  nudge people to use them, provide social or financial incentives, role models  Limitation: – Short term (actual use?) and between-subj. evaluation – No evaluation of game’s efficacy  generally disputed! 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 23
  23. 23. Summary Thank you for you attention. Questions?  Evaluation of a Cognitive training game in AAL environment  Performance – explained by age and gaming frequency  Usage Intention – User factors: Independent of Gender, technical expertise, gaming frequency, cooking expertise, Need for Achievement – UTAUT2: Strongest predictors: Hedonic Motivation and Habit 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 24 Contact: Philipp Brauner brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de Human-Computer Interaction Center RWTH Aachen University See also:. Brauner, A. Holzinger, M. Ziefle, Ubiquitous Computing at its best: Serious Exercise Games for Older Adults in Ambient Assisted Living Environments – A Technology Acceptance Perspective, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Serious Games. 15 (2015) 1–12. doi:10.4108/sg.1.4.e3.
  24. 24. BACKUP SLIDES Appendix
  25. 25.  Three Devices – Tablet (18×28cm2, wireless connection, capacitive) – Table (47×30cm2, HDMI, capacitive) – Wall (4.8×2.4m2, HDMI, IR cameras) – Between-subjects design  Results – Overall high rating – Unclear findings  Wall less suitable  Tablet imprecise (latency)? – Even no clear preference in within-subj. study  offer all devices – Details in paper Device Ratings 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 26
  26. 26. Similarities and differences: Technology and cooking domain  Domain expertise – (SE) Self-efficacy – (EoU) Perceived Ease of Use – (UF) Usage Frequency  SE, EoU, UF closely related within domain  Both domains distinct 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 27
  27. 27. Cook it Right – Cognitive training in AAL User factors, performance, and UTAUT2 2015-09-16 Serious Games for Cognitive Training in AAL - A Technology Acceptance Perspective / Wittland, J., Brauner, P., Ziefle M. / Interact 2015, Bamberg, Germany 28

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