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501 Ceu L Idcec 8 21 09

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CEU course about commercial carpet for schools, written for the Carpet and Rug Institute

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501 Ceu L Idcec 8 21 09

  1. 1. 501 CARPET IN EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES: CARPE T END USE SEGMENTS LE AR N I N G O B J EC TIVE S ■ Evaluate how students and teachers feel about carpet. ■ Show how carpet helped improve student achievement at Charles Young Elementary School. ■ List some physical and non-physical benefits of carpeting for classrooms. ■ Offer ways to improve acoustics in schools. ■ List ways that carpet contributes to good indoor air quality. ■ Describe why carpet is a good flooring choice for schools. Jenkins • Peer Architects SCH O O L S I N TH E U. S . A . Statistics In the United States, approximately 120,000 schools provide for the educational needs of at least 54 million students. On average, students receive 20% of their environmental exposure in schools. According to a 2002 research report, the US General Accounting Office indicated a national need of over 100 billion dollars for the restoration of public elementary and secondary schools. The rehabilitations are crucial for the health, safety, and comfort of students and staff: 50% of public school facilities throughout the United States have environmental problems caused by water intrusion, inefficient HVAC systems, and ineffective or non-existent cleaning programs. However, the use of the appropriate carpet can contribute in creating healthy learning environments in all of these schools. Course 000501, HSW/SD, Provider G391 Course #XXXX Subject Code 5.8 “Carpet in Acute Care Facilities” is one of a series of CEU courses about the benefits of carpet in various commercial end use segments, developed by the Carpet and Rug Institute, the national trade association for the flooring industry. Use the learning objectives above to focus your study. To earn one AIA/CES Learning Unit, including one hour of health safety welfare/sustainable design (HSW/SD) credit or 1.0 CEU credits with IDCEC, answer the questions at the end of this booklet and follow the reporting instructions for submitting your registration and response information to the Carpet and Rug Institute. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  2. 2. 2 Schools are Centers for the Community According to the National Clearinghouse for Education Facilities, the latest design trend for schools makes them centers for the community. Classrooms and other school facilities often serve as ideal places for community-sponsored events, club meetings, after school functions, and extra-curricular activities. These endeavors make better use of facilities that already exist and lend students and teachers increased exposure to the school setting. Jenk ins • Peer Architec ts But limited funds make it tempting for school officials to overlook the importance of design features in classrooms, failing to consider design benefits for children, teachers, and people in the community who might use the schools on a regular basis. Survey of Teachers In 2000, Beth Schapiro & Associates, a research firm based in Atlanta, administered a national survey to 1,050 public school teachers. The survey revealed the following about teachers’ experience of design: ■ 92% think classroom design strongly impacts achievement. ■ 18% gave their rooms an ‘A’ for design. ■ 99% said school design is important for learning. Jenk ins • Peer Architec ts ■ 89% said design is incentive for teachers to stay. ■ 79% think design is important for student attendance. Elementary School Case Study Michael A. Berry, research professor at U.N.C. Chapel Hill, conducted a case study* of the restoration of the Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, D.C. The school installed more than 45,000 square feet of new carpet to create attractive, comfortable, open classrooms free of glare and noise. In addition to installation, the carpet industry donated effective vacuums, carpet cleaning equipment, supplies, maintenance schedules, and proper training so that future carpet issues could be prevented. Dr. Berry found an “obvious link between students’ environment and educational performance.” Communication ability improved between students and teachers. More importantly, standardized test scores in math and reading, done before and after the restoration, confirmed a dramatic improvement in student performance post-restoration. Twenty-five percent of the students improved their test scores from “below basic” to “basic” or higher levels. A portion of this study, published in the proceedings of Indoor Air 2002*, found the higher test scores partially attributable to the school’s more comfortable and inviting mixed-carpeted environment. *A new independent case study is underway and results will be published at a later date. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  3. 3. 3 Accurate Information about Carpet in Schools Many schools have used carpet as a preferred floor covering for many years because of its enhancing features – comfort, warmth, noise control, glare reduction, and protection from slips and falls. However, there are misperceptions that carpet contributes to unhealthy indoor air quality because it cannot be properly maintained in schools. But in fact, carpet is easier and less expensive to maintain than hard-surface flooring, and independent research studies indicate that clean carpet poses no health risk in schools or any other environment. Given considerable debate about the most appropriate flooring material for use in schools, in IAQ Design Tools for Schools, the EPA recognizes existing advantages and disadvantages associated with all types of floor coverings. For example, carpet offers acoustical and comfort benefits not usually available with other floor coverings. Regular and effective cleaning and maintenance are essential for any type of floor covering. Case Study at Charles Young Elementary School As the Charles Young School study points out, under-funded operating budgets and limited long-term accountability for the decision-making outcome leads to misguided restoration policies. The decision to replace carpet with hard floors dodges the issue and responsibility of effective cleaning, as pollutants rest on hard surfaces and are easily kicked up into indoor air. Lower morale and poorer health ensue, working against the learning process. The study of the Charles Young Elementary School examines the connection between morale of students and the environmental condition of the school. Studies show that academically successful schools foster a sense of well being, and this sense is the essence of a healthy environment. Therefore, care should be taken in discontinuing the use of carpet in schools, as students, teachers, and staff need an elevated level of comfort in their teaching and learning environments. Carpeting offers soft surfaces on which to stand for long hours, warm and energizing colors, glare reduction, and most importantly, noise control. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  4. 4. 4 TH E B E N E FITS O F C AR PET Physical Benefits According to Dr. Lorraine Maxwell, professor of human-environment relations at Cornell University, “Children have different responses to various classroom settings, which is why it is so important to make sure their classrooms are designed to stimulate them in the best possible way. Ways to make a classroom more comfortable include having carpet on the floor, windows to let in natural light, assorted classroom arrangements, and ample space to work comfortably.” Beth Schapiro & Associates’ national survey of teachers (2000), also highlighted safety, comfort, lighting, acoustics, and climate control as the top five classroom design elements impacting the learning environment. Teachers overwhelmingly listed carpet as an important design feature because it ■ Provides comfortable seating for students ■ Makes floor areas usable workspace ■ Provides a soft, quiet environment ■ Gives overall comfort ■ Helps reduce glare ■ Minimizes risk of injury, accidents and slips and falls The final point deserves additional attention: the survey also found that teachers categorize carpet’s ability to minimize the risk of accidents as its main benefit. The U.S. Consumer Product Commission reported that more people die of indoor falls than any other kind of accident. Hence, thousands of lives are lost each year as the result of injuries from falls. These accidents are equally distributed between work and home, and children aged 10 and younger were the second age group most likely to be injured by falls. In wet conditions the risk of a slip on hard surfaces is twice that of carpet. Plus, hard surfaces are less forgiving and more likely to result in more injury. Yet there has been a trend away from carpet in schools, particularly in hallways and on stairs where the majority of falling accidents occur. In other words, slick hard surfaces become accidents waiting to happen during the commotion and bustle of rainy school mornings. With less glare, extra traction, added cushioning, a softer landing, and fewer injuries, carpet’s ability to prevent falls and therefore minimize liability makes it a good flooring choice. TO P 5 WAYS TO I M PROVE CL ASS ROOM ACOUSTI CS Inattention in students may not always be caused by learning or behavioral disorders. Sometimes noise level prevents a student from hearing properly and/or assimilating lessons. Note the following five ways to improve classroom acoustics. 1. Carefully select and design air-conditioning systems. 2. Limit room ceiling height. 3. Use sound-absorbing surfaces throughout rooms. 4. Install carpeting instead of hard floors. 5. Emphasize teacher training, smaller class sizes, and better room environments. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  5. 5. 5 Non-Physical Benefits A high performance school is designed to reduce stress, as lowered stress results in higher performance. Design features like carpet enhance aesthetics and comfort and send a message of care and concern, thereby epitomizing a well-managed school. Acoustic Benefits Noise affects learning negatively. Carpet’s capacity to absorb sound and muffle background noise allows students to hear better, pay attention more, and think more clearly while learning. In a 1995 survey by the General Accounting Office, school administrators ranked poor acoustics as the most significant problem affecting the learning environment. Researchers Jenk ins • Peer Architec ts at a 1997 conference of the Acoustical Society of America presented the following evidence: excessive noise levels impair a young child’s speech perception, reading and spelling ability, behavior, attention and overall academic performance. Ongoing studies continue to support these findings. Gary Sieben, Professor of Architecture at the University of Florida and one of the world’s foremost experts on architectural acoustics, along with Professors Carl Crandell and Mary Jo Hassel, set out to identify and cure acoustical problems in classrooms. They studied what students were and were not hearing, and why. Startlingly they found that “Students beyond the first or second row in a typical classroom hear only 50 percent” of what their teachers say. Maintenance Cost Effectiveness The installation of hard-surface flooring and its ensuing high-cost, labor-intensive maintenance plagues school budgets. Maintenance costs include labor, materials, and equipment. Planners need to look beyond the initial cost when choosing flooring because “inexpensive” floors can quickly become expensive floors. To keep costs down, it is critical that schools conduct cost benefit flooring analyses and develop awareness of the economic benefits of carpeting. According to Canadian Facility Management & Design (April 2002) “Maintenance is the single most costly element in most floor coverings. Thus, the most important economic consideration is the true life-cycle cost of a floor covering.” Maintenance cost for the installation of carpet is less than for hard-surface flooring. In addition, carpet with built in stain resistance offers even greater savings in the long run. Life-Cycle Cost Benefit The life-cycle cost is one of carpet’s main benefits. Preventive maintenance is the key. Jeff Bishop, Chair of the Certification Board of the Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification (IICRC, Vancouver, WA), conducted a study in 2002 revealing that hard-surface floors require two and a half times more cleaning time than carpet. Also, cleaning supplies cost approximately seven times more for vinyl floors than for carpet. The study concluded that “Upfront purchase and installation costs for VCT are actually less than those for carpet, but at the end of the 22-year time period, carpet expenditures proved to be more cost effective than VCT.” The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  6. 6. 6 Overall, the study shows that it costs 48% less annually (light to medium traffic) and 65% less annually (heavy traffic) to maintain carpet. This means a savings of 31% (light to medium traffic) and 58% (heavy) of total costs over a 22-year period. Put another way, over a 22-year period carpet costs $18.29 per square foot, while VCT costs are more than double at $38.82. M AI NTE NAN CE AN D PR E VE NTIVE M E ASU R E S Scheduled, routine vacuuming removes 90% to 95% of all dry soil by weight, making vacuuming the single most effective and economical means of keeping a floor clean. Proper equipment is vital, so CRI identifies machines with the Seal of Approval/Green Label designation, which have been tested to meet strict standards for soil removal and dust containment. For complete details on the program, including a listing of approved vacuum cleaners, go to the CRI web site, www.carpet-rug.org. Preventive measures and continuous maintenance induces a sense of caring among employees, students and community. Note these easy ways C AR PET I N DUSTRY E NVI RO N M E NTAL I N ITIATIVE S to be proactive about The carpet industry joins the most progressive in the country in addressing the potential keeping carpet clean: human health, environmental and sustainability factors of its products. It continues to shrink its environmental footprint in many ways, including the reduction of landfill use, carbon dioxide ■ Clean exterior emissions, water and energy consumption, waste generation, transportation, packaging, walkways often and hazardous air pollutants. by shoveling snow, Reduce, reuse, recycle removing leaves, The carpet industry has been committed to the environment for many years. CRI assessed its sand and other members’ environmental progress and found carpet companies dramatically increasing their debris. sustainable efforts. Consider these facts: ■ Restrict food and ■ Many companies reported reductions in toxic air emission while increasing production. One company reduced its nitrous oxide emissions by 70% simply by installing a low beverages to NOX burner system in the boiler. specific areas. ■ Companies significantly reduced their use of water and electricity. One company worked ■ Prohibit chewing with the local utility company to develop technology for the reuse of beck dye bath water. gum. This cut water usage for the process by an astounding 50% ■ Place trashcans in ■ Voluntary solid waste recycling jumped from small percentages to as much as 90%, while solid easily accessible waste to landfill decreased from large percentages to less than 10% in the last 6 to 10 years. areas Carpet and IAQ In order to protect indoor environmental air quality, specifiers must address IAQ questions, understand the problems engendered by the entry of outdoor and indoor pollutants, and address flooring for sensitive environments. Volatile Organic Compounds The carpet industry has worked closely for years with academic institutions, the government, and independent laboratories to evaluate carpet’s role in the indoor environment. According to CRI, scientific evidence throughout evaluations indicates no links of adverse human health effect to VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions from carpet. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  7. 7. 7 Carpet and the products used in the installation process undergo regular emissions testing. In the approved protocols for ASTM Standard D5116, everything must fall below a minimum emissions level of 0.5 mg/m³. Using these scientific standards, CRI established the Green Label and Green Label Plus programs to guarantee that customers may knowingly purchase the lowest emitting carpet, adhesives, and cushions available. CRI tests these stringent criteria annually, semi-annually or quarterly to ensure quality. VOC levels diminish greatly within the first 24 hours of installing carpet. Proper fresh air ventilation renders indoor VOC levels undetectable within 48 to 72 hours after installation. Mold & Allergens Synthetic fibers in clean, dry carpet cannot grow mold. Carpet traps dirt particles and allergens for vacuuming. Further, non-carpeted rooms have allergen air concentration levels at 10-100 times more than carpeted rooms. Moisture trapped below a carpet can result in mold growth and the release of mold spores into indoor air. Designers should select carpet that has been tested for VOC emissions under the CRI Green Label Plus testing program. This testing program meets California’s Collaborative for High Performance School (CHPS) low-emitting materials standard. When the Green Label is attached to a carpet, floor adhesive, or cushion, it signifies independent, representative testing of the product type and insures that it meets the requirements for each program established by CRI. Alan Hedge, Professor of Design and Environmental Analysis at Cornell University, determined through a 2001 study that concerns about carpet contributing to an increase in respiratory problems are unfounded. “As long as schools keep floors clean and use high-efficiency microfiltration vacuum bags, carpets can be a healthy, safe, and economical floor covering.” Proper cleaning and maintenance is a critical component of any flooring system. “Assessment of Carpet in Sensitive Environments.” Dr. Michael Berry’s 2001 report defines sensitive environments as those that directly affect the very young, the very old, and those who are ill. Dr. Berry studied the correlation between carpet and IAQ (indoor air quality) by examining the results of hundreds of other studies. He found that “Carpet is a preferred and widely used floor covering associated with minimal complaints…. About 1.2 billion square yards of carpet are installed every year. Complaints per square yard of carpet are extremely small…. Research to date, going back over 30 years, consistently shows carpet to be a safe and healthy product.” Conclusion Carpet lends a relaxed feel to educational facilities through enhanced comfort, acoustics, and safety, all of which lead to better concentration, performance, attendance rates and the potential for higher test scores. In addition, the life-cycle costs of carpet installation and maintenance are more economical that those of hard surface flooring. Further, properly maintained carpet tends to reduce particles in the air and can enhance IAQ by holding allergens at bay and preventing their release into the air of heavily trafficked areas. These combined benefits make carpet an excellent flooring choice for school settings by contributing to a better environment for students, teachers, and all school personnel in various critical ways. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  8. 8. 8 B I B LI O G R APHY | 501 C AR PET I N ACUTE C AR E FACI LITI E S Asbury, G. “Cleaning and Foot Traffic Emissions Analysis.” Test Number 0072198. Professional Testing Laboratory, Inc., Dalton, GA. Unpublished data, 16 pages, May, 2002. Berry, Dr. Michael A. “Educational Performance, Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments,” April, 2001. Berry, Dr. Michael A. “Final Report of the Hydrolab Project 2001: Flooring, Humidity, and Mold Growth.” Prepared for The Carpet and Rug Institute, February 20, 2002. Berry, Dr. Michael A. “Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington, DC.” Prepared for The Carpet and Rug Institute, January 12, 2002. Beth Schapiro & Associates. “National Survey of Public Teachers.” Prepared for The Carpet and Rug Institute and The International Interior Design Association Foundation, March, 2001. Bishop, Jeff. “A Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Floor Coverings in School Facilities,” March, 2002. “Carpet: Creating a Better Learning Environment.” Supplement to College Planning & Management and School Planning & Management.” In cooperation with The Carpet and Rug Institute, May 2001. “Carpet: The Educated Choice for Schools. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis.” Educational pamphlet for The Carpet and Rug Institute, 2000. “Carpet and High Performance Schools.” CRI Technical Services, January, 2003. “Carpet Maintenance for School Facilities.” Educational pamphlet for The Carpet and Rug Institute, 2000. “Carpet Makes the Grade In Schools.” Educational pamphlet for The Carpet and Rug Institute. “Carpet Makes the World Better: Science Makes the Carpet Better.” Educational pamphlet for The Carpet and Rug Institute. “Carpet Usage & Allergic Reactions in Sweden.” http://www.carpetrug.org/pdf_word_docs/Swedish_Chart.pdf Cole, E.C. et.al. “Indoor Environment Characterization of a Non-Problem Building: Assessment of Cleaning Effectiveness.” Research Triangle Report Number 94U-4479-014, Research Triangle Institute, March 1994. Foarde, Karin, Deborah Franke and Dr. Michael A. Berry. “Cleaning Effectiveness Demonstration in a Carpeted School.” CRI Scientific Resources at http://www.carpet-rug.org/carpet-and-rug-industry/research-and-resources/scientific-research/ studies-alphabetically-by-title.cfm, November, 2002. Goldsmith, Elizabeth, Carpet Cleaning Tips for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Grass, Stephen video writer/producer. How Interior Design Solutions Help Create Better Learning Environments. Carpet and Rug Institute, 2004. Harmel, Kristin. “Listen to the Teacher: Good Classroom Acoustics are Vital to Effective Learning.” Explore: Research at the University of Florida, Spring, 2000. Lang, Susan. “Carpets in Schools Don’t Compromise Indoor Air Quality.” Cornell Human Ecology, March 19, 2001. Lang, Susan. “CU expert: Carpets in Schools Benefit Indoor Air Quality.” Cornell Chronicle, March 29, 2001. “Myths & Truths about Carpet.” Educational pamphlet for The Carpet and Rug Institute, July, 2004. The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176
  9. 9. 9 Last Name First Name Job Title Firm Name Address City State Zip Telephone FAX E-mail AIA ID Number Completion Date (M/D/Y) IDCEC Number and Organization (IIDA, ASID, IDC, NEWH) Check one: $25.00 payment enclosed (Make check payable to the Carpet and Rug Institute, Box 2048, Dalton, GA 30722-2048.) Charge Visa Mastercard American Express Card # Exp.Date Signature PROGRAM TITLE: “CARPET IN EDUCATIONAL FACILITES” (8/09) AIA/CES CREDIT: This article will earn you one AIA/CES LU hour of health, safety and welfare/sustainable design (HSW/SD) credit or .1 CEU credit from IDCEC (valid for credit through August, 2012) DIRECTIONS: Select one answer for each question in the box beside the possible answers. Send or fax this page to Pat Jennings, The Carpet and Rug Institute, 730 College Drive, Dalton, GA 30720 or fax to 706.278.8835 or scan and email to pjennings@carpet-rug.org along with your check or credit card information. A minimum score of 80% is required to earn credit. A certificate of completion will be sent to each person who passes the test. 1. According to a survey of teachers, most feel that school design and classroom design: a) Do not impact learning c) Strongly impact learning b) Have little impact on learning d) None of the above 2. Carpet was added to classrooms at Charles Young Elementary School in order to: a) Make the staff more comfortable c) Appeal to outside groups who want to use the school during off-hours b) Reduce noise d) All of the above 3. One benefit of the 45,000 square feet of new carpeting installed in Charles Young Elementary School was that student test scores: a) Stayed the same c) Rose significantly b) Changed slightly d) Drastically lowered 4. A non-physical benefit of carpeting in schools is that it: a) Lets the students know that the school staff cares about them c) Creates a warm, aesthetic environment b) May reduce stress d) All of the above 5. Academically successful schools show: a) A sense of well-being among students c) Little interaction between parents and teachers b) A strong emphasis on athletics d) Little interaction between students and teachers 6. A good benefit analysis will show that carpet may be: a) More expensive to maintain c) Less expensive overall than other types of flooring b) Less expensive to maintain d) All of the above 7. The Acoustical Society of America reports that acoustical problems in classrooms are alleviated by the use of carpet. One of these acoustical problems was: a) Warmth c) Comfort b) Behavior and attention d) Both a & c 8. The U.S. Consumer Report Commission reported that in 1993 more people died in than in any other type of accident. a) Automobile accidents c) Slipping on ice b) Skiing accidents d) Indoor falls 9. CRI’s Green Label and Green Label Plus programs offer customers: a) Lowest emitting carpet, adhesive and cushion c) Annual/semi-annual/quarterly testing of certified products b) Assurance that products meet stringent low-VOC criteria d) All of the above 10. Proper cleaning and maintenance of carpet will assure that neither nor will cause any problems. a) Moisture, temperature c) Students, teachers b) Mold, allergens d) None of the above The Carpet and Rug Institute | Box 2048 | Dalton, GA 30722 | carpet-rug.org | 70 6 . 27 8 . 3176