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Faith at Work I

The development of a measure of Judeao-Christian faith integration in work: The Faith at Work Scale

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Faith at Work I

  1. 1. FAITH AT WORK SCALE Conceptualization, Development and Preliminary Testing MONTY L. LYNN • Abilene Christian University MICHAEL J. NAUGHTON • University of St. Thomas STEVEN K. VANDERVEEN • Hope College CBFA Conference, Seattle, October 2007
  2. 2. Purpose <ul><li>Develop a scale to measure workplace faith, suitable across traditions, occupations, and faith maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Over 125 religiosity scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hill and Hood, 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moratorium unless justification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorsuch and Miller, 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pargament, 1999 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose <ul><li>Related scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace spirituality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ashmos & Duchon, 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinjerski & Skrypnek, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep, 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servant leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whittington, Frank, May, Murray & Goodwin, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>Need for empirical research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson, Eames, Van Drunen, & Voskuil, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends in workplace faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of Christian higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International and intercultural comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative traditions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Religiosity & Spirituality <ul><li>Potency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pargament, Magyar-Russell & Murray-Swank, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moberg, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallup Poll, 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Religiosity & Spirituality <ul><li>Religion is an expression of spirituality, but… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirituality represents the raw psychological material from which religious behaviors arise (Piedmont & Leach, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spirituality is incomplete without religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...mysticism would never be the whole of religion…but, at the same time, it would be an element essential to religion in the long run and upon the whole, although it would…possess its own dangers, its own besetting sins (von Hügel, 1908) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion is incomplete without spirituality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… spirituality is the essence of the religious life, a transcendent quality that cuts across and infuses all of the core dimensions of religiosity (Moberg, 2002) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Assumptions <ul><li>Focus on Christians at work and how their faith informs their work-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Scale constructs and items should be inclusive of a broad range of Christian traditions, forms of work, and respondents, informed by biblical theology </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace faith exists in a variety of formative states but mature faith encompasses all of life and work </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assumptions <ul><li>Faith is Integrated and Holistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual life emphases that ignore the moral life, bypass the social responsibility of believers, fail to encourage responsible involvement in the life and work of the church, or otherwise assume a mistakenly individualistic approach will have limited effectiveness both ethically and spiritually...a more holistic spirituality is crucial, one that habitually practices the Lordship of Christ over every dimension of life, so that a hunger and thirst for righteousness, personal and social, becomes insatiable (Holmes, 1991) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Procedure Broad Literature and Instrument Review Item Generation and Model Building Pretesting with Representative Panel ( n = 8) Survey ( n = 234) 4 factors 32 indicators 250+ items 1 factor 22 indicators 15 items Item Analysis and Selection
  10. 10. Items
  11. 11. Characteristics & Validation <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociodemographic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Faith Maturity Scale (FMS) (Benson, Donahue & Erickson, 1993 (short form) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sample <ul><li>Random sample ( n = 234) of Christian b-school alumni from 4 church-related US higher education institutions, stratified by decade of attendance </li></ul><ul><li>1,284 contacted </li></ul><ul><li>272 responded / 21% response rate </li></ul><ul><li>Removed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirees (11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Christians (14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly missing data (13) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Demographics
  14. 14. Demographics
  15. 15. Religious Affiliation
  16. 16. Work
  17. 17. Work
  18. 18. Work
  19. 19. Factor Analysis <ul><li>Principle Axis Factoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single factor structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eigenvalue = 8.88 explaining 59% of the variance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercorrelations for all items p > .001 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Scree Plot
  21. 21. Communalities and Factor Structure Initial Extraction Aware .679 .626 Partnering .793 .774 Meaningful .699 .597 Integrated .708 .692 Coping .554 .506 Called .715 .660 Equipped .626 .569 Diligent .676 .632 Growing .592 .523 Accepting .584 .530 Witnessing .576 .524 Caring .469 .380 Moral .423 .326 Just .638 .637 Stewarding .545 .493 Factor Aware .791 Partnership .880 Meaningful .772 Integrated .832 Coping .711 Called .812 Equipped .754 Diligent .795 Growing .723 Accepting .728 Witnessing .724 Compassionate .616 Moral .571 Just .798 Stewarding .702
  22. 22. Reliability and Validity <ul><li>Cronbach’s alpha </li></ul><ul><ul><li> = 0.77 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faith Maturity Scale correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r = 0.81, p > .0001 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Skew and Kurtosis <ul><li>Skew (asymmetry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witnessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kurtosis (peaked or flat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnering </li></ul></ul>example example
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>The Faith at Work Scale (FWS) appears to be a promising valid and reliable measure of faith and work integration for Christians across Catholic and Protestant traditions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Next Steps <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory Factor Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-bound reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faith at Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlates of workplace faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace faith maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters or groupings of faith expressions </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. For copies of the scale or a complete analysis, contact Monty Lynn • [email_address] Thank you