2. It executes the program, performs the
computations and controls the flow of the
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
3. CPU ERRORS
CPU errors result from a malfunction of a hardware element, such
as a timing facility, instruction-processing hardware, or microcode.
When a CPU error occurs, the recovery processing has, in
general, two stages depending on the severity and type of error:
When possible, the hardware retries the failing operation a certain
number of times. If the retry works, the hardware may issue a
recovery machine check interruption, which is repressible, so that
the operating system can record the error in the logrec data set.
After recording, the operating system returns control to the
If the error is too severe for hardware retry or the retries fail, the
hardware issues either a hard or ending machine check
interruption. The system determines the severity of the error and
takes the appropriate action, which may range from ending the
interrupted task to ending the entire system.
4. "Memory" is the shorthand term commonly used to refer to the
high-speed microchip-based storage of a computing
device. Memory can be distinguished from the much larger
volume, but much slower speed, storage provided by
magnetic hard disks and floppies, or from optical storage like CDs
5. To store files and important data on your computer. Larger hard
drives (250 gb) are used to store all the files on your computer in
case it crashes or if its infected by a virus. Smaller ones are used to
store and transfer files between different computers
HARD DISK DRIVE
6. Short for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory, CD-ROM drives or optical
drives are CD players inside computers that can have speeds in the range from 1x
and beyond, and have the capability of playing audio CDs and computer data
CDs. Below is a picture of the front and back of a standard CD-ROM drive.
To access optically stored digital information stored on a compact disk.
7. As the name suggests, a motherboard is the mother to all the
other parts. In other words, everything in a computer connects to
the motherboard. A motherboard (mobo) is the primary circuit
board in a computer.
8. * Northbridge / Southbridge
* 20-pin ATX Power Connector
* CPU Fan & Heatsink Points
* AGP * Power Supply
* Connectors * PCI
* DRAM Memory Slot
* IDE Connector
9. Northbridge can consist of more than
one discrete chips while the Southbridge is
typically only one discrete chip that rests on the
10. Southbridge is the chip that controls all of the computers I/O functions, such
as USB, audio, serial, the system BIOS, the ISA bus, the interrupt controller and
the IDE channels. In other words, all of the functions of a processor
except memory, PCI and AGP.
11. A Connector From AC power supply to Power
up The Motherboard.
20-PIN ATX POWER CONNECTOR
12. It is to make sure your computer doesn’t get
too hot or too cold.
CPU FAN AND HEATSINK MOUNTING POINTS
13. Short for Accelerated Graphics Port, AGP is an advanced port
designed for Video cards and 3D accelerators. Designed by Intel and
introduced in August of 1997, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-
point channel that allows the graphics controller direct access the
14. A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC
power for the internal components of a computer. Modern personal computers
universally use a switched-mode power supply. Some power supplies have a manual
selector for input voltage, while others automatically adapt to the supply voltage.
15. The Description of the end of the cable that connects to the
computer. Centronics, DB, and DIN are good examples of
types of connectors.
16. AT power connector (Used on older AT style mainboards)
Color Pin Signal
P8.1 Power Good
P8.2 +5 V
P8.3 +12 V
P8.4 −12 V
P9.3 −5 V
P9.4 +5 V
P9.5 +5 V
P9.6 +5 V
17. PCI stands for "Peripheral Component Interconnect". It is a hardware
bus designed by Intel and used in both PCs and Macs. The PCI bus is
used to connect I/O devices. Add-on cards such as SCSI, USB controllers,
some graphics cards use PCI, but most new graphics cards connect to
PCI (PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT)
18. •32 bit PCI with 5V signal voltage
This is the typical PCI slot found on usual desktop
computer main boards. Clock speed for data
transmissions is 33Mhz. Therefore the maximum
transmission capacity calculates to 1 gigabit/s.
•64 bit PCI with 5V signal voltage
This PCI slot is usually found on dual processor
desktop and server main boards. Clock speed for
data transmissions is 33Mhz. Therefore the
maximum transmission capacity calculates to 2.1
•64 bit PCI with 3.3V signal voltage
This PCI slot is found on modern server main bords.
Often you find the term PCI-X in the technical
19. To connect RAM and get faster of the performance of
DRAM MEMORY SLOT
20. Short for Integrated Drive Electronics or IBM Disc Electronics, IDEis
more commonly known as ATA or Parallel ATA (PATA) and is a
standard interface for IBM compatible hard drives.
21. •Jesriel S. Sadon
•Arlyn Mia C. Preglo
• Jay Marie F. Caliso
•Flore May G. Dura
• Maricel M. Pilapil
•Ana Christina A. Amasol
•Arah Delos Reyes
•Teresita T. Colongan
•Marife T. Gocotano
•Mary Grace D. Montejo
•Crisban F. Literatus