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Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role

Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role

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Please cite as follows:

Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014). Spheres of instruction: The changing faculty role. WCET Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Please cite as follows:

Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014). Spheres of instruction: The changing faculty role. WCET Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA.

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Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role

  1. 1. Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Role of Faculty Moderator: Michael Palmquist, Colorado State University Presenters: Lisa Cheney-Steen, StraighterLine Lisa Johnson, Ashford University Daryl Yarrow, Colorado Mountain College November 2014, Portland, Oregon
  2. 2. Session/Discussion Goals Technology has led to greater differentiation and specialization within the faculty role(s). In this discussion we will consider the variation of roles in instruction that exist along the continuum from MOOCs to small group seminars. Has the tutor model returned? What is the significance of peer-to-peer instruction? Where is expertise located in the widening sphere of practice? What is the value of unbundling the faculty role? We will discuss these questions and others that arise during the course of the session. Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  3. 3. How Has The Concept of Expertise Evolved? ● 1955 = Expert Knowledge Relatively Scarce ○ Television / Broadcast Media ● 1995 = Expert Knowledge Increasingly Available ○ Internet, Email, Desktop (one-click) Publishing ● 2005 = Expert Knowledge is Accessible ○ (Micro)Blogs, Wikis, Social Networking, Globalization ● 2015 = Expert Knowledge is Distributed and Created Widely ○ Mobile Computing, Satellite & Broadband Access Widely Dispersed Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  4. 4. 10 Factors Influencing the Faculty Role According to Turoff (2006), there are several factors influencing the faculty role, such as these that we think are still strong influences today: 1. Disappearance of geographic monopolies in educational services 2. Concepts of learners as clients, customers, and sometimes “students” 3. Increased tuition costs resulting in consumerist behaviors (degree shopping/financing) 4. Increased loan debt 5. Decreased funding for institutions 6. Increased competition among proprietary and public institutions 7. Increased use of part-time faculty and the rise of the professional adjunct faculty 8. Increase in adult learners / “non-traditional” learners as student populations beyond community colleges 9. Evolving regulatory procedures (e.g., accreditation) 10. Shifting modalities (i.e., online, blended/hybrid/enhanced, mobile, competency-based, etc) Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  5. 5. Specialization of the Faculty Role & Disaggregation of Service Role Images from Creative Commons/Flickr/MorgueFile Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  6. 6. Instructional Sphere Autodidact / Self-Instruction Peer-to-Peer Mobile Tutoring Seminar Free / Fee-Based MOOC Online Facilitated Classroom/ Courseroom Blended/Hybrid/Enhanced Instruction involves Planned Intention for Learning to Occur Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  7. 7. Faculty Sphere Advisor Coach Colleague Facilitator Instructor LIFELONG LEARNER Professor Administrator Designer Developer Evaluator/Assessor Researcher Collaborator Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L. , Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  8. 8. Faculty Roles Common Roles Uncommon Roles Shared Roles Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  9. 9. Evolving Roles and Managing Change ● How are you managing these changes at your institution? ● Where is your “comfort zone” in the changing role of faculty? ● What about when roles are different at different schools and adjuncts teach at both schools? Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  10. 10. Implications for Future of Higher Education ● Will we see more specialization in future? (e.g., course/program design) ● What are the components of training essential to facilitate the changes? ● How do these changes affect students? ● In what ways are students acting as catalysts for the changes? Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  11. 11. Synthesis What have you learned from this session? Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.
  12. 12. Application How will what you learned influence your practice?
  13. 13. Resources & Contact Most of this presentation’s content derives from the presenters’ personal and professional experiences. ● American Council on Education (ACE). (2013). Unbundling versus designing faculty roles. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Unbundling-Versus-Designing-Faculty-Roles.pdf ● Turoff, M. (2006). The changing role of faculty and online education. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(4) 129- 138. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningconsortium.org/jaln/v10n4/changing-role-faculty-and-online-education ● Weissmann, J. (2013, April 10). The ever shrinking role of tenured college professors. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/04/the-ever-shrinking-role-of-tenured-college-professors-in-1- chart/274849/ Lisa Cheney-Steen Lisa Johnson Daryl Yarrow lcheney-steen@straighterline.com lisa.johnson@ashford.edu dyarrow@coloradomtn.edu Cheney-Steen, L., Johnson, L., & Yarrow, D. (2014, November). Spheres of Instruction: The Changing Faculty Role. Presented at the WCET 2014 Annual Conference, Portland, Oregon.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • talk about our background in community colleges - teaching colleges - when we do introductions. We have all been adjunct faculty and started this presentation from that background -- the increasing use of adjuncts.
  • Introduce ourselves here as part of the continuum - SL - faculty develop courses, but tutor supported, standardized courses. Ashford - faculty developed courses, lead faculty model, adjuncts do a lot of teaching, standardized courses. CMC - Faculty develop and teach, Adjuncts treated similarly to FT faculty, minimal course standardization once you get past the objectives and some common assessments.
  • Maybe use the example of where they get their news.

    LM Lead here

    LM may make this into a timeline
    LS - current university model evolved in the late 1800’s -- professionalization of faculty occurred then. Prior students were tutor supported -- tutors typically supported students in a wide variety of subjects, not much specialization. Teaching/tutoring and research were separate.
  • LM Lead here
  • Daryl and Lisa Lead

    The modern university format became common in the late 1800’s. Prior to then a tutor model was more common - that was different in that tutoring was not seen as an end position, but a stepping stone to some other profession, most commonly clergy. In the modern format of the university the professor became an end profession and research and college governance became important aspects of the position. The first separation of roles was the student services movement - with new staff hired to manage student advising. The time spent on advising was filled with governance, hiring, curriculum activity. The next critical change came after WWII, when universities first began experimenting with teaching assistants. Teaching assistants delivered content and worked as graders. The use of TA’s helped expand the divide between the teaching and research functions and might be where we first saw FT professors teaching upper division courses and part-time faculty teaching lower division courses.

    Then in the 70’s the use of part-time or adjuct faculty began to increase significantly. According to IPEDS data tenured and tenure track appts were up 26% between 1976 and 2013. Part-time appts were up 300% in the same time frame. That is important for many reasons, but for our purposes it matters because it further changes the role of faculty, leaving fewer on campus to manage the college service aspect.

    It also set the stage for the current disagregation process -- separating teaching from course development.

    In the next few slides we want to talk in more detail about the various roles of faculty and our spheres of influence.
  • LM Lead

    What is a course or maybe who is an instructor…. Not that we need more option, but time and geographic. Time is both length and synchronous/asynchronous

    This one is a little confusing to me still. Maybe just to say there is a whole question about what is a course. We will set that side and look at faculty role in the more traditional course example?
  • Daryl Lead = pause here, ask for volunteers to pick one and explain what it means to them, what is your primary role(s) if you are faculty or supervise faculty.

    LM: emphasis on lifelong learning/being a learner as key to success in today’s instructional market? Thoughts?
  • LM

    brainstorm with participants - take notes during session on slide

    Introduction: We’d like to take a few minutes to talk about the roles faculty on your campuses perform. Some are going to be somewhat standard responsibilities that faculty on most campuses hold - teaching for example. Some institutions as faculty to take on responsibilities in areas that are not common - calling prospective students for example. And at some campuses faculty hold responsibilities that are also the responsibility of non-faculty -- advising for example.

    Wrap up: How are these roles evolving on your campus? Do you see a movement from what we think of as common into the less-common roles? Into areas of responsibility that we think of as belonging to other groups on campus? Or are new groups evolving on campus to take on responsibilities that have traditionally been part of the faculty role? (eg Course designers).
  • Daryl Lead DY: Would it be interesting to ask WHO is managing the change at various organizations?

    Discuss differences between the traditional (place based) campus and faculty and the rise of the off-site/remote faculty and the “virtual campus”

    LS: take a moment to talk about how roles move between categories? So are roles that we thought of as common 10 years ago now uncommon? Pull some history back in. What do people see as changing from common to uncommon?

    Ask audience how they are managing change? Are changes outside your comfort zone? What about when roles are different at different schools and adjuncts teach at both.
  • DY Lead

    We are at a conference organized by a group focused on education technology, so I would like to start by asking how technology is facilitating some of the changes we are seeing. In the area of instructional design I think that is obvious - faculty don’t always have the technical skills need to develop a course which utilizes new technologies, so at many schools instructional designers have been hired to assist. It’s a very small step from that to giving new PT faculty a previously designed course to teach.

    Do you expect to see more specialization in the future and does more specialization necessarily lead to a loss of individual faculty control over the curriculum? Is a loss of control of individual control the same thing as a loss of faculty control in general?
  • Lisa Marie Lead

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