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Internet technology and web engineering

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WWW, the world wide web or shortly the web - really nothing more than an information service on the Internet – has changed our world by creating a whole new digital world that is closely intertwined with our real world, making reality what was previously unimaginable: communication across the world in seconds, watching movies on a smartphone, playing games or looking at photos with remote partners in distant continents, shopping or banking from your couch … In our course on Internet and web technologies you will learn how it all works.
We start off by introducing the underlying technologies of the web: URI, HTTP, HTML, CSS and XML. If this sounds cryptic, rest assured that you will soon become familiar with what it’s all about. We will then focus on web services and web programming technologies along with their practical application. And we will look at how search engines – our fast and reliable signposts in the digital world – actually work to find contents and services on the web. The course concludes with a look at cloud computing and how it is changing the way we will access computing power in the future.

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Internet technology and web engineering

  1. 1. Internet Technology and Web Engineering By: Professor Lili Saghafi University of Windsor June 2015
  2. 2. Introduction • WWW, the world wide web or shortly the web - really nothing more than an information service on the Internet – has changed our world by creating a whole new digital world that is closely intertwined with our real world, making reality what was previously unimaginable: communication across the world in seconds, watching movies on a smartphone, playing games or looking at photos with remote partners in distant continents, shopping or banking from your couch … In our course on Internet and web technologies you will learn how it all works. • We start off by introducing the underlying technologies of the web: URI, HTTP, HTML, CSS and XML. If this sounds cryptic, rest assured that you will soon become familiar with what it’s all about. We will then focus on web services and web programming technologies along with their practical application. And we will look at how search engines – our fast and reliable signposts in the digital world – actually work to find contents and services on the web. The course concludes with a look at cloud computing and how it is changing the way we will access computing power in the future.
  3. 3. Topics in this introduction • MOORE’S LAW • THE INTERNET IN INDUSTRY AND RESEARCH • IT CHALLENGE • HOW WE OVERCOME THESE OBSTACLES BY INTERNET PROGRAMMING • HTML5, CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CSS), JAVASCRIPT, IQUARY, BROWSERS • EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB • Some Network basics PACKET SWITCHING, TCP/IP • A BRIEF HISTORY OF WEB • WHERE WE GO, 3 D CHIPS, PARALLEL PROCESSING CHIPS , QUANTUM COMPUTING , MOLECULAR COMPUTERS ( TRANSISTORS)
  4. 4. Moore’s Law • Every year or two, the capacities of computers have approximately doubled inexpensively. This remarkable trend often is called Moore’s Law. • Moore’s Law and related observations apply especially to the amount of memory that computers have for programs, the amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage) they have to hold programs and data over longer periods of time, and their processor speeds—the speeds at which computers execute their programs (i.e., do their work). • Similar growth has occurred in the communications field, in which costs have plummeted as enormous demand for communications bandwidth (i.e., information-carrying capacity) has attracted intense competition. The death of Moore’s law Videos and Articles: •Moore's Law is dead •Tweaking Moore's Law and the Computers of the Post-Silicon
  5. 5. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET IN INDUSTRY AND RESEARCH
  6. 6. cloud data mobile MORE! competition speed social connected There’s Been An Explosion of New Technology Imagine if we could start again, from scratch…
  7. 7. Data Discovery• The revenge of the full client
  8. 8. We Need Have Self-Service Data PreparationAccess Enrich Calculate & Correct Merge
  9. 9. We Need To Fluidly Explore And Interact With Data
  10. 10. We Need More Than Just Pie And Bar Charts
  11. 11. We Need Mobile
  12. 12. We Need To Tell Stories
  13. 13. Empowering Individual Performance
  14. 14. Predictive Maintenance
  15. 15. computers and the Internet are being used to improve health care
  16. 16. Doctors Without Borders Mobile Health
  17. 17. Breaking Genome Code in few hours (1000 Euro)
  18. 18. We Need Predictive Analytics • A new generation of more user-friendly predictive technology
  19. 19. computers and the Internet are being used for social good
  20. 20. Intelligent Airports • "Improving the passenger experience" is the number one driver of IT investment by the majority (59%) of the world's airports.“ • 10% customers have smart phone and access to internet. • Traffic in the airport can be controlled by tracing these sensors on smartphones • Placement of boots and retailers
  21. 21. City of Boston BAR citizen Insight • ‘Boston About Results’ App Puts City’s Performance Review in Your Hands • http://www.cityofboston.gov/bar/scorecard/reader.html
  22. 22. What causes the most death and disability in each country? Compare how a given set of 21 cause groups affects specific age groups in countries in terms of death and disability. Change the country, year, metric, and sex to view results for absolute numbers, rates, and percentages. Also, further explore the cause groups by viewing specific diseases, injuries, or risk factors within them. (DALYS , Disability Adjusted life years)
  23. 23. Gapminder
  24. 24. Padmapper
  25. 25. We Need Support For Teams
  26. 26. computers and the Internet provide the infrastructure to communicate, navigate, collaborate
  27. 27. 29 We Need Cloud
  28. 28. 30 computers and the Internet provide the infrastructure to communicate, navigate, collaborate RoboEarth Final Demonstrator
  29. 29. “Computersare useless. - Pablo Picasso They can only giveyou answers.”
  30. 30. computers and the Internet provide the infrastructure to communicate, navigate, collaborate
  31. 31. Simple
  32. 32. Mobile
  33. 33. computers and the Internet are used in entertainment
  34. 34. IT Challenge • Product Cycle Shorten • Unpredictability • Need to replan faster • Predication Future • Respond to Market • Focus from PROCESS to People • Data Doubles every 18 Months • Hyper Connected People in Real Time interacting in an unstructured way
  35. 35. HOW WE OVERCOME THESE OBSTACLES BY INTERNET PROGRAMMING
  36. 36. Big Data Too Much Information Big Data—Dangerous Every Breath You Take
  37. 37. Big Data • 2.7 Zettabytes of electronic data exist in the world • today – 2,700,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes • This is equal to the storage required for more than 200 billion HD movies • New data is produced at an exponential rate. • Decoding the human genome originally took 10 years to process; now it can be achieved in one week
  38. 38. Data and Analytics are Useful • Estimated that there is a shortage of 140,000 – 190,000 • people with deep analytical skills to fill the demand of jobs in the U.S. by 2018 • IBM has invested over $20 billion since 2005 to grow its analytics business • Companies will invest more than $120 billion by 2015 on analytics, hardware, software and services • Critical in almost every industry • Healthcare, media, sports, finance, government, etc. • What is Analytics?The science of using data to build models that lead to better decisions that add value to individuals, to companies, to institutions.
  39. 39. 47 Experience Intelligence Center Event Interception Business Transformation Make People Happy
  40. 40. 48 Make People Happy
  41. 41. Internet Programming • Client-side programming technologies are used to build web pages and applications that are run on the client (i.e., in the browser on the user’s device). • Server-side programming—the applications that respond to requests from client-side web browsers, such as searching the Internet, checking your bank-account balance, ordering a book from Amazon, bidding on an eBay auction and ordering concert tickets.
  42. 42. HTML5 • HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a special type of computer language called a markup language designed to specify the content and structure of web pages (also called documents) in a portable manner. • HTML5, now under development, is the emerging version of HTML. • HTML enables you to create content that will render appropriately across the extraordinary range of devices connected to the Internet— including smartphones, tablet computers, notebook computers, desktop computers, special-purpose devices such as large-screen displays at concert arenas and sports stadiums, and more.
  43. 43. HTML5 • A “stricter” version of HTML called XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language), which is based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language), is still used frequently today. • Many of the server-side technologies we cover later in the book produce web pages as XHTML documents, by default, but the trend is clearly to HTML5.
  44. 44. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) • Although HTML5 provides some capabilities for controlling a document’s presentation, it’s better not to mix presentation with content. • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to specify the presentation, or styling, of elements on a web page (e.g., fonts, spacing, sizes, colors, positioning). • CSS was designed to style portable web pages independently of their content and structure. • By separating page styling from page content and structure, you can easily change the look and feel of the pages on an entire website, or a portion of a website, simply by swapping out one style sheet for another. • CSS3 is the current version of CSS under development.
  45. 45. JavaScript • JavaScript helps you build dynamic web pages (i.e., pages that can be modified “on the fly” in response to events, such as user input, time changes and more) and computer applications. • It enables you to do the client-side programming of web applications. • JavaScript was created by Netscape. • Both Netscape and Microsoft have been instrumental in the standardization of JavaScript by ECMA International (formerly the European Computer Manufacturers Association) as ECMAScript. • ECMAScript 5, the latest version of the standard, corresponds to the version of JavaScript we use in this book. • JavaScript is a portable scripting language. Programs written in JavaScript can run in web browsers across a wide range of devices.
  46. 46. Web Browsers and Web-Browser Portability • Ensuring a consistent look and feel on client- side browsers is one of the great challenges of developing web-based applications. • Currently, a standard does not exist to which software vendors must adhere when creating web browsers. • Although browsers share a common set of features, each browser might render pages differently.
  47. 47. • Browsers are available in many versions and on many different platforms (Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, Linux, UNIX, etc.). • Vendors add features to each new version that sometimes result in cross-platform incompatibility issues. • It’s difficult to develop web pages that render correctly on all versions of each browser.
  48. 48. jQuery • jQuery (jQuery.org) is currently the most popular of hundreds of JavaScript libraries. – www.activoinc.com/blog/2008/11/03/jquery-emerges-as-most- popular-javascript-library-for-web-development/ • jQuery simplifies JavaScript programming by making it easier to manipulate a web page’s elements and interact with servers in a portable manner across various web browsers. • It provides a library of custom graphical user interface (GUI) controls (beyond the basic GUI controls provided by HTML5) that can be used to enhance the look and feel of your web pages.
  49. 49. Validation • You must use proper HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript syntax to ensure that browsers process your documents properly.
  50. 50. EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB
  51. 51. Evolution of the Internet and World Wide Web • The Internet—a global network of computers—was made possible by the convergence of computing and communications technologies. • In the late 1960s, ARPA (the Advanced Research Projects Agency) rolled out blueprints for networking the main computer systems of about a dozen ARPA- funded universities and research institutions. • They were to be connected with communications lines operating at a then-stunning 56 Kbps (i.e., 56,000 bits per second)—this at a time when most people (of the few who could) were connecting over telephone lines to computers at a rate of 110 bits per second.
  52. 52. • A bit (short for “binary digit”) is the smallest data item in a computer; it can assume the value 0 or 1. • ARPA proceeded to implement the ARPANET, which eventually evolved into today’s Internet. • Rather than enabling researchers to share each other’s computers, it rapidly became clear that communicating quickly and easily via electronic mail was the key early benefit of the ARPANET. • This is true even today on the Internet, which facilitates communications of all kinds among the world’s Internet users.
  53. 53. Packet Switching • One of the primary goals for ARPANET was to allow multiple users to send and receive information simultaneously over the same communications paths (e.g., phone lines). • The network operated with a technique called packet switching, in which digital data was sent in small bundles called packets. • The packets contained address, error-control and sequencing information. • The address information allowed packets to be routed to their destinations.
  54. 54. • The sequencing information helped in reassembling the packets—which, because of complex routing mechanisms, could actually arrive out of order—into their original order for presentation to the recipient. • Packets from different senders were intermixed on the same lines to efficiently use the available bandwidth. • The network was designed to operate without centralized control. • If a portion of the network failed, the remaining working portions would still route packets from senders to receivers over alternative paths for reliability.
  55. 55. Network Cables ( Fiber Optic Cable)
  56. 56. TCP/IP • The protocol (i.e., set of rules) for communicating over the ARPANET became known as TCP—the Transmission Control Protocol. • TCP ensured that messages were properly routed from sender to receiver and that they arrived intact. • As the Internet evolved, organizations worldwide were implementing their own networks for both intraorganization (i.e., within the organization) and interorganization (i.e., between organizations) communications. • One challenge was to get these different networks to communicate.
  57. 57. • ARPA accomplished this with the development of IP— the Internet Protocol, truly creating a network of networks, the current architecture of the Internet. • The combined set of protocols is now commonly called TCP/IP. • Each computer on the Internet has a unique IP address. • The current IP standard, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), has been in use since 1984 and will soon run out of possible addresses. • IPv6 is just starting to be deployed. It features enhanced security and a new addressing scheme, hugely expanding the number of IP addresses available so that we will not run out of IP addresses in the forseeable future.
  58. 58. Explosive Growth • Initially, Internet use was limited to universities and research institutions; then the military began using it intensively. • Eventually, the government decided to allow access to the Internet for commercial purposes. • Bandwidth (i.e., the information-carrying capacity) on the Internet’s is increasing rapidly as costs dramatically decline.
  59. 59. A BRIEF HISTORY OF WEB
  60. 60. WWW
  61. 61. WWW is only one service on internet Web Services Web services are web application components. •Web services can be published, found, and used on the Web. •WSDL, Web Services Description Language •SOAP, Object Access Protocol •UDDI, Universal Description, Discovery and Integration •RDF, Resource Description Framework •RSS, Really Simple Syndication
  62. 62. Web Services • Web services are application components • Web services communicate using open protocols • Web services are self-contained and self- describing • Web services can be discovered using UDDI, Universal Description, Discovery and Integration • Web services can be used by other applications • HTTP and XML is the basis for Web services •
  63. 63. Hypermedia Document
  64. 64. WWW Server
  65. 65. Internet Services
  66. 66. Amazing Google Glasses Demonstration at Google I/O
  67. 67. Quantum Computing •Exploits quantum mechanical effects •Built around “qubits” rather than “bits” •Operates in an extreme environment •Enables quantum algorithms to solve very hard problems Quantum Computer Tutorial
  68. 68. The internet of Things
  69. 69. Internet Domain Survey Host Count
  70. 70. HOW CAN WE FIND INFORMATION ON THE WEB
  71. 71. Current Solution
  72. 72. Problem 1 : Information Retrieval
  73. 73. Adaption of presented information content to personal requirements
  74. 74. 119 Conclusion
  75. 75. 120 Technology is Important – But It’s Not About Technology “The stone age was marked by man's clever use of crude tools; the information age, to date, has been marked by man's crude use of clever tools.”
  76. 76. Thank you! Great Audience Professor Lili Saghafi proflilisaghafi@gmail.com Any Question?
  77. 77. References, Images Credit • Internet and World Wide Web How To Program, 5/E , (Harvey & Paul) Deitel & Associates • New Perspectives on the Internet: Comprehensive, 9th Edition Gary P. Schneider Quinnipiac University • Web Development and Design Foundations with HTML5, 6/E, Terry Felke- Morris, Harper College • SAP Market Place https://websmp102.sap-ag.de/HOME#wrapper • Forbeshttp://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2013/10/28/how-fashion-retailer-burberry- keeps-customers-coming-back-for-more/ • Youtube • Professor Saghafi’s blog https://sites.google.com/site/professorlilisaghafi/ • TED Talks • TEDXtalks • http://www.slideshare.net/lsaghafi/ • Timo Elliot • https://sites.google.com/site/psuircb/ • http://fortune.com/

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