Introduction to Meat Cookery

Secondary School Teacher at Balibago National High School à Balibago National High School
21 Jun 2015

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Introduction to Meat Cookery

  1. Introduction to Meat Cookery
  2. Parts of Knife
  3. Types of Knives  French knife or Chef’s knife – for general purpose chopping, slicing and dicing.  Utility knife – used for carving roast chicken and duck.  Boning knife – used for boning raw meats and poultry.
  4. • Ham slicer - is principally designed to remove thin slices of ham from the bone. This knife may also be used for any fine slicing, including slicing smoked salmon or fish. •Paring knife – a small knife with a short blade used for cutting fruits and vegetables. •Skinning knife -removing the skin from animals you won't find any use for this knife.
  5. • Carving knife - is a long, thin, narrow blade with a sharply pointed tip which can slice and separate meat from bone. • Filleting knife - filleting knives are very similar to boning knives in pattern and shape • Cleaver – used for cutting through bones
  6. Composition of Meat  Water – 70% of muscle tissue  Protein – 20% of muscular tissue. Protein coagulates when it is heated. It becomes firmer and loses moisture. When protein has coagulated to the desired degree, the meat is said to be done.  Fat – 5% of the muscle tissue. The fat in meat contributes: a. Juiciness Marbling is fat that is depositedd within the muscle tissue. Surface fat protects the meat from drying out during cooking. Adding surface fat is called barding.
  7. b. Tenderness Marbling separates meat fibers making meat easier to chew. c. Flavor Fat is the main source of flavor in meat.  Carbohydrates – it plays a necessary part in the complex reaction called the mallard reaction which takes place when meats are browned by roasting, broiling or sauteeing. Without carbohydrates, desirable flavor if browned meats would not be achieved.
  8. Structure of Meat  Muscle tissue – lean meat is composed of long, thin fibers bound together in bundles. These determines the texture or grain of a piece of meat. Fine – grained meat is composed of small fiber Coarse – textured meat has large fibers.  Connective tissue – These are network of proteins that bound the muscle together. Connective tissue is tough. Meats are high in connective tissue if the muscle are more exercised like meat from legs and the meat from older animals.
  9. Kinds of Connective Tissue  Collagen – white connective tissue that dissolves or breaks down by long slow cooking with liquid. Moist – heat cooking methods at low temperature are not effective for turning a meat high in connective tissue into a tender juicy finished product. Acid helps dissolve collagen.  Elastin – yellow connective tissue and is not broken down in cooking. Tenderizing can be accomplished only by removing elastin by pounding and by slicing and grinding.
  10. Basic Preparation of Meat  Washing  Skinning  Dicing Meat are diced when it is cut into cubes for various types of casseroles, stems and curry, and dishes such as steak and kidney pie and pudding.  Trimming Leave an even thickness of fat. How much fat you trim off will depend on the type of meat preference and the cooking process to be used.
  11.  Slicing  Seasoning ◦ Use white pepper or cayenne pepper on food which you want to keep attractive with white color. ◦ Add salt to roast and grill after the meat has browned – adding salt before cooking will extract the juices of meat to the surface and so slow down the browning reaction.  Coating  Flour – coat the meat before cooking, otherwise the meat become sticky and unpleasant.  Bread crumbs – coat the meat in flour, then egg wash and finally with bread crumbs.
  12. Different Kinds of Meat and Its Source  Pork – meat from domesticated pigs. Typically high in fat.  Beef – meat from cattle over one year old.  Lamb – meat from domesticated sheep.  Carabeef – meat from carabao.  Chevron – meat from dear.  Veal – flesh of a young calf.
  13. Doneness of Meat Doneness – refers to the desired quality of cooked meat.  Rare – when pressed with finger the meat is very soft and jelly like texture.  Medium rare – when pressed with finger meat feels springy and resistant.  Medium – when pressed with finger meat feels firm and there is a definite resistance.  Well done – when pressed with a finger the meat feels hard rough.
  14. Nutrient Content of Meat  Protein – the major constituent of meat after water. Meat contains 7 grams of protein per ounce.  Fat – content vary widely according to the grade of meat and its cut.  Carbohydrates – meat contains very little carbohydrates, glycogen found in liver and muscle tissue is present when the animal is alive but the glucose that makes up the glycogen is broken down to lactic acid during and after slaughter.
  15.  Vitamins – meat is an excellent source of vitamin B complex – thiamin (B₁), riboflavin (B₂), pyrodoxine (B₆), niacin(B₁₂), and some folate.  Minerals – meat is an excellent source of iron, zinc, copper phosphorus and a few other trace of minerals
  16. Market Forms of Meat  Fresh meat – meat that is recently slaughtered and has not been preserved.  Chilled meat – a meat that is placed in a chiller or slightly cold  Frozen meat – meat covered with or surrounded by ice.  Cured meat – to preserve as by salting, smoking or aging.  Processed meat – means of curing meat by chemical process
  17. Marinating  a process of putting meat or fish in a sauce for a period of time to add flavor or to make the meat or fish more tender
  18. General Guidelines for Marinating  Meat and poultry are generally marinated for 2 hours up to 2 days  Seafood and fish should be marinated for no longer than 1 hour.  Use a non-reactive container.  Wait for your marinade to cool down before pouring over the meat of your choice.  Always refrigerate your meat while it’s marinating.  Never reuse marinades.
  19. Types of Marinades  Pineapple marinade – This sweet, fruity marinade works great on any cut of pork or chicken. What you get with this marinade is a great Hawaiian Terriyaki flavor.  Pork chop marinade – a great Asian marinade that works well on all cuts of pork, particularly pork chops. Reminiscent of a terriyaki marinade with a hint of heat from the chilli sauce.
  20.  Jamaican jerk marinade – jerk seasonings and jerk rubs that gets that jerk flavor deep into the meat.  Pork rib marinade – uses a pork rub for the seasoning with vinegar and water to turn it into a marinade.  Terriyaki marinade – this marinade is sure to add flavor to whatever you’re grilling. The marinade works particularly well with pork and poultry.  Bourbon marinade – is a great sweet bourbon marinade that works perfectly on any food. This is a mild marinade so you will want several hours marinating time with it before you grill.
  21.  Boston Butt Injection Marinade – works well for injecting pork roasts that will be smoked and pulled.  Mustard Vinegar Marinade – a simple mustard marinade that tenderizes and adds flavor. It works well on pork and poultry.  Carne Asada Marinade – if a delicious Mexican dish is wanted, then this is a great marinade to start with.