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Principle of Accounting                   Chapter 8         The Perpetual Inventory System          BA. in International B...
Outline  What is inventory?  The physical stocktake  Perpetual inventory system  The stock control account  Double-en...
Outline (Cont’d)       The role of stock cards       Stock cards and the general ledger       Stock losses and stock ga...
What is inventory? Inventory: The goods that a trading firm buys and  sells. A trading firm buys its inventory and sells...
The physical stocktake      Perform at least once every reporting       period.      To determine the actual amount of  ...
The physical stocktake (Cont’d)Two processes of a physical stocktake:2. Count the number of units of each type of    inven...
Stock sheet      Stock item            Quantity   Cost   Value      AB cricket bats         50       40        2,000      ...
Perpetual inventory        The inventory account is updated every        time stock moves in or out of the        business.
Perpetual inventory (Cont’d)      Disadvantages:      2. Additional record-keeping           Increase workload, increase i...
Perpetual inventory (Cont’d)      Advantages:      2. Greater control over stock      3. Slow-moving and fast-moving lines...
The stock control account        The stock control account is used to        record all movements of inventory.         ...
The stock control account (Cont’d)                 Stock control account Increases in inventory      Decreases in inventor...
Double-entry under the perpetualmethod – A summary    Transaction   Journal        Source documents Double -entry    Bough...
Identifying the cost price of sales  Four methods:   Identified cost   First-in-first-out (FIFO)   Last-in-first-out (L...
First-in-first-out stock valuation   Assumes that the first inventory    purchased is the first inventory sold.   Firms ...
FIFO - ExamplePurchases                                     SalesDate        Lot No   Qty    Unit    Total     Date       ...
FIFO – Example (Cont’d)                Cost of sales                      Stock on hand     Quantity    Unit cost      Val...
The stock card  A form of subsidiary ledger that is used to   record the financial transactions of one   particular item ...
Stock card – An exampleStock item: Sony 30cm colour TV                      Product code: STV84920030Supplier: Wholesale E...
Stock cards and the general ledger General ledger               Subsidiary ledger Stock control account        Stock cards...
Schedule of stock cardsInventory description   Product code      Qty   Cost    ValueSony 30cm TV            STV84920030   ...
Stock losses and stock gains A stock loss     Balance per physical stocktake < Balance in     the stock cards. A stock gai...
Reasons for stock losses  Undersupply by suppliers  Oversupply to customers  Theft  Recording errors in the stock card...
Reasons for stock gains  Oversupply by suppliers  Undersupply to customers  Recording errors in the stock cards.  Stoc...
Recording stock lossesStock item: Sony 30cm colour TV                  Product code: STV84920030Supplier: Wholesale Electr...
Recording stock losses  General journal  Date      Accounts                                  Debit     Credit  Jun 30    S...
Recording stock gainsStock item: Classic Coffee Machine                 Product code: CCM4300Supplier: Gilly Buyatt       ...
Recording stock gains General journal Date    Accounts                                 Debit     Credit Jun 30 Stock contr...
Practice questions  Exercise 8.1  Exercise 8.2  Exercise 8.3  Exercise 8.10
Homework Exercise 8.11
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Chapter 8 perpetual inventory system clc

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Chapter 8 perpetual inventory system clc

  1. 1. Principle of Accounting Chapter 8 The Perpetual Inventory System BA. in International Business Foreign Trade University
  2. 2. Outline  What is inventory?  The physical stocktake  Perpetual inventory system  The stock control account  Double-entry under the perpetual method  The cost price of sales  FIFO stock valuation
  3. 3. Outline (Cont’d)  The role of stock cards  Stock cards and the general ledger  Stock losses and stock gains  Recording stock losses and gains  From stock cards to journals
  4. 4. What is inventory? Inventory: The goods that a trading firm buys and sells. A trading firm buys its inventory and sells it at a higher price in order to earn revenue. Exclude from inventory: non-current assets.
  5. 5. The physical stocktake  Perform at least once every reporting period.  To determine the actual amount of inventory on hand at a given date.  The value of inventory, as determined by the physical stocktake, is included in the balance sheet as a current asset.
  6. 6. The physical stocktake (Cont’d)Two processes of a physical stocktake:2. Count the number of units of each type of inventory.3. Determine the cost price of each of these units to calculate the total value of stock on hand.Stock sheets are used to record the details of a physical stocktake.
  7. 7. Stock sheet Stock item Quantity Cost Value AB cricket bats 50 40 2,000 VCA cricket balls 100 18 1,800 Mitre soccer balls 30 22 660 Kooka hockey sticks 15 16 240 Total stock on hand 4,700
  8. 8. Perpetual inventory The inventory account is updated every time stock moves in or out of the business.
  9. 9. Perpetual inventory (Cont’d) Disadvantages: 2. Additional record-keeping Increase workload, increase in staff. Additional costs Staff costs, costs of computer package to maintain inventory records. The need for a physical stocktake at the end of the reporting period is not eliminated.
  10. 10. Perpetual inventory (Cont’d) Advantages: 2. Greater control over stock 3. Slow-moving and fast-moving lines of inventory can be identified. 4. Reordering of inventory is more efficient. 5. Interim profit reports can be prepared without doing a stock take. 6. The level of stock losses or gains can be measured.
  11. 11. The stock control account  The stock control account is used to record all movements of inventory.  Debit side: records purchases of stock  Credit side: records sales of stock  The balance of the stock control a/c represents the total cost of stock on hand at that particular point in time.
  12. 12. The stock control account (Cont’d) Stock control account Increases in inventory Decreases in inventory are caused by: are caused by: • Purchasing goods • Selling goods • Stock gains • Stock losses
  13. 13. Double-entry under the perpetualmethod – A summary Transaction Journal Source documents Double -entry Bought Cash Cheque (butt) Stock control Dr goods for payments Cash at bank Cr cash Bought Credit Invoice (original) Stock control Dr goods on purchases Creditors Cr credit Sold goods Cash Receipt (copy) Cash at bank Dr for cash receipts Sales Cr Cost of sales Dr Stock control Cr Sold goods Credit sales Invoice (copy) Debtor Dr on credit Sales Cr Cost of sales Dr Stock control Cr
  14. 14. Identifying the cost price of sales Four methods:  Identified cost  First-in-first-out (FIFO)  Last-in-first-out (LIFO)  Weighted average cost
  15. 15. First-in-first-out stock valuation  Assumes that the first inventory purchased is the first inventory sold.  Firms normally try to keep stock moving in line with purchases dates to prevent old items from being shop-soiled, outdated.
  16. 16. FIFO - ExamplePurchases SalesDate Lot No Qty Unit Total Date Qty Unit SP cost Jan 1 1 50 6.0 300 Jan 4 40 12.0 6 2 50 6.2 310 9 30 12.5 13 3 50 6.5 325 18 20 12.5 24 4 50 6.6 330 31 50 12.9 Total 200 1,265 140
  17. 17. FIFO – Example (Cont’d) Cost of sales Stock on hand Quantity Unit cost Value Quantity Unit cost Value 50 6.0 300 10 6.5 65 50 6.2 310 50 6.6 330 40 6.5 260 60 395 140 870
  18. 18. The stock card  A form of subsidiary ledger that is used to record the financial transactions of one particular item of inventory.
  19. 19. Stock card – An exampleStock item: Sony 30cm colour TV Product code: STV84920030Supplier: Wholesale Electricals Location: West 15 Valuation method: FIFODate Reference IN OUT BALANCE Qty Cost Value Qty Cost Value Qty Cost Value Jul 1 Balance 5 180 900 2 Inv.92843 10 190 1900 5 180 10 190 2,800 3 Rec.8743 2 180 360 3 180 10 190 2,440 4 Inv.1001 3 180 540 2 190 380 8 190 1,520 5 Rec. 8748 3 190 570 5 190 950 6 Inv.92877 10 190 1900 15 190 2,850
  20. 20. Stock cards and the general ledger General ledger Subsidiary ledger Stock control account Stock cards  A summary of inventory  Many individual records  Total of journals are  Not part of double-entry posted periodically  No individual details of  Updated continuously stock items throughout the period
  21. 21. Schedule of stock cardsInventory description Product code Qty Cost ValueSony 30cm TV STV84920030 15 190 2,850Sony 45cm TV STV84020219 10 270 2,700Kembrook VCR KM843437890 12 250 3,000Kembrook CD player KM843929232 20 150 3,000Balance of stock control ledger account 11,550
  22. 22. Stock losses and stock gains A stock loss Balance per physical stocktake < Balance in the stock cards. A stock gain Balance per physical stocktake > Balance in the stock cards.
  23. 23. Reasons for stock losses  Undersupply by suppliers  Oversupply to customers  Theft  Recording errors in the stock cards  Double invoicing by supplier  Stocktaking errors
  24. 24. Reasons for stock gains  Oversupply by suppliers  Undersupply to customers  Recording errors in the stock cards.  Stocktaking errors.
  25. 25. Recording stock lossesStock item: Sony 30cm colour TV Product code: STV84920030Supplier: Wholesale Electricals Valuation method: FIFODate Reference IN OUT BALANCE Qty Cost Value Qty Cost Value Qty Cost ValueJun 1 Balance 10 1500 15000 4 Inv.645 2 1500 3000 8 1500 12000 9 Inv.646 3 1500 4500 5 1500 7500 15 Inv.13212 12 1600 19200 5 1500 12 1600 26700 25 Inv.672 1 1500 1500 4 1500 12 1600 25200 30 Stock loss 1 1500 1500 3 1500 12 1600 23700
  26. 26. Recording stock losses General journal Date Accounts Debit Credit Jun 30 Stock loss 1,500 Stock control 1,500 Adjusting entry to decrease stock control to value of physical stocktake Stock control accountJun 30 Balance 40,000 Jun 30 Stock loss 1,500 Stock loss accountJun 30 Stock control 1,500
  27. 27. Recording stock gainsStock item: Classic Coffee Machine Product code: CCM4300Supplier: Gilly Buyatt Valuation method: FIFODate Ref IN OUT BALANCE Qty Cost Value Qty Cost Value Qty Cost ValueMay 27 Inv.43255 5 40 200 25 40 28 42 2,176 28 2 40 80 23 40 28 42 2,096 30 4 40 160 19 40 28 42 1,936 31 Stock gain 2 42 84 19 40 30 42 2,020
  28. 28. Recording stock gains General journal Date Accounts Debit Credit Jun 30 Stock control 84 Stock gain 84 Adjusting entry to increase stock control to value of physical stocktake Stock control accountMay 31 Balance 25,000May 31 Stock gain 84 Stock gain account May 31 Stock control 84
  29. 29. Practice questions  Exercise 8.1  Exercise 8.2  Exercise 8.3  Exercise 8.10
  30. 30. Homework Exercise 8.11

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