Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Managing Change in the Workplace

Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 34 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Les utilisateurs ont également aimé (20)


Similaire à Managing Change in the Workplace (20)


Plus récents (20)

Managing Change in the Workplace

  1. 1.       To cause to be different: change the spelling of a word. To give a completely different form or appearance to; transform: changed the yard into a garden. To give and receive reciprocally; interchange: change places. To exchange for or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category: change one's name; a light that changes colors. To lay aside, abandon, or leave for another; switch: change methods; change sides. To transfer from (one conveyance) to another: change planes. Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 2 2
  2. 2.   Understand change management as a strategic skill and learn to be adaptable Experience a change scenario and identify your reactions to change  Review the typical transitions of change  Communication tips for change  Help team members through change  Focus your locus of control and build resilience  Review the impact of emotion and resistance to change  Overcome resistance to change  Create your own action plan to lead others through change Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 3 3
  3. 3.  Examples ◦ New supervisor ◦ Different procedures ◦ Change in software   ◦ New supervisor ◦ New organization ◦ Different systems Characteristics ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Control Most things stay the same Many anchors Certainty Future is clear LOW ORDER Examples  Characteristics ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Lack of control Most things change Few anchors Uncertainty Future is unclear HIGH ORDER Less Challenging More Challenging Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 4 4
  4. 4. What change will you experience or are you in the midst of? What words best describe your reaction to change? What skills do you think a leader needs to guide other people through change? What do you hope to get out of this Navigating Transitions session? Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 5 5
  5. 5. Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 6 6
  6. 6. How did you react to changes as the activity progressed?  What worked well in your group?  What could you have done differently to manage the changes?   For yourself ◦ Write down your personal reflections on the exercise in the space provided in the participant guide. Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 7 7
  7. 7. SURPRISE HOPE Shock Asking for Help ACCEPTANCE ANGER REJECTION X “The Turning Point” letting go moving on Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 8 8
  8. 8.  Change is external (the different policy, procedure or structure)  Transition is internal (a psychological reorientation that people have to go through before the change can work) Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 9 9
  9. 9. Saying Goodbye The Neutral Zone Resentment Awareness Resistance Anxiety Self-absorption Exploration Testing The New Beginning Commitment Acceptance Integration Change requires people to make transitions—to reorient themselves so that they can function and find meaning in a changed situation. It is these transitions rather than the changes themselves that are difficult. --William Bridges William Bridges; Transition Model Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 10 10
  10. 10. Change isn’t self-initiated • Routine is disrupted • Change creates fear of the unknown • The purpose of change is unclear • Change creates a fear of failure The rewards for change don’t match the effort change requires • The followers lack respect for the leader • Change may mean personal loss • Change requires personal commitment • • John C Maxwell, Developing the Leader Within Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 11 11
  11. 11. flexible . resilient positive adaptable Not change-ready Neutral Very change-ready Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 12 12
  12. 12.  Manage yourself ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  What is the scope of it? How much is actually changing? How do I perceive it? What can I do to help myself transition? Manage your people ◦ How do I think others will perceive it? ◦ What are the reasons behind how others will perceive it? ◦ What can I do to help others successfully transition?  Manage the “business” ◦ What still needs to be done day to day? Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 13 13
  13. 13. Identify a work-related change you’ve experienced or led in the past 12 months List some words to describe your reaction Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 14 14
  14. 14. Tell De cid e e cid De Listen Ask Decide 15
  15. 15. Biases t s on ti p um s As g too fas ing peakn y Neg S i ative R eaction ak arl e e s p cl S n Sla u ng or Jar gon Message Room to o l hot/ a ns cold u io I i s c t nte V a rr r t up is ti D on is o N e Erudite Vocabulary Sender s Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins Feedback Receiver 16 16
  16. 16. Circle of Circle of Concern Circle of Influence Circle of Influence Concern Proactive Reactive Stephen Covey: 7 Habits of Highly Effective People It’s not what happens to us, but our response to what happens to us that hurts us. Stephen Covey Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 17 17
  17. 17. Force of habit  Fear of the unknown  Need for security  Others?  Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 18 18
  18. 18. Saying Goodbye The Neutral Zone Resentment Awareness Resistance Anxiety Self-absorption Exploration Testing The New Beginning Commitment Acceptance Integration William Bridges; Transition Model Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 19 19
  19. 19.  The Purpose: Why do we have to do this?  The Picture: What it will look and feel like when we reach our goal?  The Plan: Step-by-step, how we will get there?  The Part: What can you do (and need to do) to get there? William Bridges; Transition Model Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 20 20
  20. 20. Bridges’ Recommendations Accept the reality and importance of the losses • • Give people information, and communicate again and again • Define what’s over and what isn’t • • Treat the past with respect Show how endings ensure the continuity of what really matters • Recognize and mark or celebrate the ending • Let people take a piece of the past with them Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 21 21
  21. 21. Bridges’ Recommendations Strengthen intragroup connections • Provide encouragement and inspiration • • Provide forum for new ideas Recognize small achievements • • Plan for reduced productivity • Provide a sense of direction/guidance • Encourage employee involvement • • Meet frequently to provide feedback Listen to concerns/expectations • • • • • Provide training Collaborate and build bridges Demonstrate flexibility to try new things Encourage creative thinking and action, and accept mistakes Allow for the withdrawal and return of individuals who were temporarily resistant • • Resist the urge to rush ahead Make an emotional connection with employees Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 22 22
  22. 22. Bridges’ Recommendations • • Provide ongoing opportunities • • Encourage innovation Maintain communication • • Provide inspiration Provide training and skills development Be consistent with your messages, actions, and reinforcement • Ensure quick successes through achievable goals • Symbolize the new identity • Celebrate the success Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 23 23
  23. 23. Do Project a positive position about the change • Clearly communicate what the change is (the four P’s) • Disagree with changes in a public forum • Withhold information or refuse to answer questions from employees Forget to consider the “me” questions that employees always have when change occurs • Take time to meet with staff and be available for follow-up questions • • Anticipate the “me” questions Use a communication/change plan to share information Blame higher-ups for the change • Be prepared to answer questions • • • Prepare speaking points in advance • • Don’t • State that there is no time to discuss changes Provide incorrect information or personal opinions about the change • Participate in the rumor mill 12 Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 24 24
  24. 24. People don’t see the need/understand the urgency  Under communication  ◦ Know Act = Compliance + Know + Understand + Believe + Act Commitment  Milestone achievements aren’t recognized Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 25 25
  25. 25. What Helps . . .  What Doesn’t Help . . . Share information - as much as you can and when you can  Check for understanding when others speak Rehashing the past vs. focusing on the future  Denying reality and expecting 100% commitment from Day 1    Hanging on to your own anger and mistrust  Taking what happened personally Check for their understanding  Create a partner in problem-solving  Catch people doing things “right” Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 26 26
  26. 26. Managing In Difficult Times: The Importance of Resilience Resilience = the ability to bend and bounce back Resilience = the ability to bend and bounce back from hardship from hardship  True for organizations as well as individuals—both possess 3 traits:  True for organizations as well as individuals—both possess 3 traits: 1. Facing down harsh reality 2. Searching for meaning ◦ Ritualizing ingenuity: 3. Facing down harsh reality ◦ Searching for meaning ◦ Ritualizing ingenuity: [adapted from the 2002 HBR article by Diane Coutu] Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 27 27
  27. 27.       Acknowledge your real thoughts and feelings Remind each other that having a feeling doesn’t mean you have to act on it Be aware of your own limits and needs for support from others Ask for information: “How is it going for you? What are you struggling with? What’s going well?” Offer information: “Here’s how it’s going for me . . What I’m struggling with . . . What’s going well . . .” Be realistic about the plus's and the minus's and the fact that the journey to the future will take time Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development HarperCollins Remind each other that “this too shallforpass” 28 28
  28. 28.  Managing Your Environment ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Operate in and above the fray—keep perspective Court the uncommitted—build your case Cook the conflict—but know when to turn the heat down Place the work where it belongs—mobilize others Managing Yourself ◦ Restrain your desire for control and need for importance ◦ Refrain from being “often wrong—but seldom in doubt” ◦ Anchor yourself  Create a safe place or a calming habit (like taking a walk)  Find a confidant  Don’t over-react by taking attacks personally [adapted from the 2002 HBR article by Ron Heifitz and Martty Linsky] Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 29 29
  29. 29. The Role of Emotion In Change Emotions are neither right or wrong—they just are Circumstances do not create emotions—however, the way we reflect on circumstances will influence our emotions Emotions can create circumstances—the way we choose to behave (what we say and do (and choose not to say and do) has consequences— for better or worse Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 30 30
  30. 30. What transition stage is the employee in? What are some potential reasons he or she might resist the change? What are some of the critical steps a leader should take to help lead others through change? What else should the leader consider? Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 31 31
  31. 31. What we want to create for the future is not clear  Speaking openly about the past doesn’t happen  Communication is inconsistent  The 49 % rule: People look to other people to be the first to show “good faith”  The stress of transitions is discounted or ignored  Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 32 32
  32. 32.   Create an action plan for managing change based on today’s seminar What opportunities do you have to implement what you learned today (list a specific change you are leading or will experience)?  What barriers are there to successfully navigating through change? How will you 1.Purpose 2.Picture 3.Plan 4.Part What specific actions will you take to help navigate through change?  The Four Ps Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 33
  33. 33.       Bridges, William. Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. Perseus Publishing, 2003 (Book) Johnson, Spencer. Who Moved my Cheese An Amazing Way to Deal with Change in Your Work and in Your Life. G.P Putnam’s Sons, 1998. (Book) Kotter, John. Leading Change. Harvard Business School Press, 1996. (Book) Murphy, J., Think Change: Adapt and Thrive, or Fall Behind, Grand Rapids, MI: Successories, Inc., 1998. (Book) Pound, R. & Pritchett, P., The Stress of Organizational Change: A Survival Guide, Dallas, TX: Pritchett & Associates, Inc. (Book) Pritchett, P., New Work Habits For A Radically Changing World: 13 Grand Rules for Job Success In the Information Age, Dallas, TX: Pritchett & Associates, Inc., 1996. (Book) Copyright 2014 Pro Way Development for HarperCollins 34 34

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Welcome
    Self introduction
    Course introduction
    Ground Rules
    Parking Lot (plus cell phone)
    Tent Cards
    FOR DEMO – this is a 40 minutes of the real thing, not abridged.
    You are a participant.
    At your flip chart. Write down your names
    Something new you tried recently (food, sport, theatre) as well as a routine you follow that helps your productivity
    Have you ever taken a risk to do something differently?
    (me – move to Cobourg)
  • Review definitions of change and ask for others
    Why is change a challenge we face at work? Why are some changes harder than others?
  • Here is what we’ll cover today. Review slide.
    The goal of this session is to build on your existing knowledge and skills to help you manage yourself and others as you navigate transitions.
    Why? Because we get comfortable and we are creatures of habit but we are also constantly changing and being change resilient is a skills that can be learned.
    The more aware you are as a leader, the more you will be consciously able to adopt characteristics and reactions that will help you lead yourself and others effectively through change.
    The ongoing reality of today’s workplace is that it demands that we adjust our roles and responsibilities to meet new business priorities, challenges and trends.
    Identifying change agents is not enough. You have to manage them.
    Our goal is that you will gain some helpful insights through this session to increase your awareness and effectively build your skills to successfully and effectively navigate transitions.
  • Reactions to change will vary dependent upon the change itself.
    This slide helps to put change in perspective, showing how some changes have more impact on our ability to navigate transition than others.
    Think about where your change falls on this scale.
    Change is nonstop.
    These are examples. For some a new supervisor will be low order for others it will be high order or more challenging.
  • Take a moment to have you think about where you stand with change leadership.
    The compass helps you think about your situation right now – to think about the changes you are experiencing, to think about your reactions, skills needed to lead change and your expectations of today’s program.
    While we will address all of these during today’s session, right now, focus on the last question in your compass.
    What do you hope to get out of this session?
    Come up to the flip charts and write your thoughts.
    If someone else has already reflected your ideas, feel free to put a tally mark next to the other person’s idea.
    To better understand and accept change as a strategic tool you need to look at why change is a difficult issue for the vast majority of us.
    Close books we are going to participate in an exercise.
  • Tower Building Activity
    Say the first set of instructions:
    Give role cards and one person per team a sticky
    As teams, begin to build a tall tower using the masking tape 5 min with index cards. Do not stand on chairs or tables.
    Teams will promote their tower at the end of the building period. The current time estimate for completion is 30 minutes.
    Each team needs to build a tall tower using the masking tape and index cards.
    Play the role you received on your index card.
    Team leader is responsible for completion of the tower project.
    Team leader will present or pick someone to present their tower at the end of the building period.
    After 5 minutes, interrupt and say that the towers have to be strong as well as tall; the customer requirements have changed.
    After another 5 minutes, interrupt with more requirement changes. Say that each person with a Post-it® note has been reassigned to another team and must move immediately. The facilitator will randomly reassign those with Post-it® notes to different teams.
    After another 2 minutes, interrupt with a time change. Say that the towers must be finished in 3 minutes and also that the customer would prefer an attractive tower along with height and strength.
    After another 3 minutes, time is up and towers are presented for review by team spokesperson. Each tower is recognized and praised.
    Debrief Questions:
    Each team completed the task in spite of constant challenges and changes. Ask how they did it.
    Where team members were changed, some groups oriented the new member; some new members asserted themselves into the team.
    What was it like to change teams? To have a new person join after the team had started? To lose a team member?
  • Review slide and ask participants to make notes in the participants guide.
    Ask how this is like real life change situations.
  • Review the differences between change and transition.
    Let’s face it, you have probably heard how to “manage” or “lead” change before. It looks simple enough. In fact, many of the concepts in your pre-reading and the ideas that we’ll cover today may not be new to you. Quite honestly, managing or leading the change itself isn’t that hard because a change is simply an external happening that involves following new processes, reporting into a new boss, etc.
    What’s more difficult to manage and lead is the transition, which is the internal reaction, the feelings people have when faced with change, and the psychological reorientation people have to go through before the change can work.
    Why do you think this concept of transitions is so important to recognize and understand as a leader?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart responses. Potential answers: Helps you identify with what you and your people need to go through to deal with change. Helps you prepare your team to move through stages more quickly.]
    It’s important to recognize where you stand, but as leaders, you also need to anticipate what types of reactions your employees will experience. By acknowledging those potential reactions, you will be better able to plan for how to lead your team navigate the transition.
  • This transition model, identified by William Bridges, has been widely adopted as the typical reactions and movement through a change. Here are some descriptions about typical feelings at each stage. There’s a more complete list of reactions in your participant guide.
    The whole transition required for dealing with the change, with getting back to normal, is where people have difficulty. So, the first task of transition management, or leading others through change, is to help people say goodbye. At this point, you’re starting to make people a little uncomfortable. They have to let go of a process or system or people or way of life that they are comfortable with. Whether it’s good or bad, they’re used to it. It’s known to them. As you introduce something different, it’s natural to feel resentment or resistance. Words used to describe this area include anger, anxiety, sadness, disorientation, depression, anticipation.
    Those feelings turn into what you see here in the Neutral Zone.
    The neutral zone is like a trapeze; people experience the sense of letting go without knowing whether they will be caught at the end. So, the dangers of the neutral zone occur when people’s anxiety rises and productivity falls. This in-between state can be so full of uncertainty and confusion that simply coping with it takes most of people’s energy. On the flip side, the neutral zone can also be a creative time as psychological realignments and re-patternings take place. As people move through the neutral zone, their mindsets begin to gradually change from uncertainty and confusion to acceptance and innovation. So Bridges says that it’s important that people experience this zone without rushing into acceptance, because they need to experience the questions/uncertainty and not ignore it. This helps them get ready for the change and help it “stick.” Words used to describe this zone includes: anxiety, frustration, discomfort, confusion, and resistance PLUS exploration, testing, and learning.
    Finally, the New Beginning represents the new reality. Where people see the possibilities of the new way. They are creating new routines, establishing new authorities. Productivity is once again restored (or improved). Words that describe this stage include: Excitement, renewal, relief, revitalization, focus, accomplishment, learning PLUS some uncertainty and anxiety.
    Obviously, not everyone moves through these stages at the same pace. Let’s look at what typically happens to senior leaders, and why these transitions may not be considered.
  • So, what are some of the psychological reactions and processes people go through when navigating transitions?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart their ideas. Some potential answers: It happens all the time, it’s hard to keep track. Different changes happen simultaneously, and doesn’t appear “linear.” Expectations are ambitious. Decisions are made before processes are thought through. Some change requires that we do more with less. Managers don’t always have the information they need to lead change. Managers may not agree with change.
    John C Maxwell, author of Developing the Leader Within, outlined these potential reasons why someone may not follow the path and navigate transitions. By taking the first step of recognizing that you and others may feel this way, you are on track for starting to effectively navigate transitions.
  • William Bridges focuses on the importance of leading your people to be change-ready. But, what exactly does that mean to you? Try and think about one word that you would use to describe change-readiness. What word did you think of?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart responses. Then, reveal our answers: adaptable, flexible, positive, resilient.]
    The key here is that change is not a one-time event. It is a living, growing process that changes with each different initiative and with each different person. Being change-ready is an essential survival skill in today’s work environment.
    Now, let’s think about your own skills for a moment. Think about these change-ready words we just came up with and ask yourself if they describe you. Are you change-ready? Are you able to manage yourself and lead others to accept and act on change? Do you have a change-ready culture?
  • Well, William Bridges clarifies that your role as a leader is to first Manage Yourself. You need to understand and deal with your own perception of a change so that you can engage your own energy and your people’s energy and help implement that change.You can do this by asking a few key questions of the change, such as:
    What is the scope of the change?
    How much is actually changing?
    How do I perceive it?
    What can I do to help myself successfully transition?
    Then you must Manage your People. You must recognize and deal with your employees’ reactions to the change and give them the information, leadership and support they need to work through those transitions by asking:
    How do I think others will perceive it? Recognize that people will experience both active and passive resistance. Active resistance includes open disagreements, refusing to adhere to the requirements and interpersonal conflicts to name a few. Passive resistance includes work slowdowns, coming in late/not coming in at all, making errors or rework, and sharing rumors.
    What are the reasons behind how others will perceive it? In other words, what’s missing? What do people need to know that they don’t?
    What can I do to help others successfully transition? This may involve reassuring others, providing support, encouragement, communicating, celebrating small successes, providing direction/feedback, etc.
    Page of your participant guides helps to identify what your role in this management process looks like, and what your employee’s role is. Take a minute to review the notes.
    Once you’ve managed yourself and others, you will need to Manage the Business. You need to plan and execute on the new process/structure.
    What questions do you have? Managing yourself, your people and the business doesn’t mean you need to be running around like a mad person to do everything for everyone. Instead, it means…
    Opportunity Oriented
    Views change as necessary and natural
    Attend to employee’s concerns and accept transition time
    Gain support through support
    See discomfort as a signal to use coping skills
    Use a paradigm shift to view a change as consistent with their understanding of situations
    Danger Oriented
    Denying the change or impact: “Let’s keep things the way they have always been.”
    Consciously or unconsciously distorting information related to change: “I don’t think things are that bad.”
    Acknowledging change but not admitting its impact: “All this talk about right-sizing is just hot air.”
  • What are some of the work-related changes you’ve faced in the past 12 months?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart responses]
    And, how did you feel?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart responses]
    It is also important for you to realize that you are not immune to the effects of change. Effective change agents need to first come to grips with their own concerns about the change before they can effectively guide others through it.
    Obviously, there are a lot of different reactions to change. You may think that some of these words describe reactions to perceived “negative” changes. However, Bridges acknowledges that even positive changes, or changes of any kind, will be met by these natural reactions.
  • NOTES:
    Show Slide without barriers.
    Describe: Simple Communication Process (Sender, Message, Receiver, and Feedback)
    Click mouse, each barrier appears between Sender and Receiver. Say and briefly describe each barrier.
    (Optional: Ask, “What’s going on here?” Answer: Communication, but things are clouding the message on behalf of each person and/or the environment)
    Ask: What needs to happen for effective interpersonal communication to take place?
    Sender’s thoughts, facts, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings must be understood by the receiver (Hellriegel, Slocum, Woodman).
    Say: Communication occurs when a message is sent by a sender and received by a receiver. As simple as this may sound, the complication occurs because the message sent does not always equate the message received.
    Say: We will learn a model of communication to help ensure that what was said was clearly communicated and understood.
  • …being proactive and focusing in on your circle of influence. Raise of hands, how many of you have seen Stephen Covey’s Circle of Concern and Influence? What’s included in the Circle of Influence?
    Right, our Circle of Influence is a smaller circle, and these are the things that we have some impact on, things that we can influence either directly or indirectly. This includes problems with your children, with your health, or work.
    The outermost circle represents everything within our circle of concern. Concern simply includes the things in life about which one is concerned, from job security to government policy, to war, global warming and the like.
    As Covey states, “Proactive people focus their efforts in the Circle of Influence. They work on the things they can do something about. The nature of their energy is positive, enlarging and magnifying, causing their Circle of Influence to increase.
    Reactive people, on the other hand, focus their efforts in the Circle of Concern. They focus on the weakness of other people, the problems in the environment, and circumstances over which they have no control. Their focus results in blaming and accusing attitudes, reactive language, and increased feelings of victimization.”
    That’s right! One thing that Covey stresses is to “Be “response-able” to control your life by working on “be” – on what we are (not on, “if only…” “if I had…”, “if he didn’t…”). This is especially important as we navigate change in the organization because many times, we may not have control over the change itself, but we do have control over our personal reaction to that change, and how we influence others about the change.
    Often, managers may naturally react to change (in the saying goodbye and neutral zones). They blame it on elements outside of their control and play the victim, which affects others negatively and limits their circle of influence.
    So, not only should you focus your attention on the things within your own circle of influence, but realize that your employees’ ability to respond effectively to change is something that falls within your circle of influence. Your personal behaviors directly impact not only your effectiveness in handling change, but also that of your employees.
    Now, let’s talk more about the influence you have in helping others transition by being proactive...
  • Organizations and their members resist change. In a sense, their resistance can be positive. It provides a degree of stability and predictability, and it can be a source of functional conflict. But, resistance also hinders progress and adaptation. Often, organizations that have experienced lengthy periods of success are particularly resistant to change. Organizational resistance to change can take several forms: overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred.
    The following summarizes five reasons why individuals may resist change.
    •Force of habit. To cope with the complexities of day-to-day living, we rely on habits or programmed responses. When confronted with changes, this tendency to respond in habitual ways hinders change.
    •Need for security. People with a high need for security resist change because it threatens them.
    •Economic Factors. Another source of individual resistance is fear that changes will lower income.
    •Fear of the Unknown. Changes replace stability and familiarity with ambiguity and uncertainty.
    •Selective Information Processing. Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it is resistant to change. So, individuals selectively process information in order to maintain their perceptions.
  • Let’s bring this all together…remember how we discussed the transition process with saying goodbye, the neutral zone and the new beginning? Let’s talk about the specific actions to take to enable transition, starting with the saying goodbye phase.
  • Further, Bridges suggests that one of the ways to navigate people through transition is to consider the four “P’s.” By getting answers to these questions, you will be better positioned to help lead yourself and others through change. This is especially helpful as you are planning a change, but the answers to these questions should be reinforced throughout the transition.
    Think about the change that you identified in your compass.
    As you think about the change that you’re experiencing, do you have the answers to these questions?
    Take 2-3 minutes to answer these questions in your guide on page 14 in your guide.
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Allow time before debriefing.]
    What was easy about answering these questions?
    What was difficult?
  • So, just what you could do to help someone who is in the beginning stage of change – Saying Goodbye.
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart thoughts. Then, reveal list.]
    Here’s what Bridges’ recommends for enabling transition.
    Accept the reality and importance of the losses
    Give people information, and communicate again and again
    Define what’s over and what isn’t
    Treat the past with respect
    Show how endings ensure the continuity of what really matters
    Recognize and mark or celebrate the ending
    Let people take a piece of the old way with them
  • OK, what can you do during the neutral zone? Remember, this is the zone where productivity drops, but it’s also a time for exploration and the beginning of acceptance. So, what can you do as a leader to help people transition?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart thoughts. Then, reveal list.]
    Here’s what Bridges’ recommends. As you can see, encouragement, providing direction and just plain listening can really help during this time.
  • Finally, what do you do during the new beginnings phase when people are beginning to accept the new reality and operate successfully within it. Let’s face it, your role as a leader is not over just because people are moving forward! What can you do in this stage to ensure that your people continue moving forward and don’t regress back into the Neutral Zone?
    [FACILITATOR NOTE: Flip chart thoughts. Then, reveal list.]
    Here’s what Bridges’ recommends. As you can see, encouragement is still key, celebrations is also key. It’s important to note the new beginnings happen even on a small scale, so, as mentioned before, this doesn’t mean you should only celebrate the completion of a big change. It means you should celebrate the successes along the way.
  • Here’s a summary of Do’s and Don’ts. They are listed in your guide and really underscore some tips on what you should and shouldn’t do as you think about leading your team through change.
  • According to John P Kotter, another well-known change expert from Harvard Business, the main reason that change efforts fail is that the leader fails to place a sense of urgency on the reason for the change. Specifically, Kotter states that “(Leaders) underestimate how hard it is to drive people out of their comfort zones. They don’t understand how their own actions can inadvertently reinforce the status quo. They lack patience: ‘Enough with the preliminaries, let’s get on with it.’ Or, they become paralyzed with the possibility that people will become defensive, and/or morale and short term results slipping. Or worse, they confuse urgency with anxiety, and by driving up the latter (anxiety), they push people even deeper into their foxholes and create even more resistance to change.” Calling a meeting or writing a memo is not enough to make people care about the change and be able to transition. Leaders must devote time and attention to bring others to the point of understanding the critical need for change. People must be given a clear picture of where they are going and what they must do to get there.
    That’s why under communication is another reason transition plans fail. Communication of any new vision, strategy, etc. must be frequent and consistent. Kotter also indicated that leaders under-communicate by a factor of 10. In other words, even if you think you’re communicating all the time, you are likely still not communicating enough.
    To top this off, simply knowing and then acting on that information only places people in a position of being compliant.
    To help people successfully navigate a transition, communication needs to take people from knowing what is expected, to understanding why, to believing in the value for themselves and the organization and then acting by supporting the change and adopting new behaviors, which will put them in a position of committing to seeing the change be successful.
    Finally, transition plans also fail because leaders aren’t recognizing milestones. Instead, they focus their attention on achieving the vision and celebrating only when that vision is achieved. However, people need to see and feel the short-term wins, celebrating the progress as smaller achievements are reached.
    So, just how do you take this knowledge and put it into action to navigate transition?
  • True for organizations as well as individuals—both possess 3 traits:
    Facing down harsh reality
    Do we truly understand and accept the reality of our situation?
    Searching for meaning
    Are we willing to find or establish core values as bridges between current reality and a desired future
    Ritualizing ingenuity:
    Do we have the discipline to “make it up as we go along”—to free people to be innovative
    Review in small groups
    See if there are any questions about the situation
    Flip chart their advice
    Tie in how their comments lead back into content of session]
  • Turn to page of your participant guide and take the next few minutes to identify at least two actions you need to take within the next few weeks. While there are three basic columns (owner, deliverables and date), make sure to consider what changes you need to communicate, what the reactions might be, how and how often to communicate, and the follow-up you’ll need to take.