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Demanda

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Esta presentación explica la teoría básica de la demanda. Se analiza los determinantes que causan un desplazamiento de la curva de demanda.

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Demanda

  1. 1. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 11 Demanda  La cantidad demandada de cualquier bien es la cantidad del bien que los compradores quieren y pueden comprar.  Ley de la demanda: la cantidad demandada de un bien disminuye cuando el precio del bien aumenta, todo lo demás constante. Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  2. 2. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 22 La tabla de demanda  Tabla de demanda: muestra la relación entre el precio de un bien y la cantidad demandada  Ejemplo: La demanda de Helena por lattes.  Las preferencias de Helena cumplen la ley de la demanda. Precio de lattes Cantidad demandada de lattes $0.00 16 1.00 14 2.00 12 3.00 10 4.00 8 5.00 6 6.00 4 Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  3. 3. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 33 Precio de lattes Cantidad de lattes La tabla de demanda y la curva de demanda de Helena Precio de lattes Cantidad demandada de latte $0.00 16 1.00 14 2.00 12 3.00 10 4.00 8 5.00 6 6.00 4 Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  4. 4. Demanda de mercado y demanda individual  La cantidad demandada de mercado es la suma de las cantidades demandadas por todos los consumidores a cada precio.  Suponga que Helena y Ken son los únicos compradores en el mercado de latte. (Qd = cantidad demandada) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Helena Qd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ken Qd + + + + = = = = 6 9 12 15 + = 18 + = 21 + = 24 Mercado Qd $0.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Precio
  5. 5. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 55 $0.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 P Q La demanda de mercado de lattes P Qd (Mercado) $0.00 24 1.00 21 2.00 18 3.00 15 4.00 12 5.00 9 6.00 6 Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  6. 6. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 66 Desplazamientos de la curva de demanda  La curva de demanda muestra cómo el precio afecta a la cantidad demandada, todo lo demás constante.  “Todo lo demás” son los demás determinantes de la demanda (es decir, cosas que determinan que se compre el bien, además del precio del bien).  Si cambian, se desplaza la curva de demanda… Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  7. 7. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 77 Desplazamientos: número de compradores  Aumento en el número de compradores: aumenta la cantidad demandada a cada precio, desplaza la curva de demanda a la derecha Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  8. 8. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 88 $0.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 P Q Suponga que aumenta el número de compradores. Entonces, a cada P aumentará Qd . Suponga que aumenta el número de compradores. Entonces, a cada P aumentará Qd . Desplazamientos: número de compradores Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  9. 9. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 99 Desplazamientos: ingreso  Un aumento del ingreso causa que la cantidad demandada aumente a cada precio, la curva de demanda se desplaza a la derecha. Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  10. 10. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1010  Dos bienes son sustitutos si un aumento del precio de uno causa un aumento de la demanda del otro.  Ejemplo: pizzas y hamburguesas. Un aumento del precio de las pizzas aumenta la demanda de hamburguesas, y la curva de demanda de hamburguesas se desplaza hacia la derecha.  Otros ejemplos: Coca Cola y Pepsi, laptops y tablets, CDs y descargas de música. Desplazamientos: Precios de bienes relacionados Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  11. 11. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1111  Dos bienes son complementarios si un aumento del precio de un bien causa una disminución de la demanda del otro.  Ejemplo: computadoras y software. Si el precio de las computadoras aumenta, se comprará menos computadoras, y por lo tanto menos software. La curva de demanda de software se desplaza hacia la izquierda.  Otros ejemplos: pension de la universidad y libros de texto. Desplazamientos: Precios de bienes relacionados Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  12. 12. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1212 Desplazamientos: Gustos  Cualquier situación que haga que los consumidores prefieran un bien aumentará la demanda de ese bien y desplazará su curva de demanda hacia la derecha. Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  13. 13. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1313 Desplazamientos: Expectativas  Las expectativas afectan las decisiones de compra de los consumidores.  Ejemplos:  Si la gente espera que sus ingresos aumenten, su demanda de cenas en restaurantes podría aumentar hoy.  Si la economía cae y la gente se preocupa por perder sus empleos, la demanda de carros nuevos podría disminuir hoy. Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena
  14. 14. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1414 Resumen Variable Un cambio en esta variable… Precio …causa un movimiento a lo largo de la curva Número de compradores …desplaza la curva Ingreso … desplaza la curva Precio de bienes relacionados … desplaza la curva Gustos … desplaza la curva Expectativas … desplaza la curva Traducido por Luz Marina Bruce Marticorena

Remarques

  • Demand comes from the behavior of buyers.
  • This example violates the “many buyers” condition of perfect competition. Yet, we are merely trying to show here that, at each price, the quantity demanded in the market is the sum of the quantity demanded by each buyer in the market. This holds whether there are two buyers or two million buyers. But it would be harder to fit data for two million buyers on this slide, so we settle for two.
  • Income is the first demand shifter discussed in this chapter of the textbook. I chose to start with a different one (number of buyers), for the following reason:
    In discussing the impact of changes in income on the demand curve, the textbook also introduces the concept of normal goods and inferior goods. Students may find it easier to learn about curve shifts if the presentation focuses solely on a curve shift (at least initially) without simultaneously introducing other concepts.
    If you wish to present the demand shifters in the same order as they appear in the book, simply reorder the slides in this presentation.
  • Beginning economics students often have trouble understanding the difference between a movement along the curve and a shift in the curve. Here, the animation has been carefully designed to help students see that a shift in the curve results from an increase in quantity at each price.
    (A more realistic scenario would involve a non-parallel shift, where the horizontal distance of the shift would be greater for lower prices than higher ones. However, to remain consistent with the textbook, and to keep things simple, this slide shows a parallel shift.)
  • If you are willing to spend a couple extra minutes on substitutes and complements, and have a blackboard or whiteboard to draw on, here’s an idea:
    Before (or instead of) showing this slide, draw the demand curve for hamburgers. Pick a price, say $5, and draw a horizontal line at that price, extending from the vertical axis through the D curve and continuing to the right. Suppose Q = 1000 when P = $5. Label this on the horizontal axis.
    Now ask your students: If pizza becomes more expensive, but price of hamburgers does not change, what would happen to the quantity of hamburgers demanded? Would it remain at 1000, would it increase, or would it decrease? Explain.
    Some and perhaps most students will see right away that people will want more hamburgers when the price of pizza rises. After establishing this, note that the increase in the price of pizza caused an increase in the quantity demanded of hamburgers. Then state the term “substitutes” and give the definition.
    Before giving the other examples (listed in the 3rd bullet of this slide), do a similar exercise to develop the concept of complements. Finally, give the examples of substitutes and complements from the 3rd bullet point of this and the following slides, but mix up the order and ask students to identify whether each example is complements or substitutes.
  • Students should notice that the only determinant of quantity demanded that causes a movement along the curve is price. Also notice: price is one of the variables measured along the axes of the graph.
    Here’s a handy rule of thumb to help students remember whether the curve shifts: If the variable causing demand to change is measured on one of the axes, you move along the curve. If the variable that’s causing demand to change is NOT measured on either axis, then the curve shifts.
    This rule of thumb works with all curves in economics that involve an X-Y relationship, including the supply curve, the marginal cost curve, the IS and LM curves (not covered in this book), and many others, though it does not apply to curves drawn on time series graphs.
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