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Perspective on HCI Research
and Introduction to Eye Tracking
Sunu Wibirama

sunu@ugm.ac.id
Department of Electrical Engine...
HISTORY OF HCI
Sumber: I.S. MacKenzie,“Human Computer Interaction: 

An Empirical Approach”, Elsevier, 2013
1940
1962
1963...
ACM SIGCHI Mission
• The ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human
Interaction (ACM - SIGCHI) is the world’s largest
as...
Apple Macintosh (1984)
7
MacWrite Software
8
The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction

Card, Moran, and Newell (1983)
9
SHIFTING OF RESEARCH TOPICS IN 

HUMAN-COMP...
• Empirical contribution

• Artifact contribution

• Methodological contribution

• Theoretical contribution

• Dataset / ...
Machine

State
InterfaceHuman Computer
Brain
Displays
Controls
Sensors
Responders
HCI Research and Human Factors Model1
13...
Skintrack
Skintrack
Recommended Reading for HCI Researcher
Recommended Reading for HCI Researcher
Introduction to Eye
Tracking Research
Eye-gaze tracking applications
Eye-gaze tracking
(A.T. Duchowski, 2010)
Active: inte...
Eye Tracking : Active System (Gaze-based input)
Eye Tracking :Passive System (Eye and gaze monitoring)
Eye and Gaze Tracking?
▪ Electronic device for detection / tracking: 

(1) eye movements 

(2) visual attention (gaze posi...
Teknologi dasar deteksi
posisi pupil
Basic image processing
techniques in eye tracking
In reality, we need to
consider: 

...
From eye tracking to gaze tracking
Calibration ~ a method to map pupil position to gaze at screen
Proses kalibrasi 2D
http...
Output for gaze analysis: 

Heat map + gaze sequences
Output for gaze analysis: 

Real-time fixation traces (scan path)
Case 1: Gaze tracking as assistive technology
Pietro (52 years old): 

- former web designer

- ALS (Amyotrophic lateral s...
RESULT: 

The user finds 

“LOCATION” link 

after 1 minute…

at fixation # 112
Do you think “finding location” is
importa...
Professor Dr. Adit Kurniawan (ITB) 

during his visit in DTETI UGM
Some achievements in vertigo detection research
Runner ...
3D gaze point
Distance of screen 70 cm
screen
user
Reference:



S. Wibirama and K. Hamamoto, “3D Gaze Tracking on Stereos...
39
70 cm
39 cm
3D gaze tracker ECG recorder
Dynamic 3D content
Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating
cybersickness/ve...
Related publication (1)
Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating
cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents
Relat...
Case 6: Towards investigating additive factors of mobile device by
analyzing eye movements (collaboration with Tampere Uni...
Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
Rese...
Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements
Our research group
Case 8: Vibrotactile + Gaze Gestures
Kangas et al., 2017
Case 8: Vibrotactile + Gaze Gestures
You can find more research topics
in papers that I shared to you
Basic science and engineering knowledge 

for eye tracking research
▪Digital image processing
▪Computer vision and machine...
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02-Perspective on HCI Research and Introduction to Eye Tracking (Informatics Doctoral Bootcamp 2017)

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Perspektif tentang penelitian di bidang Human-Computer Interaction, kontribusi ilmiah di bidang HCI, dan sekilas tentang topik-topik khusus penelitian di bidang eye tracking.

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02-Perspective on HCI Research and Introduction to Eye Tracking (Informatics Doctoral Bootcamp 2017)

  1. 1. Perspective on HCI Research and Introduction to Eye Tracking Sunu Wibirama
 sunu@ugm.ac.id Department of Electrical Engineering
 and Information Technology
 Faculty of Engineering 
 Universitas Gadjah Mada 
 INDONESIA www.ugm.ac.idLocally Rooted, Globally Respected Informatics Doctoral Bootcamp
 Yogyakarta, 8-10 December 2017 Perspective on 
 HCI Research
  2. 2. HISTORY OF HCI Sumber: I.S. MacKenzie,“Human Computer Interaction: 
 An Empirical Approach”, Elsevier, 2013 1940 1962 1963 1984 Birth of HCI - 1983 • Notable events: 1. First ACM SIGCHI conference (1983) 2. Publication of The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction by Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) 3. Apple Macintosh announced via brochures (December, 1983) and launched (January, 1984) 16
  3. 3. ACM SIGCHI Mission • The ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (ACM - SIGCHI) is the world’s largest association of professionals who work in the research and practice of computer-human interaction. 
 • This interdisciplinary group is composed of computer scientists, software engineers, psychologists, interaction designers, graphic designers, sociologists, and anthropologists, just to name some of the domains whose special expertise come to bear in this area. • They are brought together by a shared understanding that designing useful and usable technology is an interdisciplinary process, and believe that when done properly it has the power to transform persons’ lives. 5 SIGCHI Conference Publications 6
  4. 4. Apple Macintosh (1984) 7 MacWrite Software 8
  5. 5. The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction
 Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) 9 SHIFTING OF RESEARCH TOPICS IN 
 HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Interface
 Word Processor Web Usability
 Email 1980s 1990s 2000s Social Media
 User-generated
 Content What’s 
 next? Internet of Things
 Natural User Interfaces Smart Appliances / Home Cloud Computing Augmented Reality Virtual Reality Persuasive Technology Mobile Computing
  6. 6. • Empirical contribution • Artifact contribution • Methodological contribution • Theoretical contribution • Dataset / benchmark contribution • Survey / review contribution • Opinion contribution Most common contributions Statistics of CHI 2016
  7. 7. Machine
 State InterfaceHuman Computer Brain Displays Controls Sensors Responders HCI Research and Human Factors Model1 13 1 Kantowitz, B. H., & Sorkin, R. D. (1983). Human factors: Understanding people-system relationships. New York. New York: Wiley. Research in HCI : Empirical, Artifact, Methodological Interface research • Exploiting potential of computer interfaces: • creating a new interface: 
 skintrack for smartwatch control • modifying existing interfaces: 
 pursuit calibration • combining existing interface (multimodal research): vibrotactile + gaze 
 hand gestures+gaze gestures explained later
  8. 8. Skintrack Skintrack
  9. 9. Recommended Reading for HCI Researcher Recommended Reading for HCI Researcher
  10. 10. Introduction to Eye Tracking Research Eye-gaze tracking applications Eye-gaze tracking (A.T. Duchowski, 2010) Active: interactive and assistive Passive: Diagnosis and detection - Mouse control - Text entry system - Assistive technology - Joint attention pointing device - Vertigo analysis - User experience analysis - Driving security (drowsiness 
 detection) - VR sickness / cybersickness 
 investigation (input device) (eye-gaze monitoring system)
  11. 11. Eye Tracking : Active System (Gaze-based input) Eye Tracking :Passive System (Eye and gaze monitoring)
  12. 12. Eye and Gaze Tracking? ▪ Electronic device for detection / tracking: 
 (1) eye movements 
 (2) visual attention (gaze position) ▪ Output of eye tracking : 
 2D (horizontal, vertical)
 3D (horizontal, vertical, torsional) ▪ Output of gaze tracking : 
 2D (horizontal, vertical)
 3D (horizontal, vertical, depth) Eye 
 tracking Gaze 
 tracking BEHIND EYE TRACKING TECHNOLOGY
  13. 13. Teknologi dasar deteksi posisi pupil Basic image processing techniques in eye tracking In reality, we need to consider: 
 - Noise from eyelid - Pupil in eccentric position - Imperfect pupil shape - Small pupil size (during very bright room illumination) - Noise coming from glasses / contact lenses Courtesy: S.Wibirama & K.Hamamoto Pupil-Corneal Reflection Courtesy: Jason Babcock Courtesy: Aga Bojko Vector of P-CR
  14. 14. From eye tracking to gaze tracking Calibration ~ a method to map pupil position to gaze at screen Proses kalibrasi 2D http://sunu.staff.ugm.ac.id | Sunu Wibirama (c) 2016 Conventional Calibration User is asked to fixate their gaze on calibration targets 
 (animated white circle)
  15. 15. Output for gaze analysis: 
 Heat map + gaze sequences Output for gaze analysis: 
 Real-time fixation traces (scan path)
  16. 16. Case 1: Gaze tracking as assistive technology Pietro (52 years old): 
 - former web designer
 - ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) - Communication with iAble system
 
 Reference: 
 Majaranta, Päivi, Hirotaka Aoki, Mick Donegan, Dan Witzner Hansen, John Paulin Hansen, 
 Aulikki Hyrskykari and Kari-Jouko Räihä. "Gaze Interaction and Applications of 
 Eye Tracking: Advances in Assistive Technologies.” 1-382 (2012), accessed February 15, 2014. 
 doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-098-9
 
 (Courtesy: SRLABS ) Case 2: Gaze tracking as input device The Eye Tribe ($99 eye tracker) - Mini remote eye tracker
 - Port USB 3.0 is needed - Acquired by Oculus in 2016
 - Alternative : Tobii EyeX 
 Controller
 
 Reference
 http://www.damngeeky.com/2013/09/09/13887/the-eye- tribe-tracker-initiates-hand-free-input-for-android-devices-and- pcs.html
 Courtesy: Gaurav (damngeeky.com)
  17. 17. RESULT: 
 The user finds 
 “LOCATION” link 
 after 1 minute…
 at fixation # 112 Do you think “finding location” is important for banking business ? 
 Is it easy for user to 
 find the nearest branch of bank? Food for thought: Case 3: Sng TASK: Find the nearest branch! Case 3: 
 Web usability study Case 4: Vertigo diagnosis by observing 3D eye movements Reference:
 
 S. Wibirama,  S. Tungjitkusolmun, and C. Pintavirooj , “Dual-Camera Acquisition for Accurate Measurement of Three-Dimensional Eye Movements,” IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol.8(3), 2013, pp. 238-246. 
 Nystagmus during vertigo Pupil and iris tracking Note: tend to be more “biomedical engineering” instead of HCI
  18. 18. Professor Dr. Adit Kurniawan (ITB) 
 during his visit in DTETI UGM Some achievements in vertigo detection research Runner up of Indonesian Young Researcher (2017)
  19. 19. 3D gaze point Distance of screen 70 cm screen user Reference:
 
 S. Wibirama and K. Hamamoto, “3D Gaze Tracking on Stereoscopic Display using Optimized Geometric Method”, 
 IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information, and Systems, 
 Vol. 134 (3), 2014, pp. 345-352. Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents 38 Headache Increased salivation Eye strain Stomach awareness Burping Difficult 
 to focus Vertigo Sweating Dynamic 3D contents Reference:
 
 S. Wibirama and K. Hamamoto, "Investigation of Visually Induced Motion Sickness in Dynamic 3D Content based on Subjective Judgment, Heart Rate Variability, and Depth Gaze Behavior,” in Proceeding of The 36th An- nual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, Chicago, United States of America, 26-30 August 2014, pp. 4803-4806. Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents
  20. 20. 39 70 cm 39 cm 3D gaze tracker ECG recorder Dynamic 3D content Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents sickness ECG DATA 
 (Participant # 3 – CG movie no fixation) DEPTH GAZE DATA (Compared with Participant # 7) Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents
  21. 21. Related publication (1) Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents Related publication (2) Case 5: 3D gaze tracking for investigating cybersickness/vertigo in stereoscopic 3D contents
  22. 22. Case 6: Towards investigating additive factors of mobile device by analyzing eye movements (collaboration with Tampere University, Finland) Game: “Fruit Ninja” (Half Brick Studios) Participants: 10 students (25.6 years old) Research method: Eye tracking and Immersive Experience Questionnaire
 Devices: iPhone 5 (4 inch) and Google Nexus 7 (7 inch) Presented in IEEE EMBC 2017, South Korea, 11-12 July 2017
 You can find my paper in IEEEXplore
  23. 23. Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Research group of Dr. Andreas Bulling in Max Planck Institute, Germany
  24. 24. Case 7: Gaze Interaction with Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Our research group Case 8: Vibrotactile + Gaze Gestures
  25. 25. Kangas et al., 2017 Case 8: Vibrotactile + Gaze Gestures You can find more research topics in papers that I shared to you
  26. 26. Basic science and engineering knowledge 
 for eye tracking research ▪Digital image processing ▪Computer vision and machine learning ▪Math, particularly linear algebra ▪Human-computer interaction ▪Basic eye anatomy (medical) ▪Experimental design (psychology) ▪Statistics Eye tracking
 algorithm and 
 system engineering Eye tracking 
 application THANK YOU

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