Types of Knives
French knife or Chef’s
knife – for general
slicing and dicing.
Utility knife – used for
carving roast chicken
Boning knife – used
for boning raw meats
• Ham slicer - is principally
designed to remove thin slices
of ham from the bone. This
knife may also be used for any
fine slicing, including slicing
smoked salmon or fish.
•Paring knife – a small knife
with a short blade used for
cutting fruits and vegetables.
•Skinning knife -removing the
skin from animals you won't
find any use for this knife.
• Carving knife - is a long,
thin, narrow blade with a
sharply pointed tip which
can slice and separate
meat from bone.
• Filleting knife - filleting
knives are very similar to
boning knives in pattern
• Cleaver – used for
cutting through bones
Composition of Meat
Water – 70% of muscle tissue
Protein – 20% of muscular tissue. Protein
coagulates when it is heated. It becomes
firmer and loses moisture. When protein has
coagulated to the desired degree, the meat is
said to be done.
Fat – 5% of the muscle tissue. The fat in
Marbling is fat that is depositedd within
the muscle tissue. Surface fat protects the
meat from drying out during cooking. Adding
surface fat is called barding.
Marbling separates meat fibers making
meat easier to chew.
Fat is the main source of flavor in
Carbohydrates – it plays a necessary part
in the complex reaction called the mallard
reaction which takes place when meats
are browned by roasting, broiling or
sauteeing. Without carbohydrates,
desirable flavor if browned meats would
not be achieved.
Structure of Meat
Muscle tissue – lean meat is composed of
long, thin fibers bound together in bundles.
These determines the texture or grain of a
piece of meat.
Fine – grained meat is composed of
Coarse – textured meat has large
Connective tissue – These are network of
proteins that bound the muscle together.
Connective tissue is tough. Meats are high in
connective tissue if the muscle are more
exercised like meat from legs and the meat
from older animals.
Kinds of Connective Tissue
Collagen – white connective tissue that
dissolves or breaks down by long slow
cooking with liquid. Moist – heat cooking
methods at low temperature are not
effective for turning a meat high in
connective tissue into a tender juicy
finished product. Acid helps dissolve
Elastin – yellow connective tissue and is
not broken down in cooking. Tenderizing
can be accomplished only by removing
elastin by pounding and by slicing and
Basic Preparation of Meat
Meat are diced when it is cut into
cubes for various types of casseroles,
stems and curry, and dishes such as steak
and kidney pie and pudding.
Leave an even thickness of fat. How
much fat you trim off will depend on the
type of meat preference and the cooking
process to be used.
◦ Use white pepper or cayenne pepper on food
which you want to keep attractive with white
◦ Add salt to roast and grill after the meat has
browned – adding salt before cooking will
extract the juices of meat to the surface and so
slow down the browning reaction.
Flour – coat the meat before cooking, otherwise
the meat become sticky and unpleasant.
Bread crumbs – coat the meat in flour, then egg
wash and finally with bread crumbs.
Different Kinds of Meat and Its
Pork – meat from domesticated pigs.
Typically high in fat.
Beef – meat from cattle over one year
Lamb – meat from domesticated sheep.
Carabeef – meat from carabao.
Chevron – meat from dear.
Veal – flesh of a young calf.
Doneness of Meat
Doneness – refers to the desired quality of
Rare – when pressed with finger the meat is
very soft and jelly like texture.
Medium rare – when pressed with finger
meat feels springy and resistant.
Medium – when pressed with finger meat
feels firm and there is a definite resistance.
Well done – when pressed with a finger the
meat feels hard rough.
Nutrient Content of Meat
Protein – the major constituent of meat
after water. Meat contains 7 grams of
protein per ounce.
Fat – content vary widely according to the
grade of meat and its cut.
Carbohydrates – meat contains very little
carbohydrates, glycogen found in liver
and muscle tissue is present when the
animal is alive but the glucose that makes
up the glycogen is broken down to lactic
acid during and after slaughter.
Vitamins – meat is an excellent source of
vitamin B complex – thiamin (B₁), riboflavin
(B₂), pyrodoxine (B₆), niacin(B₁₂), and some
Minerals – meat is an excellent source of
iron, zinc, copper phosphorus and a few
other trace of minerals
Market Forms of Meat
Fresh meat – meat that is recently
slaughtered and has not been preserved.
Chilled meat – a meat that is placed in a
chiller or slightly cold
Frozen meat – meat covered with or
surrounded by ice.
Cured meat – to preserve as by salting,
smoking or aging.
Processed meat – means of curing meat
by chemical process
a process of putting meat or fish in a
sauce for a period of time to add
flavor or to make the meat or fish
General Guidelines for Marinating
Meat and poultry are generally marinated
for 2 hours up to 2 days
Seafood and fish should be marinated for
no longer than 1 hour.
Use a non-reactive container.
Wait for your marinade to cool down
before pouring over the meat of your
Always refrigerate your meat while it’s
Never reuse marinades.
Types of Marinades
Pineapple marinade – This sweet, fruity
marinade works great on any cut of pork
or chicken. What you get with this
marinade is a great Hawaiian Terriyaki
Pork chop marinade – a great Asian
marinade that works well on all cuts of
pork, particularly pork chops.
Reminiscent of a terriyaki marinade with a
hint of heat from the chilli sauce.
Jamaican jerk marinade – jerk seasonings
and jerk rubs that gets that jerk flavor deep
into the meat.
Pork rib marinade – uses a pork rub for the
seasoning with vinegar and water to turn it
into a marinade.
Terriyaki marinade – this marinade is sure to
add flavor to whatever you’re grilling. The
marinade works particularly well with pork
Bourbon marinade – is a great sweet
bourbon marinade that works perfectly on
any food. This is a mild marinade so you will
want several hours marinating time with it
before you grill.
Boston Butt Injection Marinade – works
well for injecting pork roasts that will be
smoked and pulled.
Mustard Vinegar Marinade – a simple
mustard marinade that tenderizes and
adds flavor. It works well on pork and
Carne Asada Marinade – if a delicious
Mexican dish is wanted, then this is a
great marinade to start with.