The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it<br />"the study and design of intelligent agents”<br />No single goal of artificial intelligence<br />Some say it’s putting the human mind into computers<br />What is intelligence?<br />The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world<br />We do not yet fully understand what intelligence consists of<br />
1941:Development of the electronic computer<br /><ul><li>Some trace the origin to John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University
Required large, separate </li></ul>air-conditioned rooms<br /><ul><li>Required separate </li></ul>configuration of <br />thousands of wires<br /><ul><li>Data fed into system </li></ul>By punched cards<br />
First Commercial, Stored Program Computer<br />Made job of entering a program easier<br />Advancements in computer theory computer science <br />(and eventually <br />to AI)<br />Invention of a <br />means of processing <br />data makes AI <br />possible<br />
Dartmouth Conference<br />John McCarthy (“father of AI”) organizes conference<br />A month of brainstorming in VT<br />Talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence<br />Biggest gain:<br />Field now called<br />Artificial Intelligence<br />
Lisp Language Developed<br />McCarthy announces new development: LISP language<br />Still used today<br />LISt Processing – <br />language of choice <br />among AI developers<br />
Start of DoD’sAdvanced Research Projects<br />MIT receives 2.2 million dollar grant from US govt. to research Macine-Aided Cognition (AI)<br />From Department of Defense<br />US wants to stay ahead of Soviet Union<br />
MicroworldProgram, SHRDLU Created<br />SHRDLU part of microworlds project – research & programming in small worlds<br />When confined to small subject matter, computer<br />programs can solve spatial &<br />logic problems<br />
First Expert System<br />Predict the probability of a solution under set conditions<br />Potential to interpret statistics, formulate rules<br />Over course of 10 years, can forecast stock market, aid doctors in diagnosis, show miners promising mineral locations<br />Large applications in market place<br />Conditional rules & storage of information<br />
PROLOG Language Revealed<br />General logic programming language<br />Represented as facts and rules<br />Developed in France<br />Remains one of most <br />possible programming <br />languages today<br />
AI-Based Hardware Sells $425 Million to Companies<br />Expert systems in particular demand<br />DuPont, General Motors, Boeing rely heavily on expert systems<br />Companies develop that specialize in creating software that aids in producing expert systems<br />
AI Military Systems UsedEffectively in DESERT STORM<br />Used in missile systems, heads-up-displays, etc.<br />AI truly put<br />to the test<br />
AI System Beats HumanChessmaster<br />AI goes home<br />Public interest growing<br />AI system placed against a <br />human chessmaster to see <br />who would win<br />AI wins – shows skills & <br />abilities<br />
Applications of AI<br />Military<br />“Smart bombs”<br />Guided by remote control camera systems directed to the intended target<br />Unmanned drone aircraft<br />Missiles fly military missions and launch weapons from a distance<br />Decoding of enemy secret codes<br />Rapid translation of foreign language<br />
Applications of AI<br />Science<br />Development of new drugs<br />Model clinical studies in animals and humans<br />Remote controlled surgical procedures<br />Uses robotics and computer-based optical systems<br />Can be performed half-way around the world<br />Advanced weather modeling<br />Doppler Radar<br />Looks at trends and past models to predict weather patterns<br />
Applications of AI<br />Industrial<br />Machine vision inspection systems<br />Cameras and computers are placed on assembly lines to find defects<br />Robotic systems<br />Use computer automation and mechanical equipment<br />Take place of humans in manufacturing of cars<br />
Applications of AI<br />Business<br />Macros <br />Computer mimics the programmer's actions<br />Advanced financial systems<br />Quickly analyze trends<br />Allows for rapid investment decisions<br />Consumer<br />Personal computers<br />Computer applications for Apple & IMB<br />Voice and character recognition<br />Entertainment <br />Games, such as chess, where over 120 million moves can be recognized<br />
Future of AI<br />The future is really unknown<br />Researchers seem to disagree on a lot of the same issues<br />With the rate at which technology is improving it is logical to believe AI will continue to get more and more sophisticated<br />
AI in Video Games<br />Over the years AI is getting exponentially more sophisticated<br />Now AI’s are able to react with an “intelligence” that simulates the computer as a human <br />AI’s are able to respond to voice commands <br />
Chess & AI<br />Theory: if they can create a computer that can outsmart humans in this obviously strategic, thinking-based game, then it would be a major milestone on the road to the intelligent computer<br />
Ethical Questions?<br />-Will there come a point when computers become too intelligent?<br />-Should robots have the same legal rights as humans?<br />-How would we get around the question of ownership?<br />-To what extent should we trust (be able to predict the behavior of) such a species?<br />-What responsibilities do we owe such robots?<br />-Would it be wrong to deliberately install mechanisms that gave humans an immediate physical advantage e.g. an off switch?<br />-Should we allow a self-governing robot society to co-exist with ours?<br />
Works Cited<br />http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html<br />http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/history.html<br />http://www.a-i.com/<br />http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/01/storyboard-artificial-intelligence-cars/<br />Poole, David; Mackworth, Alan; Goebel, Randy (1998). Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.ISBN 0195102703.<br />http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html<br />http://www.cedmagic.com/history/atanasoff-berry-computer.html<br />
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